(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Transactions of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers"

Google 



This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 

to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 

to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 

are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other maiginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 

publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing tliis resource, we liave taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 
We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain fivm automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attributionTht GoogXt "watermark" you see on each file is essential for in forming people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liabili^ can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at |http: //books .google .com/I 







THE OIPT OF I 

Prof. John B. Eiiflwil«r| 



. \NS\( riONS 





/■ ~'T/(-Ky3'0'i J. 



THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF 
MECHANICAL ENGINEERS 



TRANSACTIONS 

VOLUME 35 

BALTIMORE MEETING 

NEW YORK MEETING 

1913 




NEW YORK 

Pl'Hl.lSHED BY THE i^OClETY 

2<J West SSJtii Street 



Copyright 1914, by 
THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS 



i ' c ■ '^ 

'-.^ ^ ^ OFFICERS 

THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF MECHAN- 
ICAL ENGINEERS 

FORMING THE STATUTORY COUNCIL 

1918 

TBESIDENT 
W. F. M. Goss Chicago, 111. 

VICE TEE SIVENTS 

Wm. F. Durand Palo Alto, Cal. 

Ira N. Uollis Cambridge, Mass. 

Thos. B. Stearns Denver, Colo. 

Terms expire at Annual Meeting of 1913 

James Hartness Springfield, Vt. 

Irving E. Moultrop Boston, Mass. 

Henry G. Stott New York City 

Terms expire at Annual Meeting of 1914 

TAST-PBESIBENTS 
Members of the Council for 1913 

M. L. HoLMAN St. Louis, Mo. 

Jesse M. Smith New York City 

George Westinghouse Pittsburgh, Pa. 

E. I). Meier New York City 

Alex. C. Humphreys New York City 

MAN AGE as 

I )AViD Francis CRAwroRD Pittsburgh, Pa. 

8TANLEY G. Flaoo, Jr Philadelphia, Pa. 

F^iJWiN Britton Katte New York City 

Terms expire at Annual Meeting of 1913 

C'HAS. J. Davidson Chicago, 111. 

Henry Hess I'hiladelphia, Pa. 

CiEOK(2E A. Orrok New York City 

Terms expire at Annual Meeting of 1914 

Wm. B. Jackson Chicago, 111. 

Henry Martin Leland Detroit, Mich. 

Alfred Noble Now York (Uty 

Terms expire at Annual Meeting of 1915 

tkeasibeh 

Wm. H. Wiley New York City 

CHAIRMAN OF THE FINANCE COMMITTEE 
Robert M. Dixon New York City 

HO NO HA A' 1' SE( HE TA K Y 
F'rederick R. Hutton New York Citv 

SECIiETAEY 
i 'alvi.v W. Rice 29 West :U)th street, Now York City 

V 



PAST OFFICERS 

Alexander L. Holley, Chairman of the Meeting for Organization of The 
American Society of Mechanical Engineers Died January 29, 1882 

PBESIDENTS 

R. H. Thurston 1880-1882 Died October 25, 1903 

E. D. Leavitt 1883 Cambridge, Mass. 

John E. Sweet 1884 Syracuse, N. Y. 

J. F. HOLLOWAY 1885 Died September 1, 1896 

Coleman Sellers 1886 Died December 28, 1907 

George H. Babcock 1887 Died December 16, 1893 

Horace See 1888 Died December 14, 1909 

Henry R. Towne 1889 New York City 

Oberlin Smith 1890 Bridgeton, N. J. 

Robert W. Hunt 1891 Chicago, 111. 

Charles H. Loring 1892 Died February 5, 1907 

Eckley B. Cox 1892-1894 Died May 13, 1895 

E. F. C. Davis 1895 Died August 6, 1895 

Charles E. Billings 1895 Hartford, Conn. 

John Fritz 1896 Died February 13, 1913 

Worcester R. Warner 1897 Cleveland, Ohio 

Charles Wallacb Hunt 1898 Died March 27, 1911 

George W. Melville 1899 Died March 17, 1912 

Charles H. Morgan 1900 Died January 10, 1911 

S. T. Wellman 1901 aeveland, Ohio 

Edwin Reynolds 1902 Died February 19, 1909 

James M. Dodge 1903 Philadelphia, Pa. 

Ambrose Swasey 1904 Cleveland, Ohio 

John R. Freeman 1905 Providence, R. I. 

F. W. Taylor 1906 Philadelphia, Pa. 

F. R. HuTTON 1907 New York City 

M. L. HoLMAN 1908 St. Louis, Mo. 

Jesse M. Smith 1909 New York City 

George Westinghouse 1910 Pittsburgh, Pa. 

E. D. Meier 1911 New York City 

Alex. C. Humphreys 1912 New York City 



HONOBABY COUNCILLOBS 

1913 

M. L. Holman 1908 St. Louis, Mo. 

Jesse M. Smith 1909 New York City 

George Westinghouse 1910 Pittsburgh, Pa. 

E. D. Meier 1911 New York City 

Alex. C. Humphreys 1912 New York City 

According to the Constitution, Article C 27, the five Past-Presidents who last held the office 
shall be members of the Council, with all the rights, privileges and duties of the other members 
of the Council. 



VI 



EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE OF THE 

COUNCIL 

W. F. M. Goss, Chairman E. D. Meier 

Alex. C. Humphreys, V ice-Chairman Geo. A. Orrok 
Edwin Britton Katte Henry G. Stott 

STANDING COMMITTEES 

FINANCE 

Robert M. Dixon (1), Chairman Henry L. Doherty (3) 

Waldo H. Marshall (2) William Lawrence Saunders (4) 

William Durham Saboent (5) 

HOUSE 

Edward Van Winkle (l), Chairman S. D. Collett (3) 
Henry R. Cobleigh (2) Wiluam Noble Dickinson (4) 

Frederick A. Soheffler (5) 

LIBBABY 

Leonard Waldo (4), Chairman Alfred Noble (2) 

Charles L. Clarke (1) Walter M. McFarland (3) 

The Secretary 

MEETINGS 

H. deB. Parsons (1), Chairman Henry £. Long well (3) 

Leon Pratt Altord (2) Henry L. Gantt (4) 

Robert H. Fernald (5) 

MEMBEBSHIP 

Hosea Webster (1), Chairman Wm. H. Boehm (3) 

Theodore Stebbins (2) Henry C. Meyer, Jr. (4) 

L. R. Pomeroy (5) 

PUBLICATION 

Geo. L Rogkwood (1), Chairman Chas. I. Earll (3) 

Geo. M. Baspord (2) Irving £. Moultrop (4) 

Fred. R. Low (5) 

PUBLIC BELATIONS 

James M. Dodge (3), Chairman Fred J. Miller (2) 

John W. Lieb, Jb, (1) Worcester R. Warner (4) 

Geo. M. Brill (5) 

BESEABCH 

Richard H. Rice (4), Chairman Adolph L. De Leeuw (2) 

Lionel S. Marks (1) Kolla C. Carpenter (3) 

Ralph D. Mershon (5) 

Nora: — Numbers in parentheses indicate number of yearn the member has yet to nerve. 



Vll 



SOCIETY REPRESENTATIVES 

AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOB ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE 
Alex. C. Humphreys Wm. B. Jackson 

ENGINEEBING EDUCATION 
Alex. C. Humphreys Frederick W. Taylor 

GENEBAL CONFERENCE COMMITTEE OF NATIONAL 

ENGINEEBING SOCIETIES 

Charles Whiting Baker E. D. Meier 

JOHN FBITZ MEDAL 

Henry R. Towne (1) Frederick R. Hutton (3) 

John A. Brashear (2) John R. Freeman (4) 

TBUSTEES UNITED ENGINEEBING SOCIETY 

Alex. C. Humphreys (1) Fred J. Miller (2) 

Jesse M. Smith (3) 

Note: — Numbere in parentheses indicate number of years the member has yet to serve. 



Vlll 



GEOGRAPHICAL SECTIONS OF THE 

SOCIETY 

ATLANTA 

J. 8. Coon, Chairman Geokoe Hillyer, Jr. 

Park A. Dallis, Secretary Cecil P. Poole 

Earl F. Scott 

BOSTON 

Henrt Bartlbtt, Chairman Herbert N. Dawes 

Ralph E. Curtis, Secretary Wm. Gage Snow 

Arthur L. Williston 

CHICAGO 

Paul P. Bird, Chairman Charles Robt. Birosey 

Chas. Wm. Naylor, Secretary Wm. B. Jackson 

Arthur Willett Moselxy 

CINCINNATI 

A. L. Db Lxeuw, Chairman John T. Faio, Secretary 

Jambs B. Stanwood, Vice-Chaiirman Walter G. Franz 

Gbo. W. Galbraith 

MILWAUKEE 

Fred. H. Dornbr, Chairman Arthur Simon 

Matthias A. Beck Henry Weickel 

Euclid P. Worden 

NEW HAVEN 

Erwin S. Coolby, Chairman Frank L. Bioblow 

Edwin H. Lockwood, Secretary L. P. Breckenridoe 

Henry Bradford Sargent 

NEW YOBK 

Frederick A. Waldbon, Chairman Roy V. Wright, Treasurer 

Edward Van Winkle, Secretary Henry R. Cobleigh 

John Joseph Swan 

PHILADELPHIA 

D. Robert Yarnall, Chairman Jas. Edwin Gibson 

William R. Jones, Secretary Lewis H. Kenney 

Thomas C. McBride 

MINNEAPOLIS-ST. PAUL 

Max Toltz, Chairman Chas. L. Pillsbury, Vice-Chairman 

Emil Jennings Heinen 

ST. LOUIS 

Ernest L. Ohle, Chairman Frank N. Jewett 

Frederick E. Bausch, Secretary John Hunter 

Louis C. Nordmeyer 

SAN FBANCISCO 

Andrew M. Hunt, Chairman Wm. F. Durand 

T. W. Ransom, Secretary Edwakd C. Jones 

Thomas Morrin 

ix 



SUB-COMMITTEES OF THE COMMITTEE 

ON MEETINGS 

ADMINISTBATION 

James M. Dodge, Chairman Holden A. Evans 

L. P. Alford, Secretary James Habtness 

Daniel Moore Bates W. B. Tardy 

John Galder Alexander Taylor 

H. H. Vaughan 



AIB MACHINEBY 
Frederick Wm. O'Neil, Chairman William Prellwitz 



Hugh V. Conrad 



Richard H. Bice 



CEMENT MANUFACTUBE 



John Qosta Bsroquist, Chairman 
H. J. Seaman, Vice-Chairman 
Gabriel Scott Brown 
William Bobebt Dunn 
Frederick Williams Kblley 
Morris Kind 



Frederick Humphreville Lewis 
William H. Mason 
Bichard Kidder Meadi 
Ejnar Posselt 

HOLGER STRUCKMANN 

Arthur C. Tagge 



Percy Hartshorne Wilson 



DEPBECIATION AND OBSOLESCENCE 

Alex. G. Humphreys, Chairman Alfred £. Forstall 

John (jk>STA Bkboquist Frederick Wiluams Kelley 

Charles Jackson Davidson Holger Struckmann 

FIBE PBOTECTION 

John B. Freeman, Chairman F. M. Griswold 

Edw. Vinton French, Vice-Chairman Holbrook F. J. Porter 
Albert Blauvelt T. W. Bansom 

Ira. H. Woolson 



HOISTING AND CONVEYING 
Bichard B. Sheridan, Chairman P. J. Fickinger 



C. Kemble Baldwin 
Alex. C. Brown 
Orton G. Dale 



Frank E. Hulett 
Spencer Mtt.TiKR 
a. l. boberts 
Harry Sawyer 



INDUSTBIAL BUILDING 
Frederick A. Waldron, Chairman William Dalton 



Harry A. Burnham 
Charles Day 



John O. DeWolp 
Charles T. Main 



Joseph Morgan, Chairman 
Thomas Towne, Secretary 
W. P. Babba 

Frank F. Beall 
Rogers Birnie 



IBON AND STEEL 

Albert Ladd Colby 
Julian Kennedy 
Marcus T. Lothrop 
William E. Snyder 
James T. Walus 
B. M. Watt 



MACHINE SHOT PBACTICE 



Fred H. Colvix, Chairman 
Edward P. Bullard, Jr. 
Luther D. Burlinoame 
Walter L. Clark 
Adolph L. DeLeeuw 
Willis H. Diefendorf 
Frederick L. Eberhardt 



Franklin A. Errinoton 
Arthur Ames Fuller 
Henry Decatur Gordon 
H. K. Hathaway 
Edward J. Kearney 
William Lodge 
Fred. E. Rogers 
N. E. Zusi 



BAILB0AD8 

Edwin Britton Katte, Chairman A. L. Humphreys 

William Frederic Kiesel, Jr. 



Oeo. M. Basford 
W. G. Besler 
A. H. Ehle 
Theo. N. Ely 
W. F. M. Goss 



Wm. Bancroft Potter 
Norman Wilson Storer 
Henry H. Vaughan 
Roy V. Wright 



TEXTILES 

Charles T. Plunkett, Chairman Edwin Farnham Greene 

Edward W. Thomas, Secretary Frankun Warren Hobbs 

Daniel Moore Bates C. R. Makepeace 

John Ecclbs Charles Henry Manning 

£. D. France H. F. Mansfield 

SPECIAL COMMITTEES 

CHANGES IN THE PATENT LAWS OF THE UNITED STATES 

Wm. Hutton Blauvblt Benjamin F. Wood 

Carl Thomas Edward Weston 

W. E. Winship 

CODE OF ETHICS 

Charles Whitinq Baxxr, Chairman E. D. Meier 
Charles T. Main Spencer Miller 

Charles B. Richards 

COMMITTEE ON BUBEAU OF INFOBMATION BE8PECTIN0 ENGL 

NEEBINO STANDARDS IN ALL COUNTBIES 

Henry Hess, Chairman Charles Jackson Davidson 

John H. Bare Charles Day 

Carl Schwartz 

COMMITTEE TO FOBMULATE STANDABD SPECIFICATIONS FOB 

THE C0N8TBUCTI0N OF STEAM B0ILEB8 AND OTHEB 

PBB8SUBE VESSELS AND FOB CABE OF SAME 

IN SEBVICE 

John A. Stevens, Chairman Richard Hammond 

Wm. H. Boehm Charles L. Huston 

Rolla C. Carpenter Herman Chas. Meinholtz 

Edward F. Miller 

■ 

COMMITTEE ON INTEBNATIONAL ENGINEEBING CONGBBSS, 1915 

The Preudent R. 8. Moore 

The Secretary T. W. Ransom 

Wm. F. Durand C. R. Weymouth 

COMMITTEE ON NATIONAL MUSEUM 

E. D. Mxhb, Chairman George Mesta 

G. P. KuNi H. G. Reist 

Ambrose Swasey 



XI 



CONFEBENCE COMMITTEE ON ENGINEEBING STANDARDS 

Heney G. Stott, Chairman Albert Frederick Ganz 

Carl Schwartz 

CONSERVATION 

George F. Swain, Chairman Luther D. Burlingame 

Charles Whiting Baker M. L. Holman 

Calvin W. Rice 

FLANGES 

Henry G. Stott, Chairman Walter M. McFarland 

Albert Carter Ashton William Schwanhausser 

Arthur Raymond Bayus John Porterfield Sparrow 

INCREASE OF MEMBERSHIP 

Irving E. Moultrop, Chairman William Robert Dunn 

Fred H. Colvin John Parker Ilsley 

Harold V. O. Coes Edwin Britton Katte 

James V. V. Colwell Richard B. Sheridan 

Robert M. Dixon Holger Struckmann 

CHAIRMEN OF SUB-COMMITTEES ON INCREASE OF MEMBEBSHIP 

Atlanta, Park A. DaIjLIS Philadelphia, Thomas G. McBride 

Boston, Arthur L. Williston Rochester, John C. Parker 

Buffalo, Willis H. Carrier St. Louis, John Hunter 

Chicago, Fay Woodmansee St. Paul, Max Toltz 

Cincinnati, John T. Faio San Francisco, Thomas Morrin 

Michigan, Herbert W. Aldbn Seattle, Robert M. Dyer 

New Yorlc, James A. Kinkead Troy, Albert E. Cluett 

PIPE THREADS 

Edwin M. Herr, Chairman Geo. M. Bond 

Wm. J. Baldwin Stanley G. Flagg, Jr. 

Paris Representative, Laurence V. Benet 

PIPE THREAD GAGES 

E. D. Meier, Chairman J. C. Meloon 

George M. Bond Charles Andrew Olson 

Arthur M. Houser Peter C. Patterson 

Henry G. Stott 

POWER TESTS 

Geo. H. Barrus, Chairman William Kent 

Edward T. Adams Edward F. Miller 

L. P. Breckenridge Arthur West 

D. S. Jacobus Albert Carroll Wood 

REFRIGERATION 

D. S. Jacobus, Chairman Edward F. Miller 

Philip DeC. Ball Alfred P. Trautwein 

Gardner Tufts Voorhees 

RESEARCH 

Sub -Committee on Materials of Electrical Engineering 

Ralph D. Mershon 

Suh -Committee on Steam 

Richard H. Rice, Chairman Wiliam Duane Exnis 

Charles James Bacon Lionel S. Marks 

Ernst Julius Berg J. F. Max Patitz 

Suh-Committee on Safety Valves 

Philip G. Darling, Chairman Edward F. Miller 

Henry Decatur Gordon Frederick L. Pryor 

Frederic M. Whyte 

Xll 



SOCIETY HISTOBY 

John E. Sweet, Chairman Frederick R. Hutton, Secretary 

Henry Harrison Suplee 

STANDARD CROSS-SECTION SYMBOLS 

H. de b. Parsons, Chairman Arthur Edwin Norton 

Franklin De B. Furman Bradley Stouohton 

John W. Upp 

STANDARDIZATION OF CATALOGUES 

Wm. Kent, Chairman Morris Llewellyn Cooke 

James Rowland Bibbins Walter B. Snow 

STANDARDIZATION OF FILTERS 

George W. Fuller, Chairman Philip N. Enoel 

James C. Boyd J. C. Wm. Greth 

William Schwanhausser 

STUDENT BRANCHES 

Frederick R. Hutton, Chairman William Kent 

George A. Orrok 

TOLERANCES IN SCREW THREAD FITS 

Luther D. Burungame, Chairman Arthur Ames Fuller 

Elwood Burdsall James Hartness 

Frederic G. Coburn Henry Martin Leland 

Fred H. Colvin Will. Roswell Porter 

Frank O. Wells 

OFFICERS OF THE GAS POWER SECTION 

1913 

CHAIRMAN SECRETARY 

Frederick R. Hutton George A. Orrok 

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 

Chas. Henry Benjamin (1) H. J. K. Freyn (1) 

Wm. Hutton Blauvelt (3) Fred. R. Low (2) 

William Duane Ennis (5) Irving E. Moultrop (4) 

Henry Harrison Suplee (1) 

LITERATURE COMMITTEE 

Rudolph B. Bloemeke, Chairman W. 8. Morrison 

A. W. H. Grispb S. I. Oesterreicher 

Wm. F. Monaohan H. G. Wolfe 

MEMBERSHIP COMMITTEE 

Austin F. Stillman, Chairman John Henry Lawrence 

Harry Warfield Anderson J. H. Norris 

Harold V. O. Goes Godfrey M. S. Tait 

Fred 8. Kino Joseph D. Shaw 

Carl D. Smith 

COMMITTEE ON MEETINGS 

Wm. T. Magruder, Chairman Arthur Hugh (Joldingham 

Wm. Hutton Blauvelt Nisbet Latta 

Edwi.v I). Dreyfus Helon Brooks MacFarland 

OFFICERS OF AFFILIATED SOCIETY 

PROVIDENCE ASSOCIATION OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS 

Vi\ H. Paine, Vice-President A. H. Whatley, Treasurer 

J. Ansel Brooks, Secretary 

NoTx: — Numbers in parentheses indicate number of yeursi the member has yet to serve. 

• • « 

xin 



OFFICERS OF THE STUDENT BRANCHES 


Institution 


Dat£ 
Authorized 
BY Council 


honobaby 
Chaibman 


Chaibman 


cobbespondinq 
Secretary 


Armour Inst, of Tech. 


Mar. 9.1909 


G. F. Gebhardt 


H. E. Erickson 


A. N. Koch 


Chicago. lU. 










Carnegie Inst, of Tech. 


Oct. 14, 1913 


W. Trinks 


J. B. Patterson 


W. M. Sheldon 


Pittaburgh, Pa. 










Case School of App. Science 


Feb. 14. 1913 


F. H. Vose 


H. C. Mummert 


J. B. Whitacre 


Cleveland. Ohio 










Columbia Univenity 


Nov. 9.1909 


Chas. E. Lucke 


F. B. Schmidt 


H. F. AUen 


New York City 










Cornell University 


Dec. 4.1908 


R. C. Carpenter 


J. G. Miller 


D. S. Wegg, Jr. 


Ithaca, N. Y. 










Lehigh University 


June 2,1911 


P. B. de Schweinits 


W. C. Owen 


T. G. ShaflFer 


South Bethlehem. Pa. 










Leland Stanford Jr. Univ. 


Mar. 9.1909 


W. F. Durand 


C. P. Campbell 


B. M. Green 


Palo Alto. Cal. 










Mass. Inst, of Tech. 


Nov. 9.1909 


E. F. MUler 


H. W. Treat 


L. L. Downing 


Boston. Mass. 










New York University 


Nov. 9,1909 


C. E. Houghton 






New York Qty 










Ohio State University .... 


Jan. 10, 1911 


Wm. T. Magruder 


R. M. Wagner 


C. L. Newby 


Columbus, Ohio 










Pennsylvania State College 


Nov. 9,1909 


J. P. Jackson 


A. L. FoeU 


R. W. Hersog 


State College. Pa. 










Pobrtechmo Inst, of Bklyn. 


Mar. 9,1909 


W. D. Ennis 


A. A. Bielek 


H. Sand 


Brooklyn, N. Y. 










Purdue University 


Mar. 9.1909 


G. A. Young 


A. D. Meals 


Q. F. Lynde 


Lafayette, Ind. 










Rensselaer Poly. Inst. 


Dec. 9.1910 


A. M. Greene, Jr. 


F. E. MoMullen 


R. J*. Manier 


Tioy. N. Y. 










State University of Iowa. . 


Apr. 11, 1913 


R. 8. Wilbur 


F. H. Guldner 


C. S. Thompson 


Iowa City. Iowa 




. 






State Univ. of Kentucky. 


Jan. 10.1911 


F. P. Anderson 


H. G. Strong 


R. T. Thornton 


Lexington, Ky. 










Stevens Inst, of Tech. 


Dec. 4.1908 


A. C. Humphreys 


L. F. Bayer 


C. H. Colvin 


Hoboken, N. J. 










Syracuse University 


Dec. 3.1911 


W. E. Ninde 


G. T. Parsons 


W. J. Campbell 


Syracuse, N. Y. 










University of Arkansas. . . 


Apr. 12, 1910 


B. N. Wilson 


M. McGiU 


C. Bethel 


Fayetteville, Ark. 










University of CaUfomia. . . 


Feb. 13, 1912 


Joseph N. LeConte 


R. (hiillon 


P. H. Landon 


Berkeley, Cal. 






• 




University of Cincinnati . . 


Nov. 9,1909 


J. T. Faig 


A. 0. Hurxthal 


E. A. Oster 


Cincinnati, Ohio 










University of Illinois 


Nov. 9,1909 


W. F. M. Goes 




H. E. Austin 


Urbana, 111. 










University of Kansas 


Mar. 9, 1909 


F. H. Sibley 


L. C. Angevine 


H. L. Newby 


Lawrence, Kans. 










University of Maine 


Feb. 8.1910 


Arthur C. Jewett 


E. E. Fowler 


A. B. Hayes 


Orono, Me. 










University of Missouri. . . . 


Dec. 7.1909 


H. Wade Hibbard 


R. Runge 


L. L. Leach 


Columbia, Mo. 










University of Minnesota . . 


May 12. 1913 


J. J. Flather 


A. Buenger 


J. A. Colvin 


Minneapolis, Minn. 










University of Nebraska . . . 


Dec. 7, 1909 


J. D. Ho£Fman 


A. A. Luebs 


G. W. Nigh 


Lincoln, Neb. 










University of Wisconsin. . . 


Nov. 9.1909 


H. J. Thorkelson 


M. A. Cook 


R. E. Maurer 


Madison. Wis. 










Washington University. . . 


Mar.lO. 1911 


E. L. Ohle ! A. 0. SchleiCFarth 


J. A. Watkins. Jr. 


St. Louis, Mo. 




1 




Yale University 


Oct 11,1910 


L. P. Breckenridge' L. F. Harder 


M. C. Corbett 


New Haven. Conn. 




1 

t 





XIV 



SUMMARY OF MEMBERSHIP 



United States 



Alabama 
Alaska . 
Arizona 
Arkansas 



22 
2 

8 
4 



California 145 

Canal Zone 14 

Colorado 29 

Connecticut 214 

Delaware 21 

District of Columbia 44 

Florida 3 

Georgia 20 

Hawaii 10 

Idaho 2 

Illinois 347 

Indiana 87 

Iowa 22 

Kansas 17 

Kentucky 16 

Louisiana 32 

Maine 20 

Maryland 56 

Massachusetts 507 

Michigan 187 

Minnesota 54 

Mississippi 4 

Missouri 89 

Montana 9 



Nebraska 7 

Nevada 2 

New Hampshire 15 

New Jersey 263 

New Mexico 3 

New York 1404 

North Carolina 16 

North Dakota 3 

Ohio 357 

Oklahoma 1 

Oregon 11 

Pennsylvania 630 

Philippine Islands 4 

Porto Rico 5 

Rhode Island 79 

South Carolina 5 

South Dakota 1 

Tennessee 21 

Texas 33 

Utah 11 

Vermont 21 

Virginia 33 

Washington 30 

West Virginia 14 

Wisconsin 130 

Wyoming 2 



Total 5086 



Foreign* Countries 



Africa 13 

Australia 9 

Austria 3 

Belgium 6 

Canada 95 

Central America 1 

Channel Islands 1 

China 3 

Cuba 11 

Dutch East Indies 1 

England 63 

Finland 2 

France 11 

Germany 19 

Holland 1 



India 

Italy 

Japan 

Mexico 

Norway 

Roumania . . . . 

Russia 

Scotland 

South America 

Spain 

Sweden 

Switzerland . . . 
Turkey 



4 

4 

4 

14 

1 

1 

4 

o 

18 

4 

4 

3 

1 

West Indies 1 

Total "304 



SUMMARY OF MEMBERSHIP 

By Residence 

December 31, 1913 

Membership in United States 5086 

Membership in foreign countries 304 

Present address unknown 4 

Total Membership 5394 



XV 



By Grades 

Honorary Members 14 

Members 3700 

Associates 375 

Associate-Members 92 

Juniors 1213 

Total Membership 5394 



GAS POWER SECTION 
SUMMARY OF MEMBERSHIP 



United States 



Alabama 3 

Arkansas 1 

California 10 

Connecticut 11 

Delaware 1 

District of Columbia . . . .' 3 

Georgia 3 

Illinois 23 

Indiana 11 

Iowa 2 

Maine 3 

Maryland 2 

Massachusetts 25 

Michigan 13 

Minnesota 5 

Missouri 7 

Nebraska 1 



New Hampshire 1 

New Jersey 15 

New York 143 

Ohio 22 

Oklahoma 1 

Oregon 2 

Pennsylvania 42 



Rhode Island 

Texas 

Utah 

Vermont .... 
Virginia .... 
Washington 
West Virginia 
Wisconsin . . . 



6 
1 
1 
1 
1 
2 
2 
17 



Total 381 



Belgium 
Canada . 
England 
France . 
Germany 



Foreign Countries 
1 



Japan 

3 Mexico 

1 South America 
1 

2 Total 



1 
1 
2 



12 



By Residence 

Membership in United States 381 

Membership in foreign countries 12 

Address unknown 1 



Total membership 394 

By Grades 

^Members of the Society 272 

Afliliates 122 



Total 394 



XVI 



STUDENT BRANCHES 

Armour Institute of Technology 8 

Carnegie Institute of Technology 32 

Case School of Applied Science 9 

Columbia University 4 

Cornell University 114 

Lehigh University ; 23 

Leland Stanford Jr. University 21 

Massachusetts Institute of Technology 22 

Ohio State University 7 

Pennsylvania State College , 41 

Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn 8 

Purdue University 7 

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute 17 

State University of Kentucky 23 

Stevens Institute of Technology 39 

Syracuse University 26 

University of Arkansas 1 

University of California 2 

University of Cincinnati 46 

University of Illinois 26 

University of Iowa 9 

University of Kansas 22 

University of Maine 18 

University of Michigan 58 

University of Minnesota 30 

University of Missouri 23 

University of Nebraska 13 

• University of Wisconsin 18 

Washington University 6 

Yale University 25 



Total 698 



xvn 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME XXXV 

Baltimore, New York and Monthly Meetings 

Page 

No. 1386 Biography of Dr. Goss. Annual Report of Council 1 

No. 1387 Meetings, January-June 11 

No. 1388 Symposium on Steel Passenger Car Design: 

a H. H. Vaughan, Introduction 17 

b W. F. Kiesel, Jr., Problems of Steel Passenger Car 

Design 21 

c John McE. Ames, Under frames for Steel Passenger 

Cars 25 

d C. A. Seley, Roof Structure for Steel Cars 31 

c E. W. Summers, Suspension of Steel Cars 33 

/ John A. Pilcher, Six- Wheel Trucks for Passenger Cars. 37 
g Felix Koch, Steel Interior Finish for Steel Passenger 

Cars 45 

h C. D. Young, Painting of Steel Passenger Cars 49 

i H. A. CuRRiE, Provisions for Electric Lighting in Steel 

Passenger Cars 60 

j F. W. Butt, Provision for Electrical Equipment on Steel 

Motor Cars 63 

k A. L. Humphrey, Air Brakes for Heavy Steel Passen- 
ger Cars 66 

I C. T. Westlake, Cast-Steel Double-Body Bolsters, Plat- 
forms and End Frames for Steel Cars 69 

m H. M. EsTABROOK, Special Ends for Steel Passenger 

Cars 74 

n Discussion on Steel Passenger Car Design 93 

No. 1389 Gael Schwartz, Test of a Hydraulic Buffer 99 

No. 1390 Edwin J. Prindle, Patent License Restrictions Ill 

Xo. 1391 W. R. Metz, Cost of Upkeep of Horse-Orawn Vehicles against 

Electric Vehicles 129 

Xo. 1392 Charles C. Sampson, Practical Operation of Gas Engines 

using Blast-Furnace Gas as Fuel 151 

Xo. 1393 Symposium on Fire Protection: 

a Albert Blauvelt, Debarment of City Conflagrations. . . 171 
h James B. Scott, Baltimore High-Pressure Fire Service 183 
c Ira H. Woolson, Allowable Heights and Areas for Fac- 
tory Buildings 231 

d C. H. Smith, The Protection of Main Belt Drives with 

Fire Retardent Partitions 239 

e H. F. J. Porter, The Life Hazard in Crowded Buildings 

due to Inadequate Exits 249 

/ DiBcussion on Fire Protection 263 

xix 






p 

No. 1394 Standard Sizes of Catalogues 2 

No. 1395 The German Meeting ! 

No. 1396 Meetings, July-December I 

No. 1397 W. F. M. Gross, Efficiency in Technical Education a Factor in 

the Development of Professional Ideals I 

No. 1398 Standard Threads for Hose Couplings ^ 

No. 1399 Standardization of Pipe Thread Gages I 

No. 1400 J. W. Parker, Notes on the Further Operation of Large Boil- 
ers of the Detroit Edison Company ; 

No. 1401 Walter N. Polakov, Task Setting for Firemen and Maintain- 
ing High Efficiency in Boiler Plants i 

No. 140? B. C. H. Heck, The Properties of Steam ; 

No. 1403 Report on Hoisting and Conveying • 

No. 1404 Clark T. Henderson, Dynamic Braking for Coal and Ore- 
Handling Machinery * 

No. 1405 Symposiimi on Steel Frame Box Cars: 

a George W. Rink, Steel Underf rame Box Cars * 

b R. W. Burnett, Steel Upperf rame Box Cars * 

c Discussion < 

No. 1406 H. A. BuRNHAM, Cotton Conveying Systems : their Safeguards 

Against Fire i 

No. 1407 F. J. HoxiE, Specifications for Factory Timbers i 

No. 1408 C. B. Annett ^ 

C. F. Cunningham / textile Cost Accounting i 

No. 1409 E. H. Ahara, Efficiency of Rope Driving I 

No. 1410 Carl C. Thomas ] 

E R Maurer I Comparative Tests of Three Types of 

L.' E.' A. Kelso J Lineshaft Bearings i 

j No. 1411 W. C. Rowse, Pitot Tubes for Gas Measurement ( 

No. 1412 J. R. McCoLL, Tests of Vacuum Cleaning Systems ' 

No. 1413 E. W. Kerr, Tests upon the Transmission of Heat in Vacuum 

Evaporators ! 

No. 1414 Raymond F. Nailler, The Art of Enameling or the Coating 

of Steel and Iron with Glass ' 

No. 1415 John Parker, Gears for Machine-Tool Drives ' 

No. 1416 Henry M. Wood, Cast Iron for Machine-Tool Parts ' 

No. 1417 C. F. MacGill, A Record of Pressed Fits } 

No. 1418 H. F. Smith, A New Process of Cleaning Producer Gas I 

No. 1419 P. Langer, Present Status of the Large Gas Engine in Europe i 

No. 1420 G. S. Lawler, The Fire Hazard in Turbo-Generators } 

No. 1421 Edw. a. Barrier, Extinguishing of Fires in Oils and Vola- 
tile Liquids } 

No. 1422 Fred J. Miller, A System for the Control of Automatic 

Sprinkler Valves 1 

No. 1423 W. O. Teague, The Need of More Care in the Design and 

Construction of Elevated Tanks 1 

No. 1424 Ezra E. Clark, Fire Pumps 1 

No. 1425 Necrology 1 

No. 1426 Index 1( 



I 

' I 
I 



XX 



TRANSACTIONS 

OF 

THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF 
MECHANICAL ENGINEERS 

VOLUME 85—1918 

THIS volume comprises the Transactions of The American 
Society of Mechanical EDgineers for 1913. It contains mainly 
the papers and discussion given at the Spring and Annual 
Meetings for this year, and the group of papers on Steel Car Construc- 
tion given at the New York meeting in April. There are also brief 
accounts of the various other local meetings held throughout the year, 
the annual report of the Council, and such technical reports as have 
^n approved during the year. The reports of the Standing Commit- 
tees for the year will be found in The Journal for December, 1913. 

WILLIAM FREEMAN MYRICK GOSS 

William Freeman Myrick Goss was elected President of The 
American Society of Mechanical Engineers at the Annual Meeting, 
1912, for the ensuing year. Dr. Goss was born in Barnstable, Mass., 
October 7, 1859. In the fall of 1877 he entered the then recently 
established mechanics arts course at the Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology. Upon completion of the two-year course he was ap- 
pointed instructor in practical mechanics at Purdue University and 
at once began there the work of establishing shop laboratories. His 
first class of five students was given instruction in those lines of work 
in which he himself had just been trained. From a meager beginning, 
the outlook broadened rapidly. The equipment was extended, the 
number of students increased, and new shop laboratories were built. 
In 1883 he became professor of practical mechanics, a title which he 
held for seven years. When he began, there was no college west of 
the Allegheny Mountains giving systematic courses in shop practice, 

1 



j Z SOCIETY AFFAIRS 

I 

I 

and there was no manual training work in any American high school 
He devised courses of practice and developed series of lectures b; 
means of which principles established in the shops could be give: 
wider application. It was a day when school officials were becominj 
interested in training students in the manual arts, and many die 
tinguished visitors came to see the work of the Purdue laboratories 
I The great cities of Chicago, Toledo, Louisville and Indianapolis eae 

; in turn sought its aid in the establishment of their manual trainiuj 

schools. Certain forms of equipment, especially forges and lathee 
originally designed and constructed at Purdue, were made and sup 
; plied as complete equipment to school boards in distant localitie 

where new courses of shop practice were being organized. In man; 
such ways the work at Purdue had an important part in ushering i 
an educational movement of unusual significance. 

In 1889, after ten years of this work. Professor Goss was give] 
I a leave of absence, and took up his residence in Boston, where h 

j continued from April of that year to a year from the followini 

j September. Some work was done at the Massachusetts Institute o 

! Technology, but the greater part of the time was given to self-directe 

; reading and study. In the spring of 1890 he was appointed professo 

' of experimental engineering, and he undertook the active duties o 

his new office in the fall of that year. Having developed laboratorie 
for elementary training, it was now his task to build laboratories fo 
advanced engineering work. A modest steam engineering laborator 
equipped with a compound Corliss engine and a few testing machine 
was soon in operation. Plans for an extensive engineering buildini 
(Purdue^s present engineering laboratory) were developed and b; 
the fall of 1891 a portion of the building was constructed. A signifi 
cant part of the equipment of the new laboratory was a locomotiv 
testing plant designed to serve in an experimental study of locomotiv 
problems in much the same way that an experimental stationary plan 
could be used in studying the problems of design affecting the per 
formance of stationary engines. This locomotive testing plant wa 
the first of its kind. It was designed in the summer of 1891 whil' 
the building which was to contain it was in the process of erection 
and was in successful operation in the late fall of the same year. Ai 
t incident in the process of installing this plant was that of transport 

[ ing a 100,000-lb. locomotive over the corn-fields and highways whicl 

'\ intervened between the nearest track and the laboratory, a distanc 

by the course taken of about a mile and a half. The opportunitie 
i which were presented to its possessors at once attracted the attentioi 



SOCIETY AFFAIRS 3 

of motive power men and of steam engineers. So meager was the 
information concerning the performance of locomotives that every 
fragment of truth, however simple or easily obtained, at once became 
a matter of public interest. The evaporative capacity of the locomo- 
tive boiler, its efficiency at difficult rates of power, the power and 
efficiency of the cylinders, and the effect upon power and efficiency 
of changes in speed or cut-off were all matters which previous to the 
introduction of this plant had been but little understood even by those 
best informed. The behavior of the various parts of the machine as a 
mechanism and especially the effects produced by the action of the 
counterbalance in the locomotive drive wheels were all matters con- 
cerning which people had theories, but which were first actually 
developed by the accurate processes of the laboratory at the Purdue 
plant. Associations of railroad men gave their encouragement and 
sometimes financial assistance in increasing the output of the plant. 
The Master Car Builders' Association made the Purdue laboratories 
its official testing station and was instrumental in installing there 
a considerable amount of useful and expensive apparatus. The 
laboratory became an active center for testing not only locomotives, 
locomotive fuels and locomotive lubricants, but also details of car 
construction such as wheels, axles, draft-gears, couplers and brake- 
shoes. The problems awaiting solution were always numerous, and 
tbe professor in charge was kept busy outlining the means to be 
employed in solving them. He was in the beginning responsible not 
only for the effective use of the railroad equipment to which reference 
^ already been made, but also for the development of laboratories 
and courses in materials testing, in hydraulics and in the general 
field of theoretical and applied thermodynamics. He erected buildings, 
purchased and installed equipment, and in many cases the equipment 
iJistalled was of his design, and he was required to meet the reasonable 
^pectations of an ever increasing body of students. Hundreds of 
Dien who were students at Purdue in the early nineties can testify to 
^e variety of the activities which in their day were in progress in the 
engineering laboratories. 

In 1899 Professor Qoss was again granted a year's leave of ab- 
sence which he spent in travel and study abroad, chiefly in Germany. 
Upon his return he was appointed Dean of the Schools of Engineer- 
ing, an office which he continued to hold throughout the remaining 
^ight years of his residence at Purdue. In 1907 he resigned his 
position at Purdue, after twenty-eight years of service, to take up 
^bat seemed to him the larger and more responsible duties of his 



4 SOCIETY AFFAIRS 

present oflBce, namely, that of Dean of the College of Engineering ( 
the University of Illinois. 

Professor Goss was given the honorary degree of Master of Arl 
by Wabash College in 1888 and the honorary degree of Doctor c 
Engineering by the University of Illinois in 1904. He has been 
member of the Society since 1835, and a member of the America 
Society for Testing Materials and of the Society for the Promotio 
of Engineering Education from their organization. He was a memb( 
of the Executive Committee of the National Advisory Board on Fuel 
and Structural Materials, and a member of the Jury of Awards i 
the Transportation Department of the World's Fair of Chicago i 
1893. He is a member of the Master Car Builders* Association, c 
the Master Mechanics' Association, of the Illinois Academy of Scienc 
and of the Western Society of Engineers. He is a fellow of th 
American Society for the Advancement of Science, a member an 
past-president of the Western Railway Club and was the Chairman c 
the Advisory Committee organized by the Pennsylvania Railway Con: 
pany to direct its work in locomotive testing at the Louisiana Purchafi 
Exposition. For many years he was a contributing editor to th 
Railroad Gazette. His contributions to technical literature have bee 
numerous. Probably his best known work is that which deals wit 
the locomotive. His books on Locomotive Performance and Locomc 
tive Sparks are records of personal researches which are known t 
most railroad men and to most students of locomotive design. Nn 
merous researches conducted under the patronage of various assodfl 
tions are available only in the proceedings of these associationi 
Besides these, two noteworthy pieces of work were done under th 
patronage of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, the results o 
which are presented in two volumes, one entitled High Steam Pr« 
sures in Locomotive Service and the other Superheated Steam i 
Locomotive Service. 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE COUNCIL 

Covering the presidential year of Dr. W. F. M. Gross the Society 
has been especially active in the v^ork of the standing and special 
committees, and the Council takes this opportunity to express its ap- 
preciation of the splendid work unselfishly done. 

The Comniittee on Power Tests has reorganized v^ith George H. 
Bamis as chairman and the committee will within the next year be 
able to present its completed report of recommendations of Standards 
for Testing Power Plant Apparatus. 

The Committee on Standardization of Flanges has presented 
recommendations of a new standard to be known as The American 
Standard, to become effective January 1, 1914. The standard was 
wrived at after a series of conferences with the Master Steam and Hot 

» 

Water Fitters Association and the Manufacturers' Committee and is 
» compromise, consistent with good engineering practice, between the 
1912 U. S. Standard heretofore recommended and that recommended 
the same year by the Manufacturers. 

The Committee to Formulate (Standard Specifications for the 
Construction of Steam Boilers and other Pressure Vessels and for 
Their Care in Service has completed a preliminary report to be sent 
ont to expert boiler men and manufacturers for trial inspection with 
the idea of getting further criticism before final recommendation and 
presentation of the report to the Society. 

The Sub-Committee on Fire Protection has recommended a Na- 
tional Standard for Hose Couplings, which the Council has ordered 
pohlished. It was the opinion of the chairman, John E. Freeman, 
that while this standard is perhaps not ideal, yet it is an expedient 
tlwit meets a decided need. 

The Committee on an International Standard for Pipe Threads 

sent to the Paris representative, L. V. Benet, instructions for 
presentation to the International Commission on Pipe Threads which 
^M initiated by the Soci6t6 Technique de Tlndustrie du Gaz in 
^ance. The American Gas Institute has sent identical instructions 
to its representative. 

At the invitation of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers 
• committee was appointed to cooperate with its Standards Committee 

5 



I 1 

I 



i 6 SOCIETY AFFAIRS 

! 

! and report concerning the use of the Myriawatt as a unit. This repoi 

was presented and made part of the proceedings of the Spring Meeting 

; At the request of a number of members and manufacturers 

committee was appointed and has presented its report on the fixing c 

; manufacturing limits in flanges and fittings threaded according t 

the Briggs Standard. Similarly a committee was appointed on 

i standard of rating the capacity of mechanical filters. 

Wilfred Lewis, chairman of the Committee on Involute (Jean 
has presented a majority report of his committee and the committc 
has been discharged with the thanks of the Council. 

A report is before the Council recommending the appointment c 
a committee to act as a clearing house for all matters of standardize 
tion. The special committee to outline this work consists of Henr 
Hess, chairman, J. H. Barr, Charles Day, C. J. Davidson, and Cai 
Schwartz. This matter has been undertaken in response to the man 
inquiries which are received by the Society and in recognition of th 
fact that standardization is essential to engineering. The burea 
does not propose to do any work of standardization for the variou 
engineering organizations of the world, but aims solely to bring tc 
gether information obtained from all bodies interested in standard 
ization of similar lines and promptly to inform each body of th 
proceedings of every other organization engaged in similar work. 

At the Spring Meeting the Committee on a Code of Ethics pre 
sented for discussion its draft of a proposed Code of Ethics. This cod 
has been mailed to the membership for letter ballot giving each men 
her the opportunity to vote for or against it as a whole or in part, o 
advising amendments. 

At various functions during the year the Society has been reprc 

sented by the appointment of Honorary Vice-Presidents as follows 

Annual Convention of the Southwestern Electrical and Gas Associs 

tion, Galveston, Texas, W. B. Tuttle ; Third International Refrigerc 

tion Congress, reception to delegates in New York, H. G. Stott, i 

W. Lieb, Jr., Calvin W. Rice; on committee in charge of first sectio 

devoted to liquid gases and units, William Kent, president, D. ^ 

Jacobus, vice-president, Calvin W. Rice, secretary, Louis Blocli 

Charles E. Lucke, E. F. Miller, S. W. Stratton; Third Intemations 

' I Drainage Congress, John Hunter ; National Society for the Promotio: 

i • of Industrial Education, convention in Chicago, F. A. Geier, Charlc 

I ; R. Richards, M. E. Cooley, John C. Bird ; American Association fo 

the Advancement of Science, members of council, Alex. C. Humphreyi 
W. B. Jackson; Chattanooga Chamber of Commerce, at opening an 



I 



H 
t 

( I 



I ■ 

i • 

!, 

\: 
I' 

[: 

k : 



SOCIETY AFFAIRS 7 

dedication of Chattanooga and Tennessee River Power Company's 
hydroelectric development, Newell Sanders. 

The Society has lost by death during the past year the following 
Honorary Members : John Fritz, Carl P. deLaval, -Sir Wm. H. White, 
V. Dwelshauvers-Dery, Rudolph Diesel, Sir Wm. Arrol. 

Honorary Membership has been conferred upon Charles H. Man- 
ning. 

The report in changes in membership in the following table covers 
the fiflcal year October 1, 1912, to September 30, 1913, in distinction 
from the administration year which the rest of the report concerns. 



MEMBERSHIP FOR FISCAL YEAR (OCT. 1. 1912-SEPT. 30. 1913) 







Losses 


Additions 

Net 


Net 
In- 
crease 


Oct. 1, 
1913 


Grade 


Oct. 1, 
1912 


Transfer 


Resig- 
na- 
tions 


1 

Lapses Deaths 


Trans- 
fer 


De- 

,^, Rein- crease 
Elec- ^ ^ 1 
state- 
tion 

] ment 


Honorary 


18 




• • 


5 

1 


1 


1 


3 

1 


• • 


15 


Member 


2961 


1 


17 


19 


30 


81 


468 


4 


486 


3447 


Asiociate 


357 18 


8 


10 1 6 


1 


41 


3 .. 


3 


360 


Junior 


1006 j 64 


12 


29 3 




263 


3 .. i 158 

1 1 


1104 


Total 


4342 83 


37 58 44 83 

1 


773 


10 . . , 644 


4986 


Affiliates Gas 
Power Section 

Affiliates Stu- 
dent Section . 


126 

722 ; 

1 


1 1 
i 

j . . ! 

[ 

1 






1 
.. ' 2 

..73 


124 
649 



The Increase of Membership Committee, with the ready and 
splendid response and cooperation of the membership at large, is 
doing most effective work on the recommendation of the committee. 
The Council has appointed sub-committees in different centers under 
the chainnenship of the following: Park A. Dallis, Atlanta; A. L. 
Wlliston, Boston; W. H. Carrier, Buffalo; Fay Woodmansee, Chicago; 
J- T. Faig, Cincinnati; R. B. Sheridan, Cleveland; H. W. Alden, 
Michigan; J. A. Kinkead, New York; T. C. McBride, Philadelphia; 
John Hunter, St. Louis; Max Toltz, St. Paul; Thos. Morrin, San 
Francisco; R. M. Dyer, Seattle; A. E. Cluett, Troy. 

Student branches have been added at Case School of Applied 
Science, State University of Iowa, University of Minnesota, and for 



8 SOCIETY AFFAIRS 

' Btudents taking the regular technical course in applied science 8 

Carnegie Technical School, making a total of 30 branches with 65 
student afSliates enrolled. 

As the committee and representative of the Society in San Frai 
cisco in the matter of the International Engineering Congress i 
1915, W. P. Durand, T. W. Ransom, C. R. Weymouth, E. Si Moor< 
the President and the Secretary of the Society, ex-oflBcio, have bee 
appointed and much work of organization has been started. 

There is given elsewhere the record of the official visit of this Sociei 
to Germany and the joint meeting with the Verein deutscher Ii 
genieure, June 21 to July 7, 1913. The trip through Germany wi 
primarily to observe the engineering and industrial work of the natio 
and every opportunity was afforded for the inspection of the leadin 
plants of every city. At Leipzig were the two professional sessior 
of the Verein in which The American Society of Mechanical Eng 
j neers participated. 

i Important amendments have been made to the Constitution an 

] By-Laws, the principal changes being occasioned by the additionf 

! grade of Associate-Member and the change in the method of electin 

■ members. An Associate-Member is defined as follows : 

C-11 An Associate-Member shall be an Engineer or Teacher of Applic 
Science of twenty-five years of age or over. He must show by his ezperieiM 
j or by his duties that he is competent to execute work in his profession. 



I 



The change in the method of balloting for the members is indicate 
in the following: 

C-15 All applications for membership to the grades of Member, Assoeist 
Associate-Member or Junior shall be presented to the Council, which sha 
consider and act upon each application, assigning each approved applicai 
to the grade of membership to which, in the judgment of the Oouncil^ h 
qualifications entitle him. The name of each candidate thus approved I 
the Council shall, unless objection is made by the applicant, be submitted 1 
all the members of the Council for election, by means of a letter-ballot. 

C^]6 Any person desiring to change his grade of membership shall mal 
application to the Council in the same manner as is required in the case < 
a new applicant. 

C-17 Election to membership shall be by sealed letter-ballot of tl 

Council as the By-Laws shall provide. Fifteen affirmative votes shall I 

required for the election of a candidate to membership in any grade. Oi 

t . negative vote shall defeat an election to Honorary Membership. Two n^ 

1 ^ Mve votes shall defeat an election to any other grade. 






The Council favors even more strict requirements in the grad< 



h of Member and Associato-Membor and at the Spring Meeting pr< 

sented the following proposed amendment: 



[] 

f: 

i 
I' 



SOCIETY AFFAIRS 9 

C-9 A Member shall be an Engineer or Teacher of Applied Science of 
thirty-two years of age, or over, and shall have been in the active practice of 
his profesRion for at least ten years and in responsible charge of important 
work for five years, and shall be qualified to design as well as to direct engi- 
neering work. Fulfilling the duties of a Professor of Engineering who is in 
charge of a department in a college or school of accepted standing shall be 
taken as an equivalent to an equal number of years of active practice. 
Graduation from a school of engineering of recognized standing shall be 
considered as equivalent to two years of active practice. 

Crll An Associate-Member shall be a professional engineer not less than 
. twenty-seven years of age, who shall have been in . the active practice of his 
profession for at least six years, and who shall have had responsible charge 
of work as principal or assistant for at least one year. Graduation from a 
sehool of engineering of recognized reputation shall be considered as equivalent 
to two years' active practice. 

Local sectional meetings, additional to previous years, are now 
l>eing held in Chicago, Atlanta, Milwaukee and St. Paul-MinneapoHs, 
umkiug a total of 11 cities in which there is an organization with 
periodical meetings held. 

On the recommendation of the Committee on Meetings au addi- 
tional sub-committee lias been appointed on Depreciation and 
Obsolescence, to determine as far as possible the proper annual 
chargea to operating expense for depreciation — including physical 
^^J^y, obsolescence and inadequacy — in the various industries in 
w^iich the members are interested. 

'ilie Society's Committee on Conservation received the approval 
of the Council for presentation of its protest to the Congressional 
^"ouunittee, covering the transfer of the control of the national forests 
^ the individual states. This was one of the subjects brought up 
fcr consideration at the Fifth National Conservation Congress in 
Washington, November 18, 19 and 20, to which the Council appointed 
** itfi representatives the members of the Conservation Committee 
*^"tl (ieneral William 11. Bixby, Admiral 11. I. Cone, Dr. Joseph A. 
"oinies. The congress was this year devoted mainly to Forestry 
**id Water Power. The work of Conservation in general is one 
1" which The American Society of Mechanical Kngineers may well 
take a thoughtful interest and part. 

The Baltimore Engineers Club has been added to the societies 
listed on members introduction cards with whom we exchange library 
and house courtesies. 

At the beginning of the year the Council referred to the Publica- 
tion Committee the study of the various publications of the Society 
with a view to increasing their value to the membership and decreas- 



t 

I I 

! I 

I 



10 SOCIETY AFFAIRS 

ing the cost. The committee has responded with a plan which has th< 
unanimous endorsement of the Council. This involves the issuing o 
The Journal in the 9 by 12 size now so generally used by technica 
journals and the handling of the advance papers and the matter ii 
The Journal as follows: 

a Papers to be printed in pamphlet form (9x6 size) complete in advano 
Hi of a meeting, but not published in The Journal prior to the meeting. 

h Abstracts (of perhaps 500 words each) of all the papers for a givei 
meeting to be grouped and published in one number of The Journal at leas 
one month in advance of the meeting. 

c Announcement to be made each time by circular, return postal or ii 
The Journal, that copies of complete papers on any subject will be sent fre 
to any member asking for them. 

d That papers and discussion be published together in issues of Th 
Journal following the meeting at which they are presented. 

By this procedure there will appear in The Journal at an earliei 
date than is possible in the annual volume of Transactions the revisec 
papers and discussion given at meetings, and when published in thii 
way The Journal will contain the Transactions of the Society ii 
complete form and will be worthy of binding and preservation b] 
the membership. 



!i' 






if 






No. 1387 

MEETINGS JANUARY— JUNE 

MEETINGS PEEVIOUS TO THE SPRING MEETING 

NEW YOKK, JANUARY 14 

Meeting devoted to discussion of work of the New York Com- 
mittee. A full account appeared in The Journal for February, 1913. 

BOSTON, JANUARY 22 

Joint meeting under the auspices of the Boston Society of Civil 
Engineers. Hydraulics in City Building: Paper presented by Will- 
iam H. Lewis, president Lewis Wiley Hydraulic Company, Seattle, 
Wash., and Portland, Ore. An account appeared in The Journal for 
February, 1913. 

CHICAGO, FEBRUARY 6 

Internal-Combustion Engines: Discussion by E. T. Adams, giv- 
^^ the author's experiences and discussing the possibilities of build- 
"ig large gas engine units; by Prof. Chas. R. Richards; by J. C. 
filler, consulting engineer, Chicago; and by Nisbet Latta, followed 
"J general discussion. An account of the meeting appeared in The 
Journal for March, 1913. 

ST. LOUIS, FEBRUARY 5 

Paper: Lubricating Value of Cup Greases, A. L. Westcott, XJni- 
^^'rsity of Missouri, describing tests of cup greases. 

An abstract of this paper appears in The Journal for July, 1913. 

PHILADELPHIA, FEBRUARY 8 

Paper: Overhead Expense Distribution, by Royal R. Keely, dis- 
cussing the various methods employed in computing this important 
item and their relative merits. 

An abstract with discussion appears in Tlie Journal for June, 
1913. 

11 



12 SOCIETY AFFAIRS 

NEW YOKK, FEBBUABT 11 

Paper: Port Facilities for Ships and CargoB in-the United Stata 
by Wm, T. Donnelly, describing the preeeat situation in various portc 

An abstract of thie paper and discusaion appears in The Jouma 
for June, 1913. 

BOSTON, FEBRDARY M 

Papers: Some Thermal Properties of Concrete, C, L. Norton 
Experience with Concrete in Fires, (i. E. Fisher, engineer. Ark 
Wright Mutual Fire Insurance Company. 

Abstract of the papers and discussion appears in The Journal fo 
June, 1913. 

NBW YORK, UARCH 13 

Joint Meeting with the Illuminating Engineering Society, th 
New York Association for the Blind, and the American Mnflena 
of Safety. Papers : Illumination and Eyestrain, Dr. Ellice M. Alg«r 
Industrial Lighting Problem from the Standpoint of the TH^TYiinj^t 
ing Engineer, Ward Harrison; the Problem from the Standpoint o 
the Mechanical Engineer, A. C. Jackson. Dr. W. H. Tolman o 
the American Museum of Safety showed a number of slides show 
ing the importance of lighting in the problem of safety. 

A more complete account appears in The Journal for April, 1913 

MINNEAPOLIS, MARCH 18 

Organization meeting and dinner. Addresses by Calvin W. Bi« 
Secretary, Prof. J. J. Flather, J. L. Record, Oliver Crosby, C. I 
Pillsbury, and Max Toltz. A more complete account appears in Tb 
Journal for April, 1913. 

8T. LO0IS, MARCH 19 

Address : Engineering and Common Sense, William Kent. 

CINCINNATI, MARCH 20 

[ ■ Address: Engineering and Common Sense, William Kent 



13 



BOSTON, MARCH 25 

Papers : Some of the Problems Encountered in the Dedgn, Con 
struction and E<iuipment of the Modern Cotton Mill, Fran) 



SOCIETY AFFAIRS 13 

W. Reynolds; Modern Methods of Lighting in Cotton Mills, Albert 
L. Pearson; Air Conditioning for Textile Mills, Fred. W. Parks, 
president, 6. M. Parks Company, Fitchburg, Mass. 

An abstract of these papers with discussion appears in The Jour- 
nal for June, 1913. 

NEW YORK, APRIL 4 

Joint meeting with the American Institute of Mining Engineers 
and the American Institute of Electrical Engineers. Demonstration 
of kinetophone and latest developments in the moving picture and 
phonograph fields by Miller Reese Hutchinson, through the courtesy 
of Thomas A. Edison, Honorary Member. A more complete account, 
of the meeting appears in The Journal for May, 1913. 

NEW YORK, APRIL 8 

Meeting imder the auspices of the Sub-Committee on Railroads 
and the New York Committee on Meetings. Subject: Symposium 
on Steel Passenger Car Design. Published in this issue of Transac- 
tions. 

PROVIDENCE, APRIL 10 

Joint dinner with the Providence Association of Mechanical En- 
gineers, with addresses by Prof. T. M. Phetteplace, Calvin W. Rice, 
Secretary, Prof. W. H. Kenerson, Prof. C. F. Scott. A more com- 
plete account appears in The Journal for May, 1913. 

NEW HAVEN, APRIL 16 

Quarterly meeting with afternoon and evening sessions. Papers : 
General Types of Heating Systems, by Allen C. Staley of Sheffield 
Scientific School; Heating, Ventilating and Humidifying of the 
Cheney Brothers' Silk Mills, by G. H. Miller; Applications of Light- 
ing to Factories, by C. E. Clewell of Sheffield Scientific School ; Lat- 
est Improvements in Construction of Gas Lamps, by T. J. Lytle, Wels- 
bach Company, Philadelphia. 

A more extended account appears in The Journal for May, 1913. 

BOSTON, APRIL 25 

Joint meeting under the auspices of the American Institute of 
Electrical Engineers. Paper: Delivery and Handling of Freight at 
the Boston Freight Terminals, by Harold Pender, H. F. Thompson 



! .1 



14 SOCIETY AFFAIRS 

and V, P. Eldxed, describing prevailing conditions and possible im- 
provements. 

CHICAGO, MAY 7 

Dinner, with speeches by Robert W. Hunt, Philetus W. Gates, and 
George M. Brill. A more complete account appears in The Journal 
' for June, 1913. 

j SAN FRANCISCO, MAY 15 

Paper: Progress of Buildings being Erected for Panama-Pacific 
International Exposition, by G. L. Bayley. 

THE SPRING MEETING 

The meeting at Baltimore was in every way a successful gather- 
ing. The Society and its friends were the guests of the Engineers' 
Club of Baltimore, with whom the local members of the Society and 
the oflBcers at Annapolis cooperated to the fullest extent; and the 
work of the local committees under the direction of the Executive Com- 
mittee of the Engineers' Club was planned and carried out with 
such nicety of detail as greatly to enhance the enjoyment of all in 
attendance. 

The registration was small as had been anticipated, in view of the 
approaching German Meeting, there being 142 members present and 
185 guests. There have seldom been professional sessions at any of 
the Society's meetings, however, at which there was greater sustained 
interest or more effective discussion. The program follows: 

PROGRAM 

Tuesday Afternoon, May 20 
Registration of members and guests at headquarters, Hotel Belvedere. 

Tuesday Evening 
Membership reunion and informal reception. 

Wednesday Morning, May 21 
Business Meeting 
Reports of tellers of election of members. Announcement of ballot on 
amendments to the Constitution relating to membership grades; new business. 
Reports of Special Committees on Myriawatt, Involute Gears, Code of Ethics. 

I Simultaneous Sessions Following Business Meeting 

i . PROPESSTONAL SESSION 

f 

j ' Test op a Hydraulic Bupper, Carl Schwartz. 

■ Discussed bv F. H. Clark. A. E. Johnson. H. A. Jonsenius. Philander Betts. 

1 ■ 

] The Present Condition of the Patent Law, Edwin J. Prindle. 

I ] Discussed by J. N. McGill. 

r 1 

t 1 



SOCIETY AFFAIRS 15 

Shading in Mechanical Drawing, Theodore W. Johnson. 

Discussed by S. A. Moss, W. P. Hawley. H. D. Hess, L. S. Burbank. L. E. Osbortie. L. D. 
Burlingame. F. W. Ives, J. S. Reid, J. G. Matthews. Published in The Journal, April and 
Aufust. 1913. 

Cost of Upkeep of Horse-Dbawn Vehicles against Electric Vehicles, 
W. B. Metz. 

Discussed bv H. H. Smith. A. M. Pearson, L. H. Flanders, W. P. Kennedy, John Younger, 

E. R. Gumey, Harrington Emerson, C. W. Baker. 

GAS POWER session 

Present Operation of Gas Engines using Blast-Fubnace Gas as Fuel, 
Charles C. Sampson. 

Discussed by F. H. Wagner. 

Wednesday Afternoon 

Demonstration of the high-pressure fire system at City Hall plaza and in- 
spection of pumping station, followed by a sail about the harbor to inspect 
the water front, shipping facilities, and other features of interest. 

Wednesday Evening 
Lecture illustrated by lantern views: Around the World in Eighty 
Minutes, by Hon. O. P. Austin, Secretary, National Geographic Society. 

Thursday Morning, May 22 

FIRE protection SESSION 

The Baltimore High -Pressure Fire Service, James B. Scott. 
National Standard Hose Couplings and Hydrant Fittings for Pubuc 
Fire Service, F. M. Griswold. 

Published in The Journal March 1913. 

Debarment of City Conflagrations, Albert Blauvelt. 

Allowable Height and Area in Factory Buildings, Ira H. Woolson. 

The Protection of Main Belt Drives with Fire Retardant Partitions, 
C. H. Smith. 

The Life Hazard in Crowded Buildings due to Inadequate Exits, H. F. 
J. Porter. 

Discussed by W. H. Kenerson. Henry HesA, G. I. Rockwood, Harrington Emerson. 

F. B. Gilbreth. 

Thursday Afternoon 

iDspection of sewage pumping plant, Jones Falls conduits, and trip by 
trolley to sewage disposal plant at Back River. 

Automobile trips for ladies, about the city and suburbs, with tea served at 
the Country Club. 

Thursday Evening 
Reception and dance tendered by the Engineers* Club of Baltimore. 

Friday, May 23 

All-day excursion to Annapolis and to the U. S. Naval Academy with a 
reception by Governor Goldsborough at the State House. After the reception 
the party proceeded to the Assembly Chamber whore Admiral H. I. Cone, 
engineer-in -chief of the Bureau of Steam Engineering, U. S. N., delivered 
M address upon the United States Experimental Station at Annapolis. 

Luncheon at Carvel Hall and trip to Naval Experiment Station and aviation 
camp, with demonstration flights. 



! i 

1 ' 



. I 



: 



■! I 



■ : 



I ■ 



I j 



it 

H 
'I 

I 
jl- 

li 



SYMPOSIUM ON STEEL PASSENGER 

CAR DESIGN 

No. 1388 a 

INTRODUCTION 

By H. H. Vaughan, Montreal, Canada 
Member of the Society 

The advent of the steel passenger car has brought with it many 
new problems and an opportunity for more diverse opinions than any 
other change that has taken place in. car equipment. The construction 
of the wooden passenger car developed along fairly uniform lines. 
The varieties of framing were few and the differences unimportant, 
while the introduction of steel platforms, wide and narrow vestibules, 
reinforced end and sill construction and similar improvements oc- 
curred gradually, and with practically similar designs on all railroads. 
The change from wood to steel in freight car construction resulted in 
the abandonment of designs that had almost become standardized and 
the introduction of many new types, but in this case the principal 
problem, other than that of obtaining satisfactory designs, has been 
the extent to which it was advisable to use composite or all-steel 
^construction. 

2 In the case of the passenger car, the types to be employed will 
probably not be changed by the substitution of steel for wood. The 
•ncrease m capacity that has taken place in freight equipment cannot 
"^ <luplicated in passenger cars, and there appears to be no tendency 
*^ present toward any increase in length or carrying capacity. The 
questions that now confront us relate rather to the design and con- 
struction of cars of the present type and of the materials that may be 
anvanta^eously employed in place of the wood which has been used 
f^f 80 long. They are complicated by the necessity of providing 
for greater safety for the passengers than was secured in the wooden 
^^ with an equal degree of comfort and the difficulty of anticipating 
*"€ behavior of this new equipment in the case of accident. Certain 
difficulties such as the best systems for heating, lighting and ventila- 

Prewnted at the New York Meeting, April 1913, of The American 8o- 
nmr or Mechanical Engineers. 

17 



I 

I 

I i 
I 
I 



I I 



18 INTRODUCTION 

tion, are common to both steel and wood construction, and improve- 
ments in these matters pertain to general progress rather than the use 
of steel construction. The following list, while probably incomplete, 
outlines in a brief way the important variations that must be consid- 
ered in deciding on the preferable construction of steel passenger 
equipment : 

Framing Steel underf rame 

All-steel frame ^^^f^ 

Outside finish Plated 

Sheathed 

Roof construction Clear story 

Circular 

Inside finish Steel 

Wood 

End construction Design and strength 

Floor Design and material 

Insulation Material 

No doubt questions of equal importance have been omitted, and in 
many cases those mentioned require careful consideration with regard 
to degree, as for instance, the strength of the framing or the thickness 
of the insulation. The list illustrates, however, the diversity of 
possible solutions of the preferable steel passenger car, and the follow- 
ing personal opinions are presented for the purpose of opening the 
discussion : 

3 The steel underf rame does not appear to be a satisfactory 
or permanent development. There is but little saving either in 
weight or cost over the all-steel construction, and it is difficult to see 
how the same strength in case of accident can be obtained. Experience 
will show whether the wood superstructure can be secured in such a 
way as to prevent working as the car gets old, but as it cannot be 
arranged to carry any weight this appears questionable. It can 
hardly be regarded except as an intermediate step between all- wood 
and all-steel construction. 

4 In all-steel construction the side-girder car presents advan- 
tages, but as in freight construction, both types will probably persist. 
The side-girder construction obtains greater strength on the side 
framing without superfluous weight, and it is possible that greater 

i -i framing strength may prove necessary. With equal strength of side 

, fj. framing the side-girder car may be made lighter than the center-girder 

[ -j- ^.VP6, and the weight of steel passenger cars is one of the most serious 

■ ■' problems to be faced by anv railroad not having a level line. Ameri- 

If 

:!!!■ 

' Ik 



t ! 
',1 



H. H. VAUGHAN 19 

can passenger equipment was already excessively heavy per passenger 
carried with wood construction, and the use of steel has increased 
this weight from 10 per cent to W per cent, which is a most serious 
matter. Apparently side-girder cars as so far constructed have a 
decided advantage over the center-girder type in their light weight and 
greater strength in case of accident tending to crush in the side of the 
car. This will probably lead to the use of this type on roads on which 
weight is of importance. 

5 In spite of the many advantages of the sheathed car in case 
of construction and maintenance, it appears that the cost and weight 
of the additional metal will prevent its extensive use. This question 
is chiefly one of appearance and convenience, and is of minor im- 
portance. 

6 The circular roof has been extensively introduced on steel 
passenger cars on account of its lightness and simplicity of con- 
struction. It has the objection that deck sash ventilation cannot be 
employed. The Pullman Company while using the clear-story roof 
have, however, discontinued the use of deck sash ventilation, so that 
evidently in their opinion this objection is not important. The deck 
sash is, however, of value in a standing car, and when properly screened 
is certainly advisable in hot weather, especially when the road is 
dusty. The Canadian Pacific Railway have compromised on this 
question and are using a roof of approximately circular form with 
deck sash. The strength and simplicity of the circular roof is 
retained with the ventilating qualities of the clear story type. 

7 The preferable material for inside finish is a matter for future 
decision. With the ample protection afforded by a steel car against 
accident, there does not appear to be any objection to wood inside 
finish on the ground of safety. It is more ornamental than steel and 
a better insulator. Probably on no question in passenger car design is 
opinion so divided amongst both railroad and car builders. There is 
today very little diflference in cost, and it certainly appears probable 
that in the future the tendency will be to adopt steel interior finish if 
not entirely, at any rate to a great extent. 

8 The construction of the ends of the cars has received 
considerable attention, and the strength now usually employed is 
enormously greater than anything attempted in wood construction. 
Several excellent designs have been devised, which will probably be 
feferred to in another paper. 

^ The floor construction in steel cars is entirely diflferent from 
that in wooden cars, and is usually of metal covered with a flexible 



,[ 20 INTRODUCTION 



: I 
. f 

I 
If 



'0 

'il 



k 



t 

■I 



cement. In constructing a sample car for the Canadian Pacific 
Railway the writer used in addition an underfloor covered with insu- 
lating material, and covered the cement with y2 in. of cork. This car 
was also exceptionally well insulated at the sides, Z in. of cork being 
used next the outside plating. Tests during the past winter have 
shown that this car is actually warmer than the ordinary wooden car/ 
the same amount of heating surface being used in both tjrpes. The 
floor was tested by taking the temperature of water standing in cans 
on the floor, there being no practical difference between the results 
in the wood and steel cars. The question of insulation is an important 
one, both in hot and cold weather, and while other insulation might 
no doubt be equally effective, it is interesting to be able to advise 
that with proper insulation there is no question of the steel car being 
satisfactory. 






.V 



No. 1388 6 

PROBLEMS OF STEEL PASSENGER CAR 

DESIGN 

By W. F. Kissel, Jk., Altoona, Pa. 
Member of the Society 

Whenever it becomes necessary to adopt a policy representing a 
complete departure from existing policies involving a new theoretical 
structure from foundation up, many problems, some entirely new, 
have to be solved. The increasing cost of lumber, the desire for 
longer and stronger cars, and other considerations indicated the 
desirability of making a determined effort to develop a satisfactory 
steel passenger car. The object of this paper is to review a few of the 
problems encountered, beginning with : 

2 First: Can we afford it, and what will it cost, compared with 
wooden cars? Tentative designs were prepared and carefully analyzed 
by a committee of representatives of carbuilders and railroads. The 
summary of their report was that at first steel passenger cars would 
cost approximately ^0 per cent more per passenger than wooden cars 
of the best existing types, but that the steel cars would probably cost 
much less to maintain. They also reported that on account of the 
increasing cost of good lumber, and the probable decreasing cost of 
manufacturing steel cars, not many years would elapse before the cost 
of steel cars would be no more than, if as much as, wooden cars. Those 
who have been in close touch with the development of the steel-car 
industry know that at the present time steel cars cost no more than 
equivalent wood cars. 

3 Second: Shall the cars be all steel, or steel frame with wood 
lining? Differences of opinion still exist on this point. Both types 
of car have been built, i^nd each has strong advocates. 

4 In the all-steel car the steel lining can be securely riveted to 
fhe framing and adds somewhat to tlie strength of the complete struc- 
ture, but as steel is a good conductor it carries away the heat of a 
body coming in contact with it, and, therefore, will always feel cold, 
even when the temperature in the car is sufficiently high. Satisfac- 
tory results have been realized from the use of a double steel lining 

Presented at the New York Meeting, April 1913, of The American 8o- 
cutt of Mechanical Engineers. 

21 



■l 
I 

l1 



I- 
. I 






1l- 

i; 

i. 



22 PROBLEMS OF STEEL PASSENGER CAR DESIGN 

between seats, forming a hot-air duct, extending from the heater pipes 
to the window sill, with outlet through small holes in the lining proper, 
located inunediately below the window sill in the lining proper. 

5 Wood lining requires considerable wood furring, and adds 
weight to the car without adding to the strength. As the steel frame 
of a long passenger car may vary as much as V^ in. between extremes 
of temperature, it is necessary to make allowance in the construction 
of the wood lining for this variation in length. As a car with metal 
lining riveted to the framing has the advantage in strength, weight, 
and cost, it will gain in favor; in fact, it would be at present uni- 
versally preferred if all railroad shops had practical experience with 
steel lining, and the necessary proficiency and machinery for its 
manufacture. 

6 Third: Insulation. Three general principles have been used 
for car insulation: (a) Wood lining; (b) by placing insnlating 
material on the outside of steel lining; (c) by placing insulating 
material on the outside of the steel lining, and on the inside of the 
steel sheathing. 

7 Experiments have been made also with other methods, such 
as completely filling the space between sheathing and lining with 
block magnesia and magnesia cement. The problem that presents 
itself is: Given a car body with a comparatively smooth exterior 
surface protected by several coats of paint, double walls, painted on 
both sides — if of steel, isolated air spaces, rather large in volume, 
between the walls, an inside cubic volume in which the air must be 
continually renewed, and a window surface of about one-third of the 
area of the side walls. When single windows are used the air elose to 
the windows is cold in winter, and warm in summer. Double windows 
improve the situation materially. 

8 Experiments made to determine the difference between a 
wooden and a steel coach, with doors and windows closed, standing 
on a siding exposed to the sun in hot, summer weather, showed a 
difference of one to two degrees in favor of the wooden coach. One 
day^s readings showed an average of one degree difference in tempera- 
ture in favor of the steel coach, which had insulation only on the 
outside of the lining. The results of several years' experience indicate 
that the lining must be insulated throughout, and, if the spaces be- 
tween lining and sheathing are properly isolated, little is gained by 
insulating the sheathing, and more will be gained by the use of 
double windows. Furthermore, the heat lost in cold weather by 
conduction througli and radiation from the walls, in cars with insula- 



W. F. KIESEL, JR. 23 

tion on the lining alone, is negligible when compared with the heat 
carried off by adequate ventilation. 

9 Fourth: Protection and safety of passengers. This problem 
involves providing adequate strength for carrying the load, also to 
prevent collapse or crushing in wrecks, and efficient brakes. 

10 The laws governing load-carrying strength are well known, 
but this cannot be said of the laws governing wrecks. Each wreck 
forms a separate study, and we seldom find two that can be placed in 
the same class. The study of wrecks, which, imfortunately, do 
occur, shows that the car underframe must be reasonably strong to 
resist end strains, that the ends of the superstructure must be rein- 
forced with strong vertical members, and that the car must not 
collapse when rolled down an embankment. The gradual elimination 
of crossings at grade has materially decreased the danger of strains 
directed against the sides of the car. 

11 Early experience with steel freight cars showed clearly that 
the men handling cars in yards believed that all cars built of steel 
could withstand much rougher handling than wooden cars. Although 
the resultant damage to both kinds of freight cars had its disadvan- 
tages, it developed a better knowledge of the relative value of steel 
and wood in car construction, led the designer to abandon the basis 
of ultimate strength of the material, and to substitute the basis of 
elastic limit, and finally to select a ratio of 4 to 1 as the relation of 
the elastic limit of steel as used in cars to that of good timber. 

12 That not all designers of steel passenger cars had the advan- 
tage of this knowledge, or profited by this experience, is evidenced 
by some of the car designs which have been illustrated in the technical 
papers in the past years and which proved fundamentally defective. 

13 Selecting from the last generation of wooden cars one used 
in heavy trunk line service, with four 5-in. by 9-in. wooden sills 
bunched together near the center, and so located as to be nearly 
uniformly affected by the end strains, steel platforms with draft gear 
securely attached, and the remainder of the car to correspond, the 
analysis of its end-shock resisting capacity leads to the consideration 
of the elasticity of the material, the transverse bracing preventing 
buckling, the concentration of strength near the longitudinal center 
line of car, and the reinforcement at the platforms. 

14 The wooden car, therefore, meets many of the requirements 
enumerated before. A corresponding steel car should have a center sill 
area of 45 sq. in. braced against buckling, a strong and efficient draft 
gear as a substitute for the elasticity of the wood, and a ratio of 0.04 



r I 
1 ' 



,1 -j 

.1 I 

•t; 






24 PROBLEMS OF STEEL PASSENGER CAR DESIGN 

for stress to end' force, the calculations to include consideration of 
lever arm of force below neutral axis of the center sills. For lighter 
service a steel car with center sill area of 32 sq. in. and a ratio of 0.05 
for stress to end force may be considered as a substitute for a wooden 
car with four 4-in. by 8-in. sills bunched near the center of the car. 
The use of steel permits a distribution of material to better advantage 
, ^ than is possible with wood. The box girder center construction is 

continually gaining in popularity, the strong vertical members at car 
ends, to prevent one car overriding and penetrating the superstruc- 
ture of another car, are now considered a necessitj, and a super- 
I structure, including roof suflSciently strong to bear the car when 

turned upside down without collapsing, is very desirable. 

15 To avoid making this paper too long other interesting prob- 
lems will be omitted, but the truck problem deserves brief consideration. 
There are four-wheel and six-wheel trucks. They have ^^-m, by 8-in., 
5-in. by 9-in., 5V^-in. by 9-in. and 514-in. by 10-in. journals. 

16 The impression that cars with six-wheel trucks necessarily 
have better riding qualities than those with four-wheel trucks has 
proved to be incorrect. The substitution of four-wheel trucks for 
six-wheel trucks saves about 18,000 lb. per car. Increased journal 
bearing surface obtained by an increase of diameter of journal only 

] is of little or no benefit in preventing liot boxes, because the periphery 

velocity increases in the ratio of the diameters. The weight per 
journal should not exceed 1500 lb. per in. length. A long spring base, 
low-lying center plate, and anchoring the dead levers to the car body 
instead of to the truck frame promote smooth action and easy riding 
at all times. The equalizing springs should, therefore, be placed 
as near to the journal boxes as possible, or directly over the boxes, 
and the bolster springs should be on or near the center line of truck 
sides. If the dead levers of the truck brake are anchored to the car 
body, the truck frames have no tendency to tip up when the brakes 
are applied, and the jarring effect is entirely eliminated. A special 
axle with 514-iii. by 11-in. journal for passenger cars would be of 
material benefit, would permit using four-wheel trucks under all 
coaches and 60-ft. baggage cars, and longer cars with six- wheel trucks 
■ i would have sufficient margin for the excessive loads sometimes en- 

\ ' countered and the danger of hot boxes would be avoided. 

\i 
I -I 

1 
; 

I 
I 
I 



No. 1388 e 

UNDERFRAMES FOR STEEL PASSENGER 

CARS 

By John McE. Ames, New York 
Member of the Society 

This paper will be confined to nnderframes of steel passenger cars 
for through service, or those at least 70 ft. long, and will not attempt 
to discuss those of suburban or individual service, whose underframes 
are not subjected to the same severe service strains. 

2 The underframe is called upon to perform several functions. 
Not only must it sustain the weight of the superstructure and load, 
but withstand impact, oscillation and pulling strains without distor- 
tion. Were it not for these conditions the underframe might be 
considered as a bridge resting upon the center plates and side bearings 
M piers. Were we to design to meet only the carrying requirements 
the problem would not be difficult, but the design must also be com- 
mercial, not over heavy and in addition sufficiently strong to resist 
impact; commercial in that plates and shapes employed are such as 
may readily be secured from the steel mills, and not so heavy as to 
bring undue work upon either the hauling locomotive, rails, frogs, 
bridges, etc. 

3 The natural division of such designs is : 

a Underframes designed to carry equally on all sills 
h Underframes designed to carry on center sills only 
c Underframes designed to carry on sides only 
c Underframes designed to carry on sides and center sills 

4 Each of these types has its partisans and each type is in 
successful operation today. The first is the type used abroad almost 
^iversally and at home for repairs under wooden cars, the bodies of 
which are too good to destroy but need better underframing. With 
most of the foreign cars the body rests upon and is bolted to the 
underframe from which it may readily be removed. The buffing and 
™ft conditions differ from ours in that the buff is taken through 

Presented at the New York Meeting, April 1913, of The American 8o- 
^^'WY or Mechanical Engineers. 

26 



26 



UNDERFRAMES FOR STEEL PASSENGER CARS 



I 

I 



■I 



the side sills by the use of separate side buffers, and the draft through 
the center sills thus permitting a distribution of metal in each sill 
member that may produce uniform stress. 

6 An example of the first type designed for a wooden super- 
structure, consists of four deep sills of what is known as the "fish- 
bell/^ type (Fig. 1). These center sills are composed of 6/16-in. 
plates, 30 in. deep at the center with 3 in. by 3 in. by % in. angles 
riveted along the top and bottom edges ; the plates reduced to a depth 



.'ffy*2S'z 



■tl- 
1 1 

I 111 

1!!' 

■iff i 
■I 




"^'li'il 



Section at Center 



' >.» 




» ± 

Section at Draft Si 1 1 

Fig. 1 Type a : Weight op Car Carried equally on Center and Sroi Sills 

of 1'2% in. over the bolster. The center sills have a square inch 
section of 37 at the center, just as the side sills, and 26 at the draw 
gear. One disadvantage in these long plate sills is that when punching 
the line of holes along the edges the plate becomes distorted and 
wavy. It is then difficult to rivet the angles in place and obtain their 
full value. Again, in case of accident and the dropping of the under- 
frame upon the roadway, the bottom angles are bent or broken, making 
a difficult repair operation. 

6 In general the deep side sill has been discarded because of the 
difficulty of inspection beneath the car. The deep center sill is much 
in vogue at present because it looks strong, but on a car with deep 
center sills inspection must be made of the parts attached to the 
underframe from one side of the car. at a time, and the introduction 
of axle light equipment becomes difficult on account of the interference 
with the deep sills. Again, to sustain its own weight without deflec- 
tion on a 60 ft. span, too much weight of metal is required to make 
such a sill economical. 



I 



JOHN MC E. AMES 27 

7 Of the second type, that is, with the whole weight to be carried 
on the center sills, a common form (Fig. 2) has center sills of two 
special 18-in. channels with i^-in. cover plates top and bottom, all 
sections extending full length of the car in one piece. The box girder 
so formed has a square inch section of 50, and the superstructure load 
is transferred to these sills by means of four cross bearers, two of 
which take the place of the body end sills in other design. There are 
no side sills as such, the angles here shown simply forming the attach- 
ment for the superstructure. The parts are usually assembled with 
the bottom of the sills upward and allowed to deflect. The girder is 
then reversed and the camber straightens out by the weight of the 



fn 



i'^^ 



J ^t 





* — " j 






-:* 

Fig. 2 Type fe: Whole Weight Carried on Center Sills 

metal. The sills are the same depth and section throughout their 
entire length and with tliis construction a truck of special design must 
^ used, the center plate of which must be nearer the rail than usual. 
The weight of the body rests upon the side bearings as well as the 
center plate. About 20 sq. in. of metal in the sides is available to 
help sustain the load. The service given by this underframe has been 
excellent. 

8 The third type, with all the weight carried by the car sides 
has the center sills used only for buffing and pulling. An example 
Phown in Fig. 3 has two I-beams running full length of the car in one 
piece, with a square inch sectional area of 23. They are held up by 
the three cross bearers which pass under and are attached to them, 
"here are no side sills, the carrying members being the sides of the 
c*r. These members are composed of %-in. plates, about 36 in. deep, 



..t 

If;; 



^S1 



i : 

I t 

i :i; 



28 



UNDERFRAMES FOR STEEL PASSENGER CARS 



stiffened vertically by the window posts and having a 6 in. by 6 in. 
by % in. angle at the bottom and an equal square inch section of metal 
at the belt rail, the two girders having a square inch section of 48 in 
all. With this construction a substantial body bolster is essential, as 
the load must be carried at the bolster extremities. Usually a east- 
steel structure, built into the underframe and securely riveted to it, 
is used, the metal may thus be economically distributed. With an 
underframe of this type there is no trouble due to difficulty of in- 
spection or interference with attachment for axle light or other 
equipment under the car. 

9 The fourth type (Fig. 4) is a combination of types 6 and c. 
Here deep center sills are used, having a square inch section of, say 



1 I 



. J 






I • 

I I 

I I 

I I 

I I 

I I 




'^ 



-i' 



K— -/6'— -M 




Fig. 3 Type c: "Weight Carried by Car Sides, Center Sills used only fob 

BuPFiNG AND Pulling 



1 l-i 



11 



40 at the center and 39 in cast steel at the draw gear. The side 
girders have a square inch section of 21 in the two. Most underframes 
of this type now in service are built with cast-steel end portions which 
include in one casting the body bolster, platform, side and center sills 
extending as far back of the bolster as may be necessary to secure a 
substantial connection to the center sills proper. This centiBr member 
we do not consider as properly constructed for the reason that the 
section is unbalanced, an excess of metal being used on the top. 
Heavier angles or a cover plate should be used on the bottom, which 
would add about 10 sq. in. or more of metal. 

10 The four types illustrated are of underframes actually in 
service. A comparison of cross-sections discloses the fact that no 
matter from what angle the designer has approached the problem, 
approximately the same square inch cross-section has resulted. If, 
therefore, any one type has an advantage in weight over the others. 



JOHN HC K. AHBB 29 

it muBt be attributed to difference in the cross members of the under- 
frame. 

U These four prevalent types have been recognized by the 
United States Government. The specifications of the Postoffice De- 
partment for the construction of steel postal cars provide as follows : 
a Heavy center sill construction, the center sills acting as the 

main carrying member. 
h Side-carrying construction, the sides of the car acting as the 
main carrying members, having their support at the 
bolsters. 




Section at Drvfi silt 

I^ 4 Tttk d: WuQUT Cabbibd both uv Center Sills a 



c Underframe construction, in which the load is carried by all 
the longitudinal members of the lower frame. The super- 
structure shall be of steel. 

d Combination construction in which the side frames cany a 
part of the load, transferring it to the center sills at points 
remote from the center plate for the purpose of utilizing 
uniform center sill area. 



[I 



! 



. ..: -. 









1 1 



30 UNDERFRAMES FOR STEEL PASSENGER CARS 



|V' 12 While several of these types have been in service for a number 

M/' of years the required time has not passed in which to develop 

structural defects due to unseen causes^ such as fatigue of metal^ 
crystallization, etc. If such defects exist they should make themselvee 
known during the next three or four years, if freight construction 
is any criterion. 



I 



No. 1388 d 

ROOF STRUCTURE FOR STEEL CARS 

Bt C. a. Skley,* Chicago, III. 
Non-Member 

Roofs for steel passenger equipment ears are of two classes, the 
clear-story type with minor variations and the oval type. As regards 
contour and general appearance, they are the same as the long estab- 
lislied standards for wooden cars, but varied as to constructive detail, 
due to materials employed. 

2 The advent of the steel car has rather encouraged the use of 
the oval or round roof, as it is often called, particularly for cars used 
for baggage, express, and postal purposes. It is cheaper to build and 
niaintain and fulfills requirements for such cars. For passenger cars 
the clear-story type prevails very generally, as it assists in lighting and 
ventilation and in decorative effect. 

3 The framing for oval roofs consists of car lines, each a single 
member, bent to the shape of the arch and extending from plate to 
plate. There are no through longitudinal members and the roof 
sheets are riveted to the car lines. 

4 Framing of clear-story roofs is of two general classes, one 
employing car lines of one piece extending from plate to plate and 
carrying the longitudinal upper deck sills and plates, and the other 
class an extension of the side framing posts as far as the upper deck 
sill. To these extensions are attached a member which comprises deck 
posts and upper deck car lines. It is difficult to approximate the 
strengtli of the more direct lines of the oval roof in the design of the 
dear-story roof, and all riveted connections must be thoroughly con- 
sidered. The deck sills and plates are through members, act as end 
stififeners, and add to the longitudinal strength. 

5 The shape of the car lines of either type of roof should be such 
w to facilitate fastening of roof and of the inner ceiling or finish, 
^d between these there should be a generous amount of insulating 
n^terial to intercept the heat of summer and the cold of winter. 

6 The committee of engineers who framed the specification for 

'Mechanical Engineer, Bock Island Lines. 

Presented at the New York Meeting, April 191.S, of Thk American So 
^^^^^ or Mechanical Engineers. 

31 



\. 



I 1 

I 



■ •■ : 
■ "I 

I • 

.'. i 

■i' 



f" 



32 ROOF STRUCTURE FOR STEEL CARS 

fall postal car construction, wliicli was approved by the Postoffice De- 
partment in March 1912, contains the following paragraphs in regard 
to the roofs of such cars and is probably as authoritative a statement 
as there is available. The strength of roofs of some cars that have 
been rolled over in accidents has been checked against the formula 
used, and it has been found ample to afford support against serious 
roof distortion in such cases. 

7 The postal specification reads as follows : 

ROOF 

* * General 

The roof may be of either the clear-story or turtle-back type, depending 
on the standard contour of the railroad for whose service the ears are built 
In the clear-story type, the deck plates shall be in the form of a continuous 
plate girder, extending from upper-deck eaves to deck sill, and either built up 
of pressed or rolled shapes or pressed in one piece from steel plates. The car 
lines may be either rolled or pressed steel shapes, extending in one length acroBs 
car from side plate to side plate, or may extend only across upper deck. In the 
latter case the lower deck carlines may be formed by cantilever extensions of 
the side posts or by independent members of pressed or rolled shapes. In the 
turtle-back type, the car lines may be of either pressed or rolled shapes, extend- 
ing in one length across car between side plate and side plate, or may consist 
of cantilever extensions of the posts. 
*'Car Lines 

The projected area of the portion of roof in square feet, supported by car 
lines, divided by the sum of the section moduli of the carlines, must not be 
more than 100. 
' ' Roof Sheets 

Roof sheets, if of steel or iron, shall be of a minimum thickness of 0.05 
inches, and either riveted or welded at their edges." 

8 The design of the roof is also subject to the general paragraphs 
on stresses and details of the postal car specification. 

9 There are several bills in Congress having in view the substi- 
tution of steel passenger equipment on railroads for present wooden 
cars. Should any of these become law, specifications for construction 
will be necessary, and, as the postal car specification has been ap- 
proved and adopted as standard by the Government, no doubt this 
specification will be used as a basis in determining the requirements 
for other steel passenger equipment cars, not only for the roofs, but 
for the other features of construction. 






No. 1388 e 

SUSPENSION OF STEEL CARS 

By E. W. Summers,* Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Non-Member 

If we could operate steel cars over rails having no kinks, curves 
or irregularities in their alignment, in other words, over an absolutely 
straight track, there would be little need of springs or other devices 
for flexible support. 

2 Unfortunately the roadways we have to contend with cannot 
be made or maintained in true alignment. Frost and water make 
constant changes in the track support. Lateral curvature requires 
super-elevation of the outer rail. In passing from a tangent to a 
curve, or vice versa, the tracks under one truck are in wind with those 
under the other one, sometimes as much as 4 or 5 in. depending upon 
the degree of curvature and the length of the car. 

3 Steel car bodies of the enclosed type, such as box cars, mail, 
baggage, or passenger coaches, are of rigid construction and have 
bigh torsional resistance. A tliree-legged stool on an irregular floor 
surface will stand upon all of its legs while one having four legs may 
carry all of its load upon two diagonal supports. 

4 The use of truck springs helps the illusion that we are dis- 
tributing the car body load on all of the wheels. The uneven deflec- 
tion of the springs indicates directly the increased load of one spring 
over the other. When the track surface is warped more than the 
total spring travel, the whole load is carried at two diagonal corners, 
tending to twist the car body. This twisting tendency is constantly 
changing, first in one direction and then in tlie other, as the super- 
devated rail changes from one side of the track to the other. The 
effect upon wooden passenger cars is to work the joints loose and cause 
tbem to screech and grind like the spokes of a wooden wagon wheel in 
bot dry weather. 

5 The side bearings of steel sleeping cars pop like sledge hammer 
blows when the car is taking or leaving a curve. The slight twist in 
tbe track surface throwing excessive load upon two diagonal corners 

*I^r«iident, Sommera Steel Gar Ck)mpan7. 

Pwiented at the New York Meeting, April 1913, of The American 8o- 
°i^ 07 Mechanical Engineers. 






: 111 

I . J" ' 

■J'!"- 

■ III 

■ .-i 



■ if 
' ' f 

I : I 
. ■'-' 1 



I :. 



34 SUSPENSION OF STEEL CARS 



of the car causes the bearings to grip and adhere to each other eoi 
cident with the slewing of the truck. When the twisting of the tni 

?i . exceeds the play in the parts around the truck bolster the side bearin 

let loose and jump with resulting hammer blows. More eflSde 
roller side bearings may prevent the gripping and jumping, but f 

i I, uneven load is still present. The twisting effect upon the car body 

not removed. 

6 Failure in roofs of wooden box cars and the resulting dama 
to merchandise in transit is due to this constant twist. Boof designs 
have attempted to remedy this by making the roof flexible and wi 
slip joints. To be consistent they should go further and make t 
whole car of india rubber. A practical construction for the endoe 
type of steel car bodies must and always will be rigid and of hij 
torsional resistance. 

7 The necessity for flexibility between the car body and t 
trucks, and for an even distribution of the load upon all of the whe 
seems not to be fully appreciated as yet, but with each succeeding y€ 
wrecks due to broken rails, wheels and truck structure will drive tl 
home. Suspension of steel cars, as has been developed by the wril 
in the past three years, does permit of a more even distribution of t 

.: load upon the wheels than with center-bearing trucks. 

8 Fig. 1 is an illustration of a cross-section through an engi 
tender at the center of one of the trucks. It illustrates the meih 
of suspension referred to and is applicable to any kind of car. 

9 The inclined hangers a, the cradle b, and the side rockere 
are shown heavily shaded. There are two inclined hangers at ea 
side of each truck. A heavy rectangular bar extends through t 
lower ends of the hangers a. A cast-steel bracket, which is part of t 
car underframe, rests upon each end of the rectangular bar. T 
upper ends of inclined hangers a are supported upon the outer end 
the cradle which rests upon the segmental rocker c and transmits t 
car body load directly into the truck side frame. The lower ends 
hangers a are maintained a fixed distance apart transversely of t 
car, by reason of the brackets d being a fixed part of the car xmAi 
frame. Their upper ends are held at a fixed transverse distance 

■V their connection with the cradle &. Both the upper and lower en 

■ . - of bars a are pivotally connected with rolling contact. 

: '-jj 10 With one end of a car on level track and the other end havi 

' «,' one rail at a higher elevation, the tendency will be for the high Tt 

to carry all of the load at that end of the car, or to have the car su 

port taken at two of its diagonal corners. 






:. W. aUHHEBS 



35 



11 With inclined hanger suspension the car vill swiog sideways, 
the hangers at the high rail swinging inward and downward, while 
the OM at the other end of the cradle swing outward and upward, 
piddng up the load at the low rail and maintaining ita diatribution 
DD ill of the wheels much the same as if suspended by two b&ra from 




^■- 1 Crobs-Section or Ekuine Tender at Center of One of Tbuckb 



t point at the intersection of the center line of the inclined b&ngers 
■"tnided. The load or rigid car body will find its own position verti- 
(*Uj under this common point of support 0, each of the extended sua- 
Prawon bars taking its share of the load. 



i I 

i.l 









*>, 






ill 36 SUSPENSION OP STEEL CAKS 



13 The slight warping of the track surface, which causes all 

the load to be carried on half of the wheels at two diagonal comen 

1i.i| a rigid car body with the ordinary center-bearing truck, is oorrec 



f.-» 



I 

I ■ 



\ '•4\. by the short inclined suspension bars a, practically the same as if 

^\' suspension was from point 0. 

13 It is the inclination of these bars that makes vertical adji 



Hi 



1 ';. 



' I ^^ ment possible, one bar swinging inward and downward, the ot 

i swinging outward and upward at one end of the car, the bars at 

other end swinging in the opposite direction, the car body finding 
position much the same as a boat does in water. 

14 Imagine the bars a at one end of a car swung to the left, 
shown in the unshaded dotted position, and at the other end swi 
to the right an equal amount: this makes correction for a war] 
track surface of about 8 in. in the length of a car. Or, imagine 
hangers a swung to the left at both ends of the car, as shown in 
dotted position: this is the inclination the car body will assume 
rounding a sharp curve at high velocity, the top of the car lean 
inward and the bottom swinging outward, the position assumed b 
bicycle rider in rounding a curve. 

15 The cradle b is pivoted about a vertical axis on the king pi 
and can also have movement transversely of the car, this movem 
being limited by the action of springs /. On account of the inertifl 
the car body and its load, the cradle moves transversely of the i 
rotating the hangers about their lower ends when rough track is 
countered at high speed. Without this cradle movement, the incli] 
hangers are impracticable ; with it, the car body movement is with 
jar or jerk and we have perfect adjustment for all track oonditic 

16 The car body is carried at each side almost directly under 
rigid side girders, which by position have great depth and can ca 
the load with the least deflection. Floor beams may be made c 
tinuous from side to side of the car. The necessary bufSng i 
tugging column may be disposed with its web in a horizontal posit 
under the transverse beams, greatly simplifying the car framing. 

17 With the advent of steel construction for enclosed cars a ri 
structure came into use, one that cannot be handled over rough tr 
as we have been handling the spongy wooden structure. There u 
be much hewing and chopping into old methods before the necess 
compromise is made between the rigid car body and the changea 
track surface, but why not do it all at once, and stop fooling V9 
dynamite? 



I" 



i 



No. 1388/ 

SIX-WHEEL TRUCKS FOR PASSENGER 

CARS 

By John A. Pilcher, Roanoke, Va. 
Member of the Society 

Consideration of the subject of trucks for steel passenger cars is 
practically a consideration of trucks for any passenger car, the primary 
thought being that steel passenger cars should have steel trucks to 
prevent the possibility of fire, and also because of their great weight, 
metal is the most suitable material for strength and durability that 
can be used in the limited space available for the truck. The fire 
damage from a wooden frame truck could not be serious on a steel 
car, and there are wooden cars equally as heavy as the general run of 
steel cars; the writer having one in mind in the construction of which 
the sills were plated with 8-in. channels, weighing 172,700 lb. A 
few steel cars weigh as much as this, but we have no record of any 
weighing more. However, for steel passenger cars we will consider 
only the all-steel truck. 

2 Practice of the past brings to our attention the pedestal type 
of passenger truck construction both for four-wheel and six-wheel 
trucks, the general characteristics of both being identical. The six- 
wheel truck with the same size axle is, of course, capable of greater 
load and also of transmitting to the car the track irregularities to a 
less extent, because the results of the irregularities are modified by 
the system of equalization. In the six-wheel truck the location of the 
equalizer springs is fixed at a definite point between the wheels. 

3 While the details of these two trucks differ slightly, their 
frictions are practically identical. Both trucks have been used for 
* considerable length of time, but the four-wheel truck was evidently 
developed first and its necessary functions, determined by experience, 
^'ere later incorporated in the design of the six-wheel truck, which was 
probably first brought about by the increased loads. 

4 Except for the especially constructed truck used by the Penn- 
^Ivania Railroad and one other, which we understand has been de- 
^ed, these are the only regular types of trucks available. 

Presented at the New York Meeting, April 1913, of Ths Amxrioan So- 

C»TT OF KeoHANICAL ENGINEERS. 

37 



1-" • 



■ I 
' J. 



38 SIX-WHSEL TRUCKS FOR PASSBNOBR CARS 



fi'ii, 



■ ;^ 

H i 






: -.iv- 






6 TF^eeZ^. For passenger service, the wheels have been pn 
tically narrowed down to steel tired wheels and wrought-steel whec 
The steel tired wheels have been of many forms of centers a 
fastenings; the latest reconmiended practice of the Master C 
Builders' Association is that the tire be shrunk on and bolted. T 
ij'j. recent development of the solid wrought-steel wheel has made ava 

able for passenger car service a wheel equally as safe and durable 
the steel tired wheel at a very much reduced cost. The Master C 
Builders' recommendations recognize both the 36-in. and 38-iii. a 
in this wheel for passenger service, the 36-in., however, being 1 
most generally used. These wheels, if carefully turned, should gi 
as satisfactory service as any wheels available. 

6 Axles. The standards of the Master Car Builders' Associati 
gives the choice of selection of four sizes of axles : 

Size of Journal Axle Load, Lb. 

3% in. X 7 in 15,000 

4^4 *' X 8 " 22,000 

5 '» X 9 " 31,000 

5% '» X 10 " 38,000 

7 They also oflEer an axle as recommended practice with 6 in. 
11 in. journals for 50,000-lb. axle load. These loads, however, i 
for freight service; for passenger service we would recommend 1 
use of from 60 per cent to 75 per cent of the loads used in freij 
service, based on the light weight of the car, and limiting the load 
about 90 per cent of that in freight service, considering the weight 
both car and lading. The lighter rating is, of course, to be taken i 
cars such as baggage and express, since the increased weight on \ 
count of lading would be heavier, while the higher rating could 
taken for coaches and similar cars where the increase of the ladi 
would be light. Table 1 gives the sizes of axles, and relative lig 
weights of cars on this basis. 

8 The Postoffice Department has limited the maximum load i 
wheel for postal cars to 15,000 lb. when using 5% in. by 9 in. jouma 
and to 18,000 lb. when using 5 in. by 10 in. journals, making 
further limitation based upon 18,000 lb. as the maximum brake lo 
for any one cast-iron brake shoe under emergency conditions of bra 
application. This limitation of wheel loads, after deducting t 

ijj J weights of the wheels and axles, allows a pressure of 304 lb. per aq. i 

• projected area on the 5 in. by 9 in. journals, and 300 lb. per sq. i 
projected area on the 5^/^ in. by 10 in. journals, also a pressure of 16 



r !in 



JOHN A. PILCHER 39 

lb. per lineal in. on the 5 in. by 9 in. journals, and 1665 lb. per lineal 
in. on the 5^ in. by 10 in. journals, and from the experience that 
•ome roads have had these seem to be just as high as should be 
allowed. 

TABLE 1 SIZE OF AXLES AND WEIGHT OF LIGHT CARS 



Azlos, In. 


Four -Wheel Trucks, Lb. 


Six-Wheel Trucks. Lb. 


8Xx 7 
4M X 8 
5x9 
5HxlO 


40,000 to 62.000 

62,000 to 72.000 

72,000 to 100,000 

100,000 to 120.000 


1 

60,000 to 78,000 

78.000 to 108,000 

108,000 to 160,000 

160,000 to 180,000 



9 Boxes and Contained Parts. The Master Car Builders' Associa- 
tion has provided standard passenger boxes for axles with 3 % in. by 
7 in., 4 1/4 in. by 8 in., and 5 in by 9 in. journals. For the 5 i/^ in. 
by 10 in. journal, which is often in use, they have not yet established 
recommended practices, but the previous designs are having their in- 
Juence on the shape of the box for this journal. 

10 Pedestals, Cast-iron pedestals seem to be usually the accepted 
material, and the Master Car Builders' Association has also provided 
standards to suit the boxes. 

11 Equalizer Springs, These are four in number on both the 
fonr-wheel and six-wheel trucks, and while necessarily provided with 
a limited amount of deflection, they relieve the heavy truck frames of 
•hock, and on six-wheel trucks provide the points of support for the 
proper equalization. 

12 Wheel Pieces or Side Frames with Transoms or Cross Ties, 
These constitute the truck frame to hold the other parts in their 
relative position, and at the same time transfer the load from the 
bolster hangers to the equalizer springs. Being structures supported 
*t four points, they necessarily have to be supported on springs to 
Parent excessive stresses due to any variations in the height of these 
fow points. As an illustration, when the truck on a tangent is ap- 
proadiing a curve the rise of the outer rail is about 1 in. in 50 ft. 
This will raise one of these four points above the plane passed through 
the other three, and, while the difference is small in the short length 
rf the truck, the irregularity has to be taken up by the springs, other- 
^ the truck frame would be similar to a four-legged table with one 
high leg. 



I 






J- 



^ 



u, 



■I 



U^. 



■ I 



I ■ 
' .1- 



I 

■ • I . 



f 



il 

f 



40 SIX- WHEEL TRUCKS FOR PASSENGER CARS 



:h 13 When we consider the ease of a derailment where one wb 

7' i of the truck, whether four-wheel or six-wheel, falls into a deep ho 

or drops from a high rail, we find this condition exaggerated to 8U 

an extent that the whole load will be supported on two points. Th 

; ;^]l" unless the structure is suflBciently flexible to follow, it will necessar 

have to be strong enough to resist this abnormal load. 

14 The calculation of the stresses under such uncertain oc 
ditions of loading is certainly a very complex problem. It is 
pertinent question whether or not the designers should undertake 
care for such an abnormal condition. 

15 Bolster Hangers, The lateral movement of the bolster, o 
of the very necessary features of a passenger truck, is usually i 
complished by the use of swinging hangers. This movement shot 
be limited to from 1^4 in. to 1% in. each side of the center, and 
placing this limit arrangement should be made so that the stop ^ 
not be abrupt. This is ordinarily accomplished by the use of sh< 
hangers, or when long hangers are used by the addition of late: 
motion springs, either of which offers an increasing resistan< 
Rollers on cylindrical or curved plains can produce the identic 
movement made by the short hangers. 

16 Bolster. On the four-wheel truck the bolster is a sim] 
beam, but on the six- wheel truck we have a more complex strueti 
resting on four points of support. This condition brings up the sai 
complex problem referred to in connection with the truck frame si 
ported on four points, except that it rests on much niore flexil 
springs than does the truck frame. These springs can hardly be c 
pected to take up all of the variations in elevation that will likely 
met with in case of a partial derailment. The same question as 
whether or not the designer should allow for such abnormal conditio 
is again raised. 

17 Center Plate. The usually accepted center plate for passen^ 
cars is of the spherical pattern, allowing more perfect adjustmei 
and more even distribution of weights than can be obtained from t 
flat bottom center plate, but making necessary close and accurate a 
justment of the side bearings to prevent the rocking movement 1 
tween the car body bolster and the truck bolster. 

18 The frictionless center plate would of course be very desixab 
but conical rollers and balls of sufficient number, of the size that c 
be put in the available space, seem not to have been as successful 



JOHN A. PILCHER 41 

could be wished. The ingenious designer is still at work on this 
particular problem. 

19 Side Bearings, Side bearings must be made so that they can 
be readily kept adjusted to reduce to a minimum the rocking move- 
ment between the car body bolster and the truck bolster, and in this 
way confine the oscillation of the car to the variation in the deflection 
of the springs on either side. 

20 The relative location of the side bearings, each side of the 
center, is a question often discussed. In passenger cars the practice 
generaUy is to place them at as great a distance from the center as 
practical. This in our judgment is correct, and of particular ad- 
vantage in the case of f rictionless or roller side bearings. 

21 Where the side bearings are in actual contact and the bolsters 
are rigid, the oscillation of the car is controlled entirely by the differ- 
ence in deflection of the springs on either side, so that if the side 
bearing is set out sufficiently far to prevent the car body upsetting on 
the truck, it serves its purpose in preventing car oscillation as well 
there as at any other location. 

22 For the same type of side bearing, it offers just as much, but 
no more, resistance to turning than * if located far from the center, 
because as the lever arm is increased the pressure is reduced in like 
proportion. 

23 When the car on a tangent is approaching a curve, the rise 
of the track on the outer rail tends to bring a pressure on the side 
bearing of the leading truck, next the outside of the curve, and on the 
side bearing of the trailing truck toward the inside of the curve. 
Where the side bearings are in contact this variation in elevation has 
to be taken care of by the deflection of the springs which have to deflect 
the same amount whether the load is exerted on the bolster, at a point 
near the center, or far away from the center. If the load comes far 
from the center it takes much less pressure to influence the deflection 
of the springs. This would be to the de(;ided advantage of the side 
bearings, particularly in the case of the frictionless side bearing, in 
preventing wear and would also, to a more limited extent, be of ad- 
vantage to the ordinary flat side bearing. 

24 Brakes. On passenger cars, the pressure on the brake shoes 
•pproximates the loads on the wheels. Particularly is this the case 
of coaches where the lading is only a small proportion of the total 
TOght In some braking arrangements the brake shoe load is even 
greater mider certain conditions than the wheel load ; therefore the 
lighter the wheel loads the better for the brakes. This is a decided 



■I' 

h 



«F- 



I' 
•*■ 

I 

t 

t I 



l! 



42 SIX-WHEEL TRUCKS FOR PASSENGER CARS 

argument in favor of the six-wheel trucks for heavy cars, and an argu- 
T ment against the use of four-wheel trucks under heavy passenger cars, 

;i: even though the weights can be readily sustained by the use of suffi- 

■ ' ciently large axles. 

j • 25 The application of the brakes to the six-wheel tracks in snch 

:!: a manner as to allow for the adjustment of worn shoes and worn 

.". wheels is a very difficult task on account of the limited space available. 

It is almost impossible to accomplish this task with the use of wheels 

less than 36 in. in diameter. 

26 Six-Wheel Trucks, Since steel cars are of recent construction, 
and recent conditions have generally called for large cars, the weight 
is almost always great. The six- wheel, all-metal truck has the follow- 
ing advantages which make for its selection over other types : 

a It is non-inflanmiable. 

6 It provides a strong material to resist the heavy loads, and 
occupies only a limited space. 

c It provides a durable material. 

d It reduces the axle loads, and the unit load on the bearings, 
lessening the liability to hot boxes, reducing the pressure 
on the brake shoes, lessening the tendency to heat the 
wheels and shoes, adding to the life of the brake shoes, and 
reducing the frequency between renewals and adjustments. 

e It spreads the heavier loads over a greater area of structures, 
and brings more points of contact with the rail, reducing 
the influence of track irregularities on the riding of the 
car, and in cases of very heavy cars, where the unit pres- 
sure between wheel and rail might approximate the 
elastic limit, reduces the tendency to shell the wheel and 
roll out the rail, adding to the life of both. 

27 It has been estimated that for a passenger car making 60,000 
miles per year, the cost for hauling the car is 5 cents per lb. per year. 
If the six-wheel trucks weigh 14,000 lb. per car more than the four- 
wheel trucks necessary to carry the same car, it means the hauling of 
14,000 lb. additional at a cost of $700 per year, which brings up a 
question for vital consideration. 

28 While the wheels, brasses, and brake shoes, and other such 
removable parts may individually have a longer life, there are also 
more of them in service during the period. Careful comparison would 
have to be made to determine which has the advantage at this poini 



\.i 



JOHN A. PILCHEB 43 

&9 Four-wheel Trucks. The four-wheel, all-metal truck is also 
available in connection with steel cars, and has the advantage of 
reduced first cost, reduced weight, smaller number of parts to main- 
tain, and if the car is suflBciently light for the unit stress between the 
rail and wheel to be kept down to a point well below the elastic limit 
of the material, they should be given serious consideration. The only 
drawback under these conditions is the possibility of its reduced riding 
qualities. Its decided advantage in reducing the weight of the train 
should help to make it a favorite because of the corresponding reduc- 
tion in the cost of transportation. 

30 CasUSteel v$. Riveted WroughUSteel Frames, The introduc- 
tion of heavy passenger equipment is rapidly doing away with both 
the four-wheel and six- wheel wooden frame trucks. The reduced cost 
of maintenance amply justifies this change if our information is cor- 
rect. Cast-steel one-piece frames, and riveted wrousrht-steel frames 
of various cross-sections have been worked out and are now in use; 
both are reported as giving satisfactory service, but figures showing 
the exact relative cost of maintenance are not available. 

31 The cast-steel one-piece frame has become a great favorite 
even in the face of the high unit cost of these particular castings. 
The adaptability of the castings to the various changes of form and 
section necessary on account of the limited available space has no 
doubt had much influence. The attractiveness of the one-piece 
structure, eliminating all joints, and furnishing a frame ready set up, 
is another strong argument in its favor. The manufacturers having 
control of this cast-steel truck frame have evidently been successful 
in reducing to a minimum the concealed flaws often met with in steel 
castings. This, no doubt, has added largely to its popularity. 

32 While the absence of riveted joints and the consequent 
doubling of material at the joints, helps to keep down the weight, the 
fact that the working fiber stress of cast steel is taken low, and the 
actions at many points have to be made larger than is necessary on 
wcount of foundry limitation, the weight of the frame as a whole is 
great This added to the large unit cost for special steel castings 
niakea the user pay well for the advantages gained. 

33 The riveted wrought-steel frame seems to have been held back 
in its development by the success of its rival in cast steel. Many 
users have shown conservatism in making use of the good thing already 
oongidered acceptable, hesitating to try out the different construction 
with the hope of lower first cost, with less weight, and equally good 
serrice. 



44 SIX-WHEEL TRUCKS FOR PASSENGER CARS 

34 Wrought steel at a very moderate unit coat has the advai 
of being a very reliable material which can be worked to a relat 
high fiber stress. The coat of fabrication, when the work ib doi 
any large quantity, when added to the coat of material, will still 
a large margin in its favor. Is it possible that the lack of an eepo 
interested advocate has prevented its virtues from becoming promi 
and delayed the experience needed to prove, in actual service, its W( 

35 We find that practically all of the prominent car bui 
have already worked up designs for wrought-steel trucks, anc 
ready to construct them if the purchaser so desires, but they d< 
seem incliued to push them, as they evidently offer no special Ln< 
ment to their own advantage. Only a few have been built and p 
under cars by them, and in some cases none, but from what I have 
able to find out they have confidence in them. 

3fi I find several railroad companies building aad using 
four and six-wheel trucks, of the usual type of construction, 
riveted wrought-steel frames, and from all reports they are g 
satisfaction. 

37 Another prominent railroad is using both four and sis-' 
trucks, of a form of construction differing from the ordinary 
built of riveted wrought steel. As a large number of these a 
daily evidence, and are constantly being built by them, they 
be proving the worth of the riveted wrought-steel construction, at 
as that of the special type of construction. 

3<8 Experience of several years and careful comparison of thi 
of maintenance will be needed to say whether the one-piece cast 
frame, or the riveted wrought-steel frame truck will be the most at 
tageous, when both the first cost and weight are considered along 
the coat of maintenance. 

39 Variety of choice offers an opportunity for discussion. I 
hope of bringing out this discussion we advocate for steel paasi 
cars: (a) Six-wheel truck; (b) the riveted wrought steel frame 
the use of the Master Car Builders standard axles, boxes and parte 
pedestals; (d) 3C-in. wrought-steel wheels. 



No. 1388 g 

STEEL INTERIOR FINISH FOR STEEL 

PASSENGER CARS 

Bt Felix Koch/ MgKkes Bocks, Pa. 

Non-Member 

Every one who has followed the progress in steel passenger car 
construction during the last ten years, which is about the age of the 
oldest steel passenger car, has noticed that very little, if any steel was 
used in the interior finish until within the last four or five years. 

2 The first attempt to use steel in passenger cars resulted in 
steel underframes with wood superstructure. The next development 
provided steel underframe and steel superstructure, but with wooden 
roof and wood interior finish. Further developments eliminated the 
wooden roof and the final efforts produced an all steel car. Consider- 
ing that this development was made during a period of four years, 
the results obtained are, to say the least, highly gratifying. 

3 The earlier designs of steel cars with steel interior finish are 
sometimes called all steel cars, leaving the impression that they are 
fireproof in every respect, but this is not correct because too much 
wood was used in the form of wood furrings to enable the application 
of the steel finish with wood screws. These furrings were, of course, 
not exposed to view, but they nevertheless placed the cars outside of 
the classification "all steel cars." The idea that it was necessary to use 
^ood furrings in order to make it possible to apply steel finish, or in 
other words, that wood screws had to be used, machine screws not 
"®Jng considered practicable, accounts to some extent for the tardiness 
^ the introduction of steel in the interior finish. 

^ The earlier specifications and designs for steel passenger cars 
ni*de the use of machine screws for applying the interior finish prohib- 
itive and impossible, which, of course, made it necessary to employ other 
means such as bolts or wood screws. Bolts for this purpose must have 
heads of special design to allow their insertion through slotted holes, 
^^^'j and to prevent them from falling through during the application 
of the nuts. The nuts, being exposed, are objectionable as they give 

^Assistant Mechanical Engineer, Pressed Steel Car Company. 

Pi«>ented at the New York Meeting, April 1913, of The American So 
*^™^ Of Mkohanical Engineers. 

45 



I ■ 



t 



*• > 



.> . I 



w 



46 STEEL INTERIOR FINISH FOR STEEL PASSENGER CARS 

an unsightly appearance, even if special cap nuts are used in place of 
the ordinary nuts, besides there are many places on a car at which it 
is impracticable to apply bolts. Therefore, to avoid machine screws 
and bolts the space between the outside sheets and the interior finish 
was filled with wood furring to allow for the use of wood screws. 
The objections to machine screws, caused by the belief that they would 
work loose in a short time, has, however, disappeared from experience 
gained through actual service as it has been shown that if set in white 
lead and properly applied they are entirely reliable. 

5 There has always been and there still is a great difference of 
opinion as to how far it is advisable to substitute metal for wood in 
passenger car construction. The use of a small amount of wood in 
the interior finish, as for instance window sash moldings, seat arm 
rests, window capping, etc., should not be objectionable as it has 
certain advantages over steel which are desirable, but wood is used 
for such details to a considerable extent, and hundreds of cars are 
now in service in which the small amount of wood used in the interior 
finish cannot be detected except by an expert and such cars are to all 
intents and purposes fireproof cars, but the aim of many designers 
has been to eliminate the wood wherever possible on account of the 
many advantages possessed by steel, among which may be mentioned : 

a Steel finish means non-combustion in case of fire. 

b Steel prevents splintering in case of wreck. 

c Steel finish can be easily removed should it become neces- 
sary to repaint the car at the inside surface of steel sheets, 
as the life of the steel car, to a certain extent, depends 
on the condition of the paint. 

d Steel finish makes it possible to increase the interior width 
of the car where outside width is limited. This has been 
found particularly valuable in designing subway, elevated 
or suburban steel passenger equipment cars. 

e Steel finish will avoid trouble which may be experienced 
due to different expansion of materials, steel against 
wood. This point need not be considered with steel and 
makes it unnecessary to provide for relief in all members of 
the finish running longitudinally, such as upper and lower 
deck sill moldings, etc. In fact, the steel finish has 
revolutionized to some degree the designs of wood finish 
in the wooden cars built since steel cars came in vogue. 
The cars of today are built on more sanitary lines, and 



FELIX KOCH 47 

fancy moldings, fretwork and carvings have disappeared 
without losing sight of giving the cars an artistic finish, 
avoiding thereby lodging and breeding places for all kinds 
of germs which the world is fighting against today. 

/ Steel finish will, by comparison, be cheaper every year 
for the reason that it becomes more diflBcult to obtain the 
right kind of lumber for interior finish, which, of course, 
means increase in price of wooden cars. 

g It is continuously becoming more diflBcult to obtain men 
who have had suflScient experience in applying wood inter- 
ior finish, whereas it does not take the same experienced 
men for applying steel finish. A man requires from 
three to four years' apprenticeship to become an expert 
able to apply wood finish to a car, whereas an average 
intelligent man who is familiar with tools is able to 
become an expert in finishing cars with steel finish in from 
six to twelve months, and this fact of labor will have to be 
taken into account sooner or later. 

h A more uniform color can be maintained on steel finish 
than on wood which comes in diflFerent shades, and it is 
very diflBcult and expensive to match perfectly all parts in 
one car with regard to shade without additional expense 
of glazing. Furthermore, the average life of paint applied 
to steel finish will be much greater than to wood finish for 
the reason that wood darkens with age. This, of course, 
influences the paint which is a disadvantage from the 
standpoint of illumination. Should it become necessary 
to repaint a car of wood finish, reworking of the finish by 
removal of the varnish and scraping is necessary, whereas 
in the steel finish the scraping is eliminated and the 
removing of varnish is alone required to be able to repaint 
the car. 

t Steel finish is of advantage from a building standpoint in 
the handling and working up of material to make ready for 
application. Steel details can be worked up to a large 
extent before they arc applied to the cars, which make it 
possible to manufacture the interior finish in much less 
time by the use of more men than it is possible to employ 
when applying a wood finish, as only a limited number of 
men have room to work at the same time in a car when the 
greater part of the fitting and cutting, etc., has to be done. 



■\ 



r1 U* 



• \i\ 






48 STEEL INTERIOR FINISH FOR STEEL PASSENGER CABS 

This has facilitated tlie establishment of a number o 
manufacturing concerns who devote their efforts almoa 
exclusively to producing steel interior finishes not onl; 
for passenger cars but also for buildings. In addition t 
these any manufacturing company equipped with th 
necessary machinery for the making of drawn molding! 
breaker presses, and ordinary welding and spot weldin 
machines, is able to handle this class of work for railroad 
or carbuilders, who may not have the necessary equipmeo 
to do the work in their own shops and prefer to buy th 
interior finish as they buy other specialties. 

6 All of these advantages are almost exclusively confined to th 
use of steel or other metals, although a composite material of a woo 
pulp nature or similar material made fireproof and waterproof b 
different processes, if applied in a proper way and used for ceiling 
and below the window sills, is not objectionable, and it may be ap 
plied in practically the same manner as steel. 

7 The advantages possessed by wood over metal as a non-conduc 
tor can be very much reduced by the use of proper insulating materis 
correctly applied. The use of proper insulation is of course of grea 
importance and manufacturers of that class of material as well a 
railroads and car builders are giving a great deal of attention to th 

I .!': subject, and the time does not seem to be far distant when steel ear 

■- . with interior finish of wood will be as scarce as steel passenger car 

were ten years ago. 

8 A great deal more could be said on this subject, but it is hope( 
that what has been brought out will show that steel interior finis] 
has certain advantages not possessed by other material commonly usei 
in passenger cars and that the disadvantages are few and no 
insurmountable. 



4 

f 
r 1 






•* 






I. 



No. 1388 ft 

PAINTING OF STEEL PASSENGER CARS 

By C. D. Young, Altoona, Pa. 
Member of the Society 

A fundamental reason for painting any surface of a passenger 
car is to protect it from the damaging effects of the air which is more 
or less loaded with gases and moisture. For example, oxygen is 
destructive of iron and steel and when sulphurous gases are present 
they are quickly oxidized into sulphuric acid which is very corrosive 
to unprotected metallic surfaces. It, therefore, becomes necessary to 
protect the surface by a covering, and paint forms a substajitial and 
convenient means for accomplishing this. If properly made and 
applied, it is an impervious coating, affording the needed protection 
hy fonning a hard waterproof, rubber-like sheeting or film which has 
sufficient elasticity to conform itself to the contraction and expansion 
of the surfaces to which it is applied. In addition to protection the 
surfaces may be beautified and embellished by the proper selection of 
pigments so as to bring about the harmonizing and artistic effects 
desired. 

WOODEN EQUIPMENT 

2 The painting of wooden passenger-car equipment has been, in 
^e main, successfully accomplished, the painting schedule for the 
outside is briefly as follows : Apply two coats of primer, putty and 
glaze, followed by three or four coats of surf acers, as found necessary, 
a^ter which the surfaces are rubbed down smooth with emery and oil, 
^hen two coats of shade color are put on. The necessary striping 
wid lettering follows, completing by three coats of finishing varnish, 
consuming in all about sixteen to eighteen days. 

3 The finishing of the interior of wooden cars generally has been 
in the natural wood, consequently it is only necessary to prepare the 
surface for the varnishing. A representative schedule which is used 
18 as follows : One coat of filler, in paste form, which is sandpapered 
down to a smooth finish. Add one coat of rubbing varnish and rub 
down with sandpaper, after which apply three coats of rubbing varnish, 

Pr«iented at the New York Meetinpr, April 1913, of The American So 
^^^'^ OF Mechanical Engineers. 

49 



I 

r 



■ t 



50 PAINTING OF STEEL PASSENGER CARS 

and complete the finish, cutting down the gloss by rubbing with pumio 
and oil to produce the most pleasing "flat finish/' 

4 This method of finishing the wooden surfaces of cars has beei 
attained with good results, so that naturally when the change to stec 
passenger equipment came some six years ago, a desire to retain a 
much past practice as possible seemed desirable. It was realized 
however, that the all important point in the painting of iron or stec 
surfaces was to have the surfaces first thoroughly cleaned and entire!; 
rid of scale and rust, as this is as necessary as the painting itseU 

ii; To accomplish this, sand-blasting, where possible, was resorted U 

supplemented by the use of wire brushes and emery cloth in the mor 

obscure places and the more imeven surfaces. The sand-blasting, ho^ 

A: ' ever, was confined largely to the outside surfaces and the latter prac 

^: tices to the inside portion of the car. 

■ 

, -^ 5 lK)n and steel, while not presenting to the eye the same poron 

condition as wood, is full of finely divided pores, and the earn 
atmospheric influences which enter the pores of wood and cause it t 
d,ecay are ever ready to attack the impainted surfaces of iron and stee 
in fact the metal surfaces more readily combine with the oxygen an 
moisture of the air, forming what is rust or oxide of iron. Therefon 
I ;'^' : immediately after the sand-blasting and cleaning of the surfaces shoiil 

coi^e the application of the first or primary coat, as this is the moi 
important one, from the preservative standpoint. 

6 In the selection of a suitable primer it seemed but natural fo 
the painter to be guided by the experience gained in the painting c 
locomotive tenders, and to follow the initial coats with practically th 
same process as with wooden cars, and I believe that so far as th 
subsequent coats are concerned, this practice was generally carried on 
by the earlier painting of steel passenger equipment. It is thougli 
that an error has been made in this general practice, as will b 
explained later. 

STEEL EQUIPMENT 



»■ 

».» . 
I 



I 
I 



i./.^: 



!'■ ! 

I 

;- «■ .: . 

If.' 
I 

■ all 



■ t 

■*■■ : • 



: J 



7 The schedule for painting steel passenger car trucks, undei 
frames and superstructures is as follows: 

8 Trucks. Before assembling, all surfaces on truck part 
throughout, including all concealed surfaces, but not including wheel 
and axles, must be covered with one coat of suitable primer. Afte 
assembling, all surfaces (except wheels) exposed to view after th 
body of the car has been placed on trucks, must be covered with tw 
coats of truck enamel. 



C. D. YOUNG 51 

9 Underframes, During the process of construction, all parts 
of the uncLerframe, including concealed surfaces and surfaces where 
metal bears on metal, must be covered with two coats of good metal 
preservative of a non-inflammable nature. All accessible surfaces 
must be covered with a third coat of metal preservative. 

10 Superstructures. Before assembling, all parts made of iron 
or steel, including the roof, must be covered with one coat of primer. 
A second coat of primer properly thinned with turpentine, or similar 
material, must be applied to all surfaces, including those which are 
concealed when the car is completed. Wherever possible, this second 
cx)at must be put on after the sheets are in place. 

11 After assembling, the outside of side and end sheeting, in- 
cluding letter plate and deck plate, must be covered with one coat of 
surfacer, the rough and uneven places glazed with "surfacer composi- 
tion," four coats of surfacer being added, rubbed down with linseed 
oil and emery cloth, two coats of desired color material added, followed 
by striping and lettering, then finished with three coats of finishing 
varnish. The outside of the roof must be finished with one coat of 
heavy protective paint, followed by one coat of a mixture composed 
ky volume of three parts of mixed ground color and one part of the 
protective coating used. The top surface and edges of headlining 
should be painted with two coats of some preservative, or color paint. 

12 The interior of cars should receive very careful attention in 
«rder to produce the desired finish. To illustrate fully the various 
^teps and time taken to complete the painting, the following is given 
M outlining the progress of the work. This is attained with the use 
of surfacers, colors and varnishes containing a relatively large amount 
of artificial driers and varnish gums, in order to obtain the artistic 
finish desired for the interior. 

HEADLINING 

Ut day Apply one coat and Rtipple after application. 

2d day Stand for drying. 

3d day Apply one coat and stipplr after application. 

4th day Stand for drying. 

5th day Apply one coat and stipple after application. 

Sn>ES ABOVE WINDOW SILLS AND ENDS 

lit day Apply one coat or priming. 

2d day Stand for drying. 

3d day Apply one coat surfacer. 

4th day Necessary puttying and glazing. 



■J." 



j 



■i-i ■' 









I- 1 



.t 

■ i ■. . 



I 

..'I 



I 

I 
f 



52 PAINTING OF STEEL PASSENGER CARS 

5th day Applj as manj coats surf acer as are necessary to make a level 
surface. 

6th day Same as 5th day. 

7th day Rub down with emery and linseed oil. 

8th day Apply one coat of ground color. 

9th day Apply one coat of ground color. 

10th day Apply one coat of ground color. 

11th day Apply one coat and stipple after application. 

12th day Apply one coat rubbing varnish. 

13th day Stand for drying. 

14th day Apply one coat rubbing varnish. 

15th day Stand for drying. 

16th day Apply one coat rubbing varnish. 

17th day Stand for drying. 

18th day Rub with oU and pulverized pumice stone. 

SIDES BELOW WINDOWS 

1st day Apply one coat or priming. 

2d day Stand for drying. 

3d day Apply one coat surfacer. 

4th day Necessary puttying and glazing. 

5th day Same as 6th day. 

6th day Apply as many coats surfacer as are necessary to make a level 
surface. 

7th day Rub down with emery and linseed oil. 

8th day Stand, awaiting bringing up other work. 

9th day Stand, awaiting bringing up other work. 

10th day Apply one coat bronze green. 

11th day Apply one coat bronze green. 

12th day Apply one coat of rubbing varnish. 

13th day Stand for drying. 

14th day Apply one coat of rubbing varnish. 

15th day Stand for drying. 

16th day Apply one coat of rubbing varnish. 

17th day Stand for drying. 

18th day Rub with oil and pulverized pumice stone. 

13 Formulae and panels for the various shade should be furnished 
the painters for their guidance in obtaining the shade of any of thi 
colors which are desired. 

RESULTS OF AIR DRYING PAINTS ON STEEL 

14 The artificial driers and gums used in hastening the time oi 
drying and hardening of the various coats and permitting the neces- 
sary rubbing continue this action so that the paints and vamisli 
increase in hardness and hrittleness, rendering them susceptible tc 



C. D. YOUNG 53 

cracking and chipping, and the process of disintegration is aggravated 
by excessive expansion and contraction of the steel surfaces as com- 
pared with wood. The linear expansion of steel being more than twice 
that of wood would seem to indicate the use of more elastic coatings 
than formerly used for wooden cars. 

15 This fact has been borne out in the service of the paint in a 
great many cases in an investigation which recently came under my 
observation. It was noticed that when some of the equipment had 
been in service about four months, the interiors of the cars were 
showing varnish cracks and checks. As time went on more cars gave 
evidence of this deterioration, the final outcome being that an investi- 
gation was made to see how serious the condition was. Some 400 cars 
were carefully examined, special attention being given to the selection 
of cars built by various manufacturers, where different makes of sur- 
facers and varnishes were employed. An endeavor was also made to 
determine whether the cracking of the painted surfaces was confined 
to the varnish coats or the surfacer coats, or both. 

16 In order to classify the various conditions found, four readings 
of percentages were arbitrarily taken, the condition of a new car being 
taken at 100 per cent: 

Percent Condition of Varnish and Surface 

90 to 80 Good, no checking 

80 to 70 Fair, slight checking 

70 to 60 Medium, considerable checking 

60 to 50 Poor, checked from outside varnish coat to metal 

^niple cars were selected to illustrate these various classes, and 
photographs were taken of the different defective surfaces so as clearly 
to indicate to the eye what the different percentages meant. 

17 The result of this examination showed that the exteriors, 
including the sides, ends and vestibules, were in fair condition. There 
^^re a few exceptions to this, but they amounted to less than 6 per 
^nt of the total having serious varnish and surface cracks. Inter- 
iors were found generally to be in a poor condition. About 80 per cent 
of the equipment examined had the varnish checked through to the 
surfacer. 

18 Some of these conditions developed after four to eight months' 
8^^ce, indicating either that an entirely new system of painting 
would be necessary to overcome these troubles, or that a more elastic 
piint would have to be used for interior finishing under the present 
listing practice of painting steel. 



w: 



It ' 



. ! 

■ M 



1 

"■J 



.! ** 

4 . 



\ 



\ 


1 >. 

• 
• 1 




■• .1" ■ 


1 


'1 

■» • 


< 


1- ; 




>■ . 




1- ■ , . . 




' - 


1 


1 1 

t • 


L 


1 




1 

* I 


i 


! :.i 



54 PAINTING OF STEEL PASSENGER CARS 



-t, ■ ^■■^ 

^|;^ i; 19 To obtain some data indicating what should be done to mee 

the conditions, preliminary experiments were made by painting i 
;,-' t nxunber of panels and baking them in a heated oven. Bepeated expeii 

ments along this line indicated that artificial driers could ahnoet, i 
not entirely, be eliminated in the paint formulae and that more elastii 
;IJ;'''' materials could be used without the aid of artificial oxidizing agents 

iiiil:; It was also observed that the elastic varnish used on the ezterio: 

*i^v I of the cars could, under this system, be used to advantage on th 

interior, and by the aid of the heat of the oven they could be dri« 
to the desired hardness, permitting the rubbing with oil and pumioe in 
get the "flat finish/' 

20 The outcome of the experiments indicated that it would b 
desirable to extend the experimental panels to a full size car and 
therefore, a proper baking oven was planned that would accommodat 
one of the largest existing steel passenger cars for the purpose o 
baking each coat as applied to the exterior and interior surfaces. 

.2^1 This oven, as designed and built by the Pennsylvania Bailroai 
Company at its Altoona shops, is 90 ft. 3 in. long, 13 ft. wide and li 
ft. high. The frame work of this structure is made up of 3-in. I-beam 
for the sides, spaced 5 ft. centers. The roof framing is made of th 
same sections and curved to conform closely to the contour of the ca 
roof. Each end of the oven has two large doors which can be readil; 
opened and closed for the baking operation. The oven is lined on th 
inside with ^-in. steel plate, and on the outside with galvanized iroi 
of 0.022 gage. The 3-in. space is filled with magnesia lagging, thu 
effecting the needed insulation. The doors are insulated in a simila 
manner. Along the walls of the interior of the oven are placed V 
rows of 1^-in. steam pipes, and along the floor, close to the walls, ar 
arranged manifold castings with small lengths of pipe tapped int 
them at right angles. By this means over 2000 sq. ft. of heating 
surface is provided. A steam pressure of approximately 100 lb. t 
the square inch is used, thus making it possible to get an oven tempera 
ture of over 260 deg. fahr. Rectangular openings, made adjustabk 
are provided on the sides near the floor line, allowing the neceesar 
admission of air for circulation. Four 8-in. Globe ventilators ar 
spaced at equal distances in the roof, likewise provided with damper 
to regulate the size of the opening. By this means of ventilatioi 
fresh air, which is required for the proper drying of paint, is obtained 
as well as providing for the egress of the volatile matter preseni 
Automatic ventilation and steam regulation have not, at the presen 



C. D. YOnNG 



55 



time, been applied, but theae have been considered advisable, if the 
resnlt of the experiment seetos to warrant a more extended application 
of the practice. 

SS A track is placed on the floor of the oven and connected at 
«ch end of the oven with other tracks leading into the regular paint 
shop vhere the different coats of paint are aplied to the car before 
each baking operation. 




Fio. 1 ExTuuOK Appeabance 



83 Photographs of the general appearance of this oven from the 
ouUide, and one end of the interior with a car within the oven are 
^'nn in Figi. 1 and 2. Fig. 3 shows the steam piping in detail. 



BAKIKO PAlMt ON STEEL 

24 The outline of painting a car in this oven is briefly as follows : 
"Wt, a priming coat is given the exterior and interior of car, which 
n then moved into the oven and baked for three hours. The tem- 
P*r»tnre at the etart is about 160 deg., but rapidly rises at about 1 
deg. per min. until a temperature of SSO deg. is reached, requiring 
^Qt 1^ to i hours. The oven is held at this temperature until the 
'*p»eof 3 hours, when the car is withdrawn, allowed to cool sufficiently 
to York upon, after which the surfaces arc glaitcd and depressions and 



66 



PAINTING OF BTBSL PASSENGBB CARB 



uneven places puttied. The car then receives its first coat of snrfacer, 
is returned to the oven for 3 hours, baked and removed for additional 
coats which vary from two to three in number as the needs of the cast 
require. 

S6 After the last coat of surfacer has been applied and baked 
the outside suTface of the body of the car is rubbed down with emer] 




View op Interior or Oven showiuq Car in Plaoi 



and oil to produce a flat and smooth surface. The various colo: 
coata used, such as tuscan red on the outside, pale green, bronze, an< 
bronze green on the inside, are then put on. Two coats of each colo: 
are required to get standard shades. Each coat of color is likewia 
baked. 



C. D. YOUNG 




I- 
II 



1 



■I .: I 

■\ -■! 



58 



PAINTING OF STEEL PASSENGER CARS 



Ui!' 
• -I 



r-: I 

1 



p'-i 



TABLE 1 TIME SCHEDULE FOR PAINTING EXTERIOR AND INTERIOR OF 

STEEL PASSENGER CARS 



• 


Outbids 








INSXDS 




Period 














of 
Work 


Body 


Roof 


Trucks 


Body Above 
Window Sills 


Headlining 


Body Bekm 
Window sols 


1 


l8t prime 


1st prime 


• • ■ • 


Ist prime 


1st prime 


latpriBM 


2 


glass 


• • • • 






glase 


glaso 


glase 


3 


let surface 


• • • ■ 






rub-ground 


rub 


rub 


4 


2d surface 


2d prime 












5 


3d surface 


• •• • • 












6 


rub 


• ••• • 












7 


Ist tuscan 


3d prime 






2d ground 


1st green 


laC green 


8 


2d tuscan 


• • • • 






stipple 









stripe and letter 


■ • • • 












10 


Ist varnish 


• ■ ■ • 


truck 


Ist varnish 




2d green 


11 


2d varnish 


• • a • 


color 


2d varnish 






12 


3d varnish 


• • • • 


• • ■ • 


3d varnish 




latvaraMi 


13 




• ■ • • 


• • • • 


rub 


2d green air 
dry 





_l , 



^ 



I 



I - i 



I 



1 - 



26 The car then receives the required lettering, striping, etc.j 
after which the outside and inside surfaces get three coats of a higli 
grade finishing varnish, especially adapted for the baking prooesa 
Each coat of varnish is baked at a temperature from 120 deg. fahr. 
at the start to 150 deg. fahr., which is maintained imtil the expiratior 
of 3 hours. The interior surfaces of the car are then rubbed witk 
pumice and oil, giving the "flat finish" effect desired, thus completing 
the painting of the car. 

27 To illustrate better the schedule of operation followed, or Hhi 
timing of the various coats, both for the outside and inside, to secure 
the most economical conditions, Table 1 is given. 

28 All of the work done by the baking process of painting can be 
accomplished in six to eight days, thus effecting a saving in time oi 
about ten days as compared with the standard or present air drying 
system. Further, the paints and varnishes have been worked up sc 
that they are especially adapted for this baking process, having greatei 
elasticity. Exact formulae for the various mixtures are well defined^ 
so that uniformity in material is expected, thus giving greater dura- 
bility, better appearance and longer life for the paint work. 

29 The checks and cracking previously found will be considerablj 
lessened, if not almost removed. By oven painting the work is done 



C. D. YOUNG 69 

under more uniform conditions, which at the present time are so hard 
to control. It enables the surfaces of the car to be heated uniformly 
and dried thoroughly, thus removing any objectionable moisture before 
the first priming coat is applied, which is a very desirable feature of 
the new method. 

30 A considerable saving will be effected by the shorter time that 
cars will be held out of service when undergoing repairs and repainting 
in the shops. It is expected that dirt, soot, etc., will not adhere or 
imbed themselves so readily and that the general appearance of the car 
will be improved by the baking method. 

3il This oven was placed in service the early part of this year and 
the resnlts of the complete car at this time seem to justify the experi- 
ment. They seem to indicate that the results obtained from a small 
panel can be duplicated in the full size passenger equipment car 
and that, if this is the case, this method of painting can be used to 
advantage not only for the painting of steel passenger equipment cars, 
but for the painting of any other full size steel structure of a similar 
character where protection and finish are desired. 

3S Results and indications at this time seem to justify our 
expectations that the new process of baking will give, over the present 
air drying system : (a) Longer life of material applied; (5) a general 
appearance as good or better; (c) less cost of material at no increase 
in the labor charge; (d) complete sanitation for old cars; (e) a con- 
siderable saving of time for shopping cars, which results in a saving 
of shop space. These advantages are offset by the initial cost of 
u^stallation and operating cost of the oven. 



No. 1388 i 

PROVISIONS FOR ELECTRIC LIGHTING IN 

STEEL PASSENGER CARS 

By H. a. Cureie,* New Yoek 
Non-Member 

Hardly more than perfunctory attention is, as a rule, given to 
the lighting equipment of a ear by the ear designer. After all other 
apparatus and equipment are taken care of, the lighting is considered 
and fitted as well as possible into the remaining space. 

2 From a standpoint of practical consideration of the welfare ol 
passengers, the lighting plays one of the most important parts; there- 
fore, every effort should be made to arrange the light units so that no 

■II" discomfort be occasioned, and to install the apparatus and wiring sc 

^ '. that operating failures be reduced to a minimum. In this connectioi 

I might say that the United States postal authorities at Washington 

-| ; are going into this subject very carefully at the present time to insure 

I P'i fair treatment for their postal clerks in the railway mail service; verj 

i y-l stringent requirements have been ordered both as regards general 

f ! i illumination and reliable performance. 

3 The two essential considerations for the designing engineer tc 



. J ' , 



"■ i 



keep in mind in laying out his installation are : (a) The arrangemeni 
of parts in a manner to allow of easy inspection and repair; (b) pro- 
tection against mechanical injury. Convenience and accessibility oi 
apparatus, fixtures, junction boxes and wiring mean much to th< 
;if inspector. It is a well-known fact that the average inspector will paj 

little attention to those parts which are diflBcult of access, and mudt 
better inspection work will result where parts are arranged in an 
accessible manner. It is of equal importance that the various parts 
be protected in such a manner as to avoid all possibility of injury tc 
them while the car is in service. The other essential features of the 
lighting installation are discussed in the following paragraphs: 

4 Axle Generator, The usual practice is to suspend the generatoi 
by swinging links at the inside end of the truck, and belt it to a pullej 

'Assistant Electrical Engineer, N. Y. C. & H. R. R. R. 

Presented at the New York Meetings April 1913, of The Amxbican So 
ciKTY or Mechanical Engineers. 

60 



- i', 






I . 

,■■ ■ 



H. A. CURRIE 61 

on the axle. For mounting the axle pulley a straight machined seat 
should be provided in all cases if electric lighting is planned or can be 
anticipated. Until recent years the universal practice was to provide 
the regulation tapered axle and allow the manufacturer of electric 
lighting equipments to adapt his pulley to an unsuitable seat in the 
best manner he could. The belt and pulley troubles which resulted 
were disproportionate to any possible advantage from retaining the 
tapered axles. It is customary for the manufacturer of lighting 
equipments to provide his own supporting structure adapted as cir- 
cumstances permit for attachment to the truck. The resulting suspen- 
sion is at best something of a makeshift. 

5 It would be a consummation much to be desired if truck 
designers would provide a generator support built integral with the 
truck; the requirements are not difficult and it is certain that the 
generator builders would be glad to make their machines conform to 
the truck builder's suspension. As the matter is now handled, nothing 
causes them more delay and inconvenience than obtaining the numer- 
ous details of truck and underframe construction necessary for 
naaking an intelligent layout of the generator suspension. In design- 
iiig the suspension it is desirable that the space required for the belt 
be kept as clear as possible. The end tie of the truck frame, if used, 
should not be deep and should be located at a level that will make it 
pofisible for the belt to straddle it. Outside brake beams when used 
are a necessary evil from the standpoint of generator location. Head 
room for the generator should be considered in laying out deep center 
girders, brake rigging and piping. All the open space that can be 
provided about the generator is desirable because it facilitates thorough 
inspection. The generator terminal board should be attached to the 
^derframe of the car close to the generator and readily accessible. 

6 Battery Box. On account of the obvious necessity for conven- 
ience in handling the heavy batteries, the battery box location has 
practically been standardized. As the weight and dimensions of 
elements are almost identical, it is unnecessary to change the hanger 
design after a satisfactory arrangement has once been used. 

7 Charging Receptacles. The charging receptacles have been 
allotted a permanent location on electric lighted equipment. Care 
should be taken to arrange the wire leading to the receptacles to 
prevent interference with brake rods, etc. 

8 Switchboard and Regulator Lockers. (a) The switchboard 
locker should be so located as to be at all times easily accessible to the 



K2 ELECTRIC LIQHTINO IN STEEL PABSENOER CABS 

trunmen; no pains should be spared in the design and instoUstii 
of the board; nothing but fireproof material should be need, 
receptacle for spare lamps and a report card holder are conTenie 
acceSBories. (b) The regulator locker is generally located under t 
switchboard and on the generator end of the car. Good ventilation 
a necessity. Provision against dampness and dirt is imperative. T 
n^ulator lockers should be fitted with locks to guard against acddenl 
or wilful interference with apparatus. In designing lockers for ligl 
ing apparatus it is recommended that liberal space be provided 
that changing of equipment, repairing, inspecting and teeting o 
be done to the best advantage. 

9 Conduit. In steelcar construction, metal conduits are alnu 
universally used. In the better type of steel car the interior oondu: 
can be concealed behind metal molding and suitable oatlet boi 
designed to harmonize with the contour of the molding. Some i 
signers are satisfied to have exposed conduit used exclusively throai 
out the ear. In laying out wiring conduit, direct runs without aha 
bends should be used. Care in locating the conduits wilt facilitate t 
installatioD of wires and prevent damage from moisture, etc. 

10 Fixtures. Where side lighting is used, a satisfactory amuif 
ment can be obtained by designing the fixture to meet the contour 
the molding. In center deck lighting, it is advisable wherever poasil 
to arrange the carlines so that a direct support to each fixture may 
obtained. On platforms provision for one or two-lamp outlets 
sufficient. A plain socket moimted on the platform ceiling hu be 
used in some instances. A better arrangement would be a metaL 
reflector sunk flush in the ceiling. 

LI Emergency Lights. It was formerly customary in applyi 
electric light to retain gas lighting as a reserve. Increasing reliabili 
of electric lighting apparatus has made this unnecessary and 
the best present practice no gas equipment is provided. For em* 
gencies it is customary to provide holders for candle lamps; bat it 
only on rare occasions that these have to be used, if the elect) 
equipment is of a good modern type. 



No. 1388 i 

PROVISION FOR ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT 

ON STEEL MOTOR CARS 

By p. W. Butt/ New York 
Non-Member 

In providing for the electrical equipment on steel motor cars, 
several important points should be considered. On account of its 
metallic construction, the car becomes a negative conductor, or, in 
other words, the car is grounded, and all electrical app^atus must 
be well insulated against leakage of the electrical current. 

2 Switches, circuit breakers, fuses, etc., should be so located 
that the arc when opening a circuit will not reach the metal structure 
of the car. In cases where space is limited, and it becomes necessary 
to locate circuit breaking apparatus in such a way that there is danger 
of the arc reaching the metal structure, suitable arc shields of non- 
conducting and non-inflammable material should be used. 

3 Switches, terminals and other apparatus, having exposed live 
pwts, should be protected against accidental contact by enclosing 
them in boxes or cabinets. This protection is most important where 
Apparatus, such as mentioned above, is located in or near the space 
which is occupied by passengers. 

4 It is sometimes found necessary on accoimt of the restricted 
space in toilet rooms, motormen's cabs, postal and baggage compart- 
ments, etc., to attach electric heaters directly to the sheathing; the 
be&ter coils then are necessarily close to the sheathing, and as a 
iQfiftns of protection to the paint and varnish thereon, an insulated 
backing should be applied between the sheathing and the heater. 

5 Particular attention should be given to locking bolts, nuts, 
•crews, etc., to prevent them working loose on account of vibration, 
specially those which are used to secure the apparatus. The vibrations 
of the motor gearing are transmitted to all parts of the car and thej 
are more pronounced when the motor suspension lug is mounted on 
the trtick transom, without the use of suspension springs. Vibration 

'AMiitant Engineer, Eloetrioul Department, N. Y. C. & H. R. R. R. 

. • 

Presented at the New York Meeting, April 1913, of The American So- 
ciiTY OF Mechanical Enuinekks. 

63 



64 ELBCTRICAL EQUIPMENT ON STEEL MOTOB CARS 

is more easily transmitted through the solid structure of steel 
than it is in care of wood. 

6 In the design of new cars it is sometimes found convei 
to locate various members of the structure, especially in the ni 
frame, so the apparatus can be suspended from them withont th< 
of intermediate supports. This is desirable as it is often found 
many parts can be omitted from the car. Where heavy apparat 
to be suspended from intermediate supports, large heavy member 
required, sometimeB complicated in design in order to obtain cleai 
between parts of the structure or apparatus. 

7 Where it is possible, apparatus hangers should rest on 
members which support them and not depend entirely upon a verti 
bolted or riveted connection. The hangers should be well br. 
especially those which hang far below the underframe, to pn 
swaying of the apparatus, due to the motion of the car. The hai 
can be so designed as to provide the necessary bracing, but to ac 
plish this odd shapes are often required wliich increase the co 
manufacture. It is then desirable to provide bangers and sep. 
braces of simple design. 

8 When several switches, fuses and other electrical apparatu 
required for the motor, control and auxiliary circuits, large sw 
board area is necessary, and in some instances, the switchboari 
been installed in one of the end bulkheads, occupying most o: 
space between the body corner and door posts. In recent steel 
intermediate body end posts are used as part of the general se 
for anti-telescoping provisions at the end of the car. These 
extend from the body-end sill to the body-end plate, and it is re 
mended, in order to interfere as little as possible with the general 
telescoping scheme, that two small switchboards be used, one p 
in the bulkhead on each side of the body-end door opening, and lo^ 
as high above the platform as the size of the boards will permit, 
arrangement of switchboards provides for the use of short intt 
diate body-end posts, extending upwards from the body-end sill t 
horizontal frame member, located just below each switchboard 
connected to the body comer and door posts. 

9 In wooden car construction it is necessary to provide gr 
wires from the various electrical circuits to some part of the car i 
is a negative conductor. This is unnecessary on cars of steel 
struction, as the electrical circuits can be grounded at almost 
part of the car structure. 



H. A. CURRIE 65 

10 The steel car is safer than cars of wood construction, as there 
is no danger of bad fires on account of short circuits. Parts of the 
structure of a steel car will not become alive, as is sometimes found in 
cars of wood construction. 

11 The wiring conduit on a steel car should be provided for at 
the time the car is being designed. Unless this is done, difficult bends 
in the conduit may occur and it is sometimes found necessary to cut 
and reinforce tlie structural members. 



'fiJ. 



I; 



■I 



I 
. I- 



No. 1388 A 

AIR BRAKES FOR HEAVY STEEL PAS- 
SENGER CARS 

By a. L. Humpheby/ Wilmsbdino, Pa. 
Non-Member 

; '■*! : Advancement in the development of air brakes has been no 1« 

' ;'• contingent upon the development of rolling stock than the econom: 

; .• handling of traflSc through the use of heavier and faster trains 

•• ' contingent upon the advancements in motive power. A review of ti 

iiistory of railroad transportation development in this country wi 
. I show a steady and unceasing advance from year to year. Equivalei 

• advancement in the efficiency of appliances such as air brakes wi 

■■' consequently necessary in order that the control and safe handliii 

of longer and heavier trains should not operate as a barrier to thei 
: developments. 

;/ ". 2 A brief comparison of the conditions existing at the time < 

; the introduction of the air brake with the conditions at present, wi 

show that the advancement in rolling stock has been more rapid tha 
those who have not been in close touch with the situation are likely 1 
realize. For example, the weight on drivers of high-spee 
passenger engines has increased from 25,000 to 180,000 lb. Ti 
drawbar pull of locomotives has increased from 7000 lb. to 30,000 lb. 
working steam pressure has increased from 125 lb. to ^26 lb. ; weighl 
of passenger cars have increased from 20,000 lb. to 150,000 lb. Th 
schedule speeds of passenger trains have increased from 30 miles p€ 
hour to 65 miles per hour, ajid it is not unconunon for speeds to reac 
as high as 85 to 90 miles per hour. 

3 Taking the average weights of trains and average speed at th 
time the air brake was introduced as compared with the trains an 
speeds of today, the weight per vehicle has not only increased nearl 
eight times, but the foot-pounds of energy to be destroyed is nearly 1 
times as much. In order to meet the demands of modem servic 
conditions as efficiently as heretofore, means should be provided fo 
dissipating the total energy stored up in this swiftly moving mass i 

Wice-President and General Manager, Westinghouse Air Brake Gompanj 

Presented at the New York Meeting, April 1913, of Thb American So 
ciETY OF Mechanical Engineers. 

66 






I 









AIR BRAKES FOR HEAVY STEEL PASSENQER CARS 67 

at least as short a time and distance as before. In fact it is desirable to 
do this in as much less time as is consistent with comfort to passengers 
and accuracy of control, in the case of service stops, and in as much 
shorter distance or time as may be possible in the case of emergency. 
Not only must the brake be automatic in its operation, but it must be 
capable at any time and under any conceivable circumstances to pro- 
duce the maximum possible retarding force within as short a period of 
time as the known resources available and physical limitations will 
permit. 

4 When we consider that it requires a distance of 8 to 12 miles 
for a locomotive of modern design, hauling a train of say ten cars, 
to accelerate to a speed of 80 miles per hour and that this same train 
should be brought to a standstill within the shortest possible time — 
or say in one-tenth of the distance required to accelerate to this speed 
—it is hardly conceivable that this can be done with the means avail- 
able, which is a retarding force produced by f rictional contact of metal 
shoes against the wheels, which is in turn limited by the adhesion 
between the wheels and the rail. 

5 This factor, viz., the friction obtainable between wheel and rail 
and shoe and wheel is the basis on which we must start, and upon 
which we are limited, as to the amount of retarding force obtainable. 
It is therefore of first importance in designing an air-brake installation 
to give due consideration to the contact between the wheel and rail 
and the possible eflSciency of the brake shoe. The air brake in itself 
w practically limitless in the amount of force obtainable, but the 
practical application of this force is where the line must be drawn. 
In this connection it is worthy of note that the brake shoe today has 
about four times as much work to do as it had 30 years ago. The chief 
effect of this, however, is to destroy the brake shoe at a much more 
rapid rate, without permitting any material lengthening of stopping 
distance. 

6 The improvements made in air brakes in recent years, which 
have made it possible to control the present heavy high-speed passenger 
trains with approximately the same degree of efficiency as the older 
forms controlled the equipment of their day, have been based on 
scientific principles and experience in obtaining reliable information 
and data. The matter of time of transmission of compressed air was 
not so important a factor with the shorter trains and slower speeds as 
It 18 today, where a train running at 80 miles per hour passes over a 
distance of 1 17 ft. per second; consequently a few seconds saving in the 
tune of getting the brakes to fully apply is just so much relative gain 



Jl 



68 A. L. HUMPHREY 

in the time and length of stop. With the latest improved pneumatic 
equipment, the maximum brake cylinder pressure can be obtained 
throughout a modern train of ten ears in 4 seconds^ which is the 
shortest possible time that this can be obtained by serial quick action 
through a train of this length. For the purpose of shortening this 
time serious consideration is being given by some railroad oflScials 
to the type of brake equipment used on the New York subway, and 
known as the "electro-pneumatic," which would not only tend to cut 
the time of full application in two, but by means of the electric con- 
trol all brakes are applied simultaneously, which not only assists in 
shortening the stop but in preventing shocks, etc. 

7 Another equally important factor now coming more prom- 
inently into use is the application of brake shoes to each side of the 
wheel, known as clasp brakes. The virtue of clasp brakes, however, 
is not so much in the aid they afford in shortening' the stop as in the 
equalizing effects of pressure on the wheels, journal box bearings and 
trucks, the minimizing of lost motion which affects the brakes through 
increased piston travel, and the less tendency toward wheel sliding 
while the brakes are applied. 

8 While a comparison of the relative merits of a brake equip- 
ment, as with most mechanical devices, is frequently based on their 
maximum capacity, it must be borne in mind that an air-brake equip- 
ment must be designed to include flexibility for service operation^ in 
which it is operated 99 per cent of the time and during which time it 
should be capable of handling smoothly the extreme lengths of trains, 
while at the same time it must be capable and ready under all conceiv- 
able circimistances to produce the maximum permissible braking force 
in case of an emergency. 

9 It is not especially difficult to increase the speed of a train 
from 30 to 40 miles per hour, but it requires a vastly greater amount 
of energy to increase the speed from 60 to 70 miles per hour. In like 
manner, for any given increase in speed, the additional amount of 
work required of the brakes increases proportionally. If, therefore, 
the brakes for the heavier trains and higher speeds of today permit 
of stopping in about the same distance and with the same flexibility 
of control as could be done with brakes 40 years ago, and with the 
trains of that period, it is at least gratifying to know that the 
advancement made in this particular line of railroad development has 
kept pace as closely as it could consistently with the development in 
transportation facilities, througli whicli its rate of advancement is 
largely controlled. 



No. 1388 I 

CAST-STEEL DOUBLE BODY BOLSTERS, 
PLATFORMS AND END FRAMES 
FOR STEEL CARS 

By C. T. Westlake, St. Louis, Mo. 
Member of the Soeiety 

Cast steel as applied to underframes and end frames of railroad 
cars is the result of careful design and painstaking, and thorough 
development of the art of casting in sand molds. These large 
steel castings are made in baked molds, confined in massive 
metal forms, by a special method that assures positively against 
swelling due to pressure of the inflowing metal, and yet permits 
yielding to the pressure of the contracting metal when cooling, so 
that the castings are very accurate in shape and close to size, and are 
free from shrinkage stresses. 

% Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon and differs from other 
alloys of iron by being capable of developing all its physical properties 
to the maximum degree. Its most distinctive properties are rigidity, 
ability to stand maximum forces without yielding ; elasticity, ability 
to return to normal after being loaded to deflection ; ductility, ability 
to stand distortion beyond its elastic limit without fracture ; mallea- 
bility, permitting it to be forged ; tensility, high tensile strength ; and 
weldability, permitting it to be welded by heating and hammering. 
These properties which steel possesses in a maximum degree distin- 
guish it from all other alloys of iron. 

3 Cast steel and rolled steel are produced by the same processes 
and of the same materials, are of the same chemical composition and 
Have the same physical properties, and cast steel may be substituted 
for rolled steel, using the same fiber stresses, and its substitution is 
limited only by the minimum section that can be poured in the molds. 

^ As recently as 1893, cast steel was comparatively unknown 
m car construction, and in that year its introduction began in the 
we of truck bolsters for freight cars. This was followed a few years 
Uter by body bolsters or transoms, and it was only after their use on 

Presented at the New York Meeting, April 1913, of Thb American So- 

^^"TY or MlCHANICAL ENGINEERS. 

69 



70 CAST-STEEL BOLSTERS, PLATFORMS AND END FRAMES 

freight cars had demonstrated satisfactorily the reliability of the 
material and design^ that attention was turned to passenger cars. 

5 The double body bolster was first to receive consideration for 
passenger cars, and although, due to casting difficulties, its weight was 
at first excessive, it was quickly refined and assigned to its proper 
place with other cast-steel articles. It was found to be so much lighter, 
stronger and permanantly effective than the built-up type, by forming 
a one-piece cradle or support for each end of the car body, that its 
use soon became almost universal in construction of passenger cars. 

6 As the demand increased for stronger, safer and less combus- 
tible cars, the problem of replacing wood with steel developed many 
difficulties^ The wooden car was the result of many years of experi- 
menting, of cutting and trying with a material easily worked, but as 
one of the most valuable properties of cast steel is its adaptability to 
combining a multiplicity of complex parts into a single one of simple 
form, it was gradually developed from the double body bolster form, 
first to include end sills, then end and buffing sills; next the end and 
buffiing sills were combined with longitudinal members extending to, 
and connecting with the double body bolster. Finally these parts, 
together with many others combined into a single simple member at 
each end of the car underframe, and comprising so many of the fiixed 
parts that it is now only necessary for the car builder to connect them 
by center girders and to apply draft and buffing gears and the super- 
structure to complete the car frame. 

7 The ideal underframe should have all connecting members in 
the same plane so as to avoid buckling due to eccentric leading; it 
should be so designed that each member will independently perform 
its individual functions, passing the stresses from one member to the 
other through the smallest number of properly aligned connections; 
and all should be so arranged in relation to each other as to form one 
powerful, compact, shock-absorbing element throughout the length of 
the car. 

8 This can be accomplished to great advantage in cast-steel 
construction since the metal can be properly distributed in proportion 
to the stresses. The gusset plates can be placed in the same plane as 
the flanges of intersecting members, and the whole reduced to mini- 
mum weight and to the smallest number of parts with practically no 
joints. It can be molded to any desired conformation, can be shaped 
to any curve, useful or ornate, without the Tise of expensive dies, can 
be provided with necessary projections joined to the main members by 



C. T. WESTLAKE 71 

proper fillets. Openings may be provided with finished and reinforced 
edges, and all parts may be molded to symmetrical, pleasing contour, 
all edges rounded and a complete, practical, operative device, eman- 
ating from a single source furnished to the car builders ready for 
application. 

9 As the rounding of curves necessitates the use of convex ends 
to the car body, the central portion of the ends is most exposed 
and liable to receive initial impacts, and this portion should be made 
strongest and most capable of properly transmitting the force of im- 
pacts to the balance of frame. 

10 The imderf rame receives the force of end collision as a column 
load on its longitudinal members, while the end frame receives it as 
a transverse load on exposed members supported at their ends. As it 
is impracticable under these conditions to make the end frame equally 
as strong as the underframe, provision should be made for protecting 
the end frame against destructive forces. The underframe should be 
arranged so as to receive the initial impact, and if the encountered 
force is sufficient to destroy it, it should fail in such manner as to 
form additional protection to the end frame. 

11 This is accomplished in cast-steel construction by arranging 
the parts of the longitudinal members so that when loaded to destruc- 
tion by a collision force, the end portions yield upwardly, thus folding 
the exposed portion of the platform up against the end of the car 
hody, and forming an addition to the end frame to assist in distribu- 
ting the force to all the longitudinal members of the superstructure. 
The advantage of this construction has been demonstrated in wrecks 
when this identical action has taken place, the safety of passengers 
Msured, and the property loss kept low. 

1^ The cast-steel platform as now provided for blind end cars, 
comprises the buffing sill having recesses for the buflfer foot plates, 
holes and brackets for the buffer stems, pockets for the buffing device, 
brackets for safety chains, lugs for draft gear, brackets for drawbar 
carry irons, anti-telescoping plate, extensions of the center sills and 
bottom chords of the side sills, all of the double body bolster members 
including side bearing arches and extending for a distance of over 
14 ft inward from the end of the car to a point considerably back 
of the truck center, and counting rivets, gusset plates and connecting 
angles, combining more than 1000 pieces into a single, powerful, 
fihock-absorbing element of less weight than fabricated material of 
the same strength. 



72 CAST-STEEL BOLSTERS, PLATFORMS AND END FRABIES 

I 

13 The cast-steel platform and double body bolster for vestibule 
cars comprises all the parts enumerated for blind end cars, and in 
addition, includes the exposed platform longitudinal members^ step 
risers and end sill, measures over 17 ft. in length, is made of a single 
piece, and is also of less weight than fabricated material of the same 
strength. 

14 Since the government has taken a hand in the constmction of 
cars used in its service, stronger body end frames are being used, and 
as the end of the car is the first to encounter end collision forces, it 
reasonably deserves closer and more careful consideration. 

15 Most damage is produced by end collisions and to protect life 
and property from them, the colliding object must be prevented from 
entering the car. To accomplish this, the end frame and end portion 
of underframe should be constructed so as to distribute the force of 
collision into all the longitudinal members of the car, passing it into 
the largest mass, utilizing every particle of available inertia to absorb 
the force without permitting it to reach and act upon the contents 
or occupants of cars. 

16 The end frame proper should be designed so that when a 
single member is loaded, all will act with it, and this can be accom- 
plished only by connecting them so as to form a single mass, and best 
by forming them in a single piece as in cast-steel construction. 

17 In designing the cast-steel end frame .we assume it to be a 
beam supported at its upper and lower ends and loaded at a point 
about 18 in. above its lower end. We provide connections between 
the end frame and balance of car frame of sufficient value to develop 
the full transverse strength of the end frame; the vertical members 
of end frame are connected by horizontal members so that in case the 
end frame is loaded to destruction the connections are sufBcient to 
disrupt all the longitudinal members of the car frame, and when they 
yield all parts will be forced toward the center of the end of the car 
and tend to prevent one car telescoping the other. 

18 Cast-steel parts weigh less than built-up members carrying 
the same load since the metal in castings can be properly distributed 
in proportion to stresses. In built-up construction the metal overlaps 
at the joints and this, together with the rivet heads, makes an ad- 
ditional weight which in cast construction is avoided. In the latter, 
reliance is placed in a single solid member and, as there are no joints, 
there is no chance of their being imperfect or becoming loose. 

19 The advantage in cast stool to the car builder is also very 



C. T. WESTLAKE 73 

great. To produce a platform of the built-up type at least eight 
different classes of material are required. This comes from eiglit 
different manufacturers, frequently from as many different points of 
production, much of it in less than car load lots, and all has to be 
reqiiifiitioned, purchased, received, stored and recorded for use on each 
particular lot, and in order to reduce storage space and avoid con- 
gestion in the car plant, all deliveries have to be carefully and ac- 
curately timed, and followed up. Then each material has to be passed 
through the different departments of the car plant to be cut, shaped, 
punched, drilled and the same timing and tracing methods used, so 
as to have all parts completed at the proper time. When cast steel is 
used but one material is purchased from a single plant, only one piece 
is handled, that in car load lots, and when it arrives it is immediately 
ready and available for application without storage or re-handling, 
facilitating completion of the car by leaving more car plant machinery 
available for other work. 

20 A plant capable of producing castings of this nature in 
quantities to meet requirements of the many car plants must have 
buildings of extensive area and equipment in proportion, as it 
ordinarily requires about ten days for a casting to pass through the 
various processes of casting, cooling, roughing, cleaning and ma- 
chining, and an accumulation of ten days' output has to be constantly 
accommodated. All handling and conveying apparatus must be in 
duplicate so as to insure uninterrupted operation and machines for 
finishing must be of the highest grade and maintained in perfect con- 
dition to produce accurate and proper results. 

21 In car construction cast steel stands preeminent as the best 
material for reducing to the minimum the weight and number of parts 
while maintaining requisite strength and other essential properties, 
and its popularity and use will proportionately increase as its benefits 
Mid advantages become more generally recognized. 



No. 1388 m 

SPECIAL ENDS FOR STEEL PASSENGER 

CARS 

By H. M. Estabrook., Dayton, O. 
Member of the Society 

After the passenger car had emerged from the stage-coach type 
of construction the box-like shape of car was introduced with straight 
longitudinal floor sills and with straight vertical side and end posts. 
These members were of wood, the ends of the longitudinal floor sills 
being tenoned into mortises in the wooden end sills. The vertical 
side and end posts were in like manner tenoned into the side and end 
sills at their lower end and likewise into the wooden side and end 
plates at their upper ends. These side and end posts were maintained 
in their several positions, by wooden spacing blocks or bridging, and 
the whole structure tied together by means of iron rods and bolts. 
These spacing blocks served further the double purpose of affording a 
foundation for securing the outside panels and the wooden interior 
finish. 

2 * Several types of roof were quite prevalent in early passenger 
car days, among them being the round top or omnibus roof, which has 
again made its appearance in steel passenger cars in some parts of our 
country. Another type of roof was the Ogee, or turtle-back, and later 
came the monitor, or raised deck roof. The prevailing type of hood 
projection over the platforms was the "duck^s bill" type, as illustrated 
in Fig. 1, which also furnishes a good idea of the framing employed 
in those days. Fig. 2 shows end framing of these same cars. 

3 A little later the projecting platform hood was changed from 
the "duck^s bilF^ type to the bull-nose type. Figs. 3 and 4 show re- 
spectively a longitudinal section and exterior of these cars. Pig. 5 
shows the end construction and Fig. 6 the standard framing employed 
in the first bull-nose hood cars in the early eighties. Up to the middle 
eighties no systematic attempt had been made to strengthen the ends 
of cars. The platform members were all of wood and the end framing 
of the car had not experienced much change in the way of strength- 



Presented at the New York Meeting, April 1913, of THE .AICXBIOAN So- 
ciety OF Mechanical Engineers. 

74 



H. M. ESTABROOK 




Flo. 2 Ekd Pbamino fob "Duck's Bill" Hood Pbojiotion 



76 SPECIAL ENDS TOR STEEL PA8BENOER CARS 




Fig. 3 Section of Bull-Nose Ttpb or Car 




Pig. 4 BrLL-NosB Type op Car, Pramino E:rposro 



. M. ESTABROOK 



77 



eningfrom the earlier types. With the advent of the narrow vestibule 
in 1887, which was immediately followed by the broad vestibule in 
181^8, came the demand for a stronger end. 

4 About the year 1890 there was brought into use what was 
known as an "anti-telescoping" end framing. ThiB construction con- 
sisted of double side and end sills with a steel plate 8 in. by y^ in. 
from IS to 34 ft. long, sandwiched into the double aide sill, with the 
en6 of these plates turned so as to form a foot against the end sill. 
The double end sill had a steel plate 8 in. by % in. and the length 
the width of the car, sandwiched into the end sill. The end posts of 




Fio. 5 End Construction or Bull-Nosb Tvpb or Cas 



'he car were reinforced by steel bars 3^ in. by % in., extending 
iiovi"iiwsrd through and bolted through the sandwiched end sill and 
Mving their upper ends extending upward and bearing on and bolted 
through a steel plate 6 in. by % in., which was bolted to the oak end 
P«'e of the car. This stiffening plate extended across the width of 
tile car and the ends of the steel plate being turned so as to form a 
toot upon the side plate of the structure. This anti-teleacoping con- 
slniction is illustrated in Fig. 7. This design of end framing came 
'"to general use throughout the country and is in use today in the 



78 SPECIAL ENDS FOR STEEL PASSENGER CARS 

majority of woodeo passenger cars built since 1890. It is interesting 
to note that this anti-telescoping framing is the same, with some 
modifications and additions, as was adopted by the United States 
Government for the construction of full postal cars and known as 
Specification No. 1. 

5 Somewhat later this type of end framing was elaborated upon 
by the use of a heavy steel angle flitched into the end sill, with the 
end still further reinforced by a 20 in. by ^ in. steel gusset plate on 
the imder side of the sills, and by the use of steel Z-bars in the end 
posts and a heavy steel angle introduced into the construction of the 
end plate of the car. 

6 The increased weight of the vestibules and anti-telescoping end 
framing developed the necessity for a stronger platform construction 
than the old style wooden platform member that had been used for 
many years. About the year 1895 the standard steel platform, com- 
posed of steel I-beams, came into general use, and was employed 
continuously until the advent of the steel car superseded it by other 
designs. 

7 Notwithstanding the frantic efforts of Congress toward the 
general adoption of steel passenger cars, it has been stated upon 
reliable authority that no vestibuled wooden passenger car, in the con- 
struction of which was employed the anti-telescoping end framing, 
in a straight-on end to end collision (although frequently having the 
ends concaved) has ever had the end crushed in to the extent of the 
adjoining car body telescoping and entering it. 

8 The United States Government in seeking to strengthen the 
end construction of postal cars adopted this form of anti-telescoping 
end framing with the addition of two 7-in., 23.46-lb. steel bulb beams 
on either end of the car. These bulb beams have their flat base resting 
against the outside of the reinforced end posts of the car, being located 
in line with and immediately behind the vestibide diaphragms and 
face plate. At its lower end, this bulb beam has the head and web 
notched out with the base flange extending downward through the 
flitched end sill, the main body of the beam resting upon the 1 in. 
thick steel plate on top of the buffer beam. At the upper end these 
bulb beams have the web and bulb head sheared diagonally so the base 
flange extends upward on the outside of the end plate of the car 
framing, and through this flange passes the top piston stems of the 
\estibule mechanism. This type of construction is now obsolete in 
postal cars, Congress havin^: enacted a law requiring them to be of 
steel construction. 



H. U. BBTABROOK 






1 
















= 


■ 


■ 


= 




— 


~\' 






=\ 


- 




- 


= 


= 




■ 


, 




= ■ 


-= 


= ; 


" 




=^ 




, 






I- 




. 


= 


3: 



























sO SPECIAL ENDS FOR STEEL PASSENGER CABS 

9 When the steel passenger car made its appearance about the 
year 1905, the passenger car entered a period of transitiou and evolu- 
tion from which it has not yet entirely emerged with a recognized 
standard form of construction. The wooden car had attained a d^^ 
of uniformity that established it as an accepted standard. In the 




Fig. 7 Anti-Telescopiko Iron End Fhaidno 



construction of the early steel passenger cars, as was probably natural, 
an attempt was made to follow closely the lines employed in the con- 
struction of wooden cars, with the result that the first steel care .were 
inferior in strength of end construction to the prevailing wood con- 
struction, but the evolution lias been rapid, one improvement following 



H. M. E8TABROOK 



81 



I'lose upou tlie heels of another. In the entire history of car building, 
there tue probably not been devoted so much concentrated thought 
and study to the improvement in design, by the most expert engi- 
iteeriog talent of the railroada and car buildere, as has been shown 
since the introduction of steel cars. This has resulted in rapid im- 
provement of end construction until we have today reached a design 




Pm. 8 Body Ekd Framing, Type shown in Pio. 9 



llist ie considered practically standard. This development has iiu 
doubt been hastened by the action of Congress relative to steel postal 
era and the cooperation of committees of the railway mail service, 
'he railroads and the car builders, to the end that a standard specifi- 
'■ation for the strength of the various parts of the car, and especially 



82 



SPECIAL ENDS FOR STEEL PASSENGER CARS 



1 ■ J ' 

. '"J 
• ' t 

. ■ I 
I - ■ I 



■I ■, 



. ! I, 

I ■ • •! ; 

I ■ . ' 

I •'. ■ : 

I 



■■r 



I I 









■ ■ ■• N 

■i" 






I, 






I r- 

K- ■ ■ .: . 




II 



H. M. ESTABROOK 83 

the end construction, has been adopted by the PostoflBce Department 
in which it is provided that : 

The mftTinmTw end shock due to buffing shall be assumed as a statie load 
of 400,000 lb. applied horizontally at the resultant line of forces acting as the 
center line of the buffing mechanism and at the center line of draft gear, 
respeetiyely, and shall be assumed to be resisted by all continuous longitudinal 
onderframe members below the floor level, provided such members are suffi- 
dently tied together to act in unison. 

The sum of the section moduli of all vertical end members at each end shall 
be not less than 65 and the section moduli of the main members, either form- 
ing or adjacent to the door posts, shall be not less than 75 per cent, of this 
amount The horizontal reactions of all vertical end members at top and 
bottom shall be calculated from an assumed external horizontal force, applied 
18 in. above the floor line, to all vertical members in the proportions given, 
such force being of sufficient amount to cause bending of all vertical members 
acting together, and top and bottom connections of vertical members shall be 
designed for these reactions. Except where vertical end members shall bear 
directly against or be attached directly to longitudinal members at either top or 
bottom, the assumed reactions shall be considered as loads applied to whatever 
eonatruction is used at end sill or end plate and both these last named mem- 
bers shall have section moduli, respectively, sufficient to prevent their failure 
borizontally before that of the vertical end members. All parts of the car 
framing shall be so proportioned that the sum of the maximum imit stresses 
to which any member is subject shaU not exceed the following amounts in 
pounds per square inch — these stresses, unless otherwise stated below, are for 
rteel having an ultimate tensile strength of from 55,000 to 65,000 lb. per sq. in. : 

BoUters of Rolled Steel — Stress shall not exceed 12,500 lb. per sq. in. 

8iUs and Framing of Boiled Steel — Stress shall not exceed 16,000 lb. per 
•q. in. 

When cast steel is used the allowable stresses may be the same as for rolled 
steel except tension stresses, which must be at least 20 per cent less than those 
•Bowed for rolled steel, as specified above. 

10 To meet these requirements, there are at this time three 
distinct forms of construction employed : The one most generally em- 
ployed is illustrated in Figs. 8 and 9, which is composed of rolled-steel 
^tions with the center sills running the full length of the car from 
huffer beam to buffer beam. Another type is that in which the rolled 
^1 center sills connect at the bolster with a steel casting, forming 
* combined body bolster, center and side sills, and end sills, as illus- 
trated in Figs. 10 and 11. Another tjrpe is that in which the rolled- 
^W center sills connect at the bolster with a steel casting, forming a 
^'ombined body bolster, center and side sills, end sill and the entire 
end frame of the car, as illustrated in Fig. 12. 

n In the first form of construction, shown in Figs. 8 and 9, 
^lled sections are employed entirely. The members forming the 



J' r 



I 
. I' 



*:-'^3T- , 



"1 
i-ii 



I 

I- 



84 SPECIAL ENDS FOR STEEL PASSENGER CARS 

center sill construction extend the full length of the car from o 
buffer beam to the other and all other longitudinal members, such 
side sills, belt rail, etc., extending the full length of the car bo 
and in the case of vestibuled cars, the rolled section side plaie exten 
the full length of the car from one vestibule comer post to anoth 
The end sill is usually composed of pressed or rolled shapes rivet 
to the center-sill construction and extending laterally outwards to t 
sides of the car, the ends of the side-sill members butting against a 
being riveted to these end-sill members. The upper end plate of t 
car is composed of rolled or pressed sections extending in one pi( 
across the width of the car and attached to the longitudinal side plai 
by connecting angles and gussets. To this end plate are also attach 
jirMfl the longitudinal members of the upper deck sides. The end posts s 

rolled or pressed sections, usually Z-sections, extending downward 
the bottom line of and riveted to the end sill. The upper ends 
I'rj't^ these posts extend upwards to the top line of and are riveted to t 

■ '{^^Y' end plate. The nose piece or buffer beam is composed of roll 

channels with their flanges turned inwardly towards each other, p: 
senting their smooth surfaces on the outside, these channels bei 
formed to suit the contour requirements of the vestibule, the cham 
members forming a box construction with top cover plates. 

12 This buffer beam extends across and is riveted to the outwa 
ends of the center-sill construction, from which it will be obser^ 
that the purpose of this design is to transmit the end buffing shock 
the center-sill construction. The vestibule comer posts are roll 
channel or Z-sections, whose bottom ends extend down into and i 
riveted to the outer ends of the buffer beams and whose upper er 
are riveted to the vestibule end plate and to the upper longitudii 
side plate of the car body, which projects beyond the end of the < 
body to meet and to connect with this vestibule comer post. 1 
center vestibule posts are 6-in. I-beams whose lower ends extend do¥ 
ward through and are connected to the buffer beam member a 
whose upper ends extend upward to and are connected to the vestibi 
end plate steel angle. Between the upper ends of these center vestibi 
posts and the end of the car body, are longitudinal compression me 
hers in the form of steel channels or angles. These rolled secti 
corner posts, door posts and vestibule door and comer posts, i 
encased in light steel casings formed to give them the finished i 
pearance of the same members in a wooden car. 

13 In stub-end oars of this type of construction, the buffer bei 



H. M. ESTABROOK 



85 



is of considerably heavier construction than in the vestibule car, and 
is usually composed of a built-up box construction or a one-piece steel 
casting, this buflEer beam being secured immediately to the outside 
face of the end sill. In this construction there is usually employed a 



/o'-oi' 




Fio. 10 Body End Framing, Type shown in Fio. 11 



much heavier vestibule center post than in the vestibuled car. These 
vestibule posts, usually being a 12-in. I-beam, are located immediately 
in line with and behind the vestibule diaphragm and face plate. The 
end-poet construction is much the same as described for the vestibuled 
car, there being a difference, however, in the construction of the end 
plate, which in the stub-end car is a pressed channel section formed 



86 



SPECIAL ENDS FOR STEEL PASSENGER CABS 



I 



_,! 



U- 



e 
o 



:! 



Nil 

Loll 



l! 



o!i 

|0|l 

iii 



II I 
"! 

o<l I 



\P\ o o i«»ir 

O.IP, O O Oil o 



I • 

'■El "-a. 

, |oi o o lol ,of 
o'|«\p O/O lo 



o o 

oi'|o' o o 



o|,b b-a ol'io... 




3^: 



|0' o o o o 



I 



w 




W' 




J9ldnQ^ JO 90OJ t ^i/////^ 



H. M. E8TABROOK 87 

to Buit the contour of the car end, this channel end plate being placed 
aoou the end of the car in a horizontal plane, and into and riveted 
to this channel end plate are the upper ends of the corner posts, end 
posts and vestibule posts. 

14 In the second type of construction referred to, a steel casting 
is employed forming the body bolster and platform to which the center- 
Bill conBtniction is riveted to this steel bolster. This construction is 
illustrated in Figs, 10 and 11, from which it will be observed that the 
center gill construction, the end sill, platform and buffer beam are all 
enJwdied in one steel casting. The end-post construction, the comer 
posta, vestibule corner and center posts are practically of the same 




Flo. 12 Inteorjli. Steel Casting Used in Bnd Fraub Constbdotion 

WDBtruction as described for the built-up type, the difference being in 
Uie method of attaching the lower ends of these posts. The steel 
•^tingB have openings or pockets in the end ail! and buffer beam mem- 
wrs, in which the lower ends of these posts rest and are riveted to the 
•iwtiDg, The construction of the end of the car body, the vestibule 
wd hood are substantially as described for the built-up construction. 

15 This type of construction for the stub-end ear is substantially 
the same as that just described, the exception being that the steel 
liolster and end-sill casting takes the place of the built-up type of 
center and end-sill construction, the end post, corner post and upper 
*Dd construction being identical in the two types, 

IS In the third type of construction referred to the entire bottom 
(runevork of the car from the bolster outward to the platform and 



88 SPECIAL ENDS FOR STEEL PA8BBNQBR CARS 

buffer beam, is one integral steel coasting, and the entire end fram 
of the car is one iutogral steel casting, as illustrated by Fig. 18. 
17 In referring to the three types of conetruption just oatlit 




it must be understood Ihat reference is made to them only as ty] 
and no attempt is made Ui describe Uk> construction of any one r 
road or car builder in particular, or to undertake to establish any 



U. M. K^TAIIKOOK 



ihe forms {It'sorilx'd an being a slaudnnl, as llie details of construction 
HIT to a considfTable degree with diiTereiit railroadE and buildera. 
18 It is of course apparent that tlie weight of the steel car is 




iiuirh xrfatiT than a i-ar i.f llir sani.- ^i/.r ..r ivouilen .iiriKtriiriion. and 
'iiat 111.' wo.»li-ii i-ar i...sm>s.s.'s in ilsclf ii iinlurai ebisricitv to absorb 



80 



SPECIAL ENDS FOR 6TBEL PASSENGER CARS 



buffing shocks such as are produced by collision that the steel car does 
not furnish. Hence, in the development of the steel car, with the 
enormous increaae in weight of trains and the high speed at which 
they run, there has been a growing tendency to increase the strength 
of the etructure with the view of making it as nearly indestructible as 
possible in order to compensate for the absence of elasticity. It ie 
also apparent that, notwithstanding the strength of the structure, if 
it encountered an opposing force of sufRcient magnitude, it might be 
annihilated, and so this strengthening process, and the increasing 




Fig. 15 Skei.ei 



& All-Steel CoNSTRnCTiotr 



weight and speed might go on indefinitely without furnishing the 
rcfiult sought for. It is equally true that if the structure is designed 
for such strength as to bo iudestructible, when the two opposing 
fortes meet, the movable objects witiiin the ears, which is the human 
load, must suffer the damage. To avoid this possibility the idea has 
been evolved to constnict that portion of the end of the car between 
the end of the main body and the vestibule face plates, these members 
being all such parts as are embraced in the platform, vestibule and 
hood covering the vestibule, so that it will collapse under a less shock 
than would be required to crush in the end of the car body itself. 



H. H. KBTABROOK 



91 



19 This idea is based on the theory that in a train in which there 
are say ten veetibuled cars, there is the space between the main bodies 
of each two coupled cars occupied by the platforms and vestibules of 
approiimately 8 ft., or in a ten-car train a space of approximately 
SO Et., of shock absorbing space, which, if properly utilized in the 
inataot of collision, would remove to a large degree the shock and 
Tesultuit damage to the car body itself and likewise lessen the possi- 
biltW of damage to the persons of the passengers. From this idea has 
deteloped what is termed a collapsible vestibule. It is generaly con- 
ceded that if two vestibuled ears coupled together could maintain their 




fa. 16 Skeleton or PLATraRu Members, Steeii and Wood CoNSTautTTioN 



respective horizontal planes at the instant of shock due to collision, 
there could be no telescoping and that telescoping is due to one car 
•Muining, at the instant of collision, a higher or lower horizontal 
plioethan its adjoining neighbor, causing one to ride the otlier with 
the rejultant telescoping effects. 

80 It is generally conceded, that in cases of two cars tending to 
leleacope, the point of maximum shock is never over 20 in. above the 
loorline. In the Government postal car specifications, tJiis point has 
hwn definitely fixed at 18 in. above the fioor line, and with this in 
'lew the end posts are reinforced for a distance of alwut 4 ft. above 
the floor line by steel angles riveted to the /-bar end posts. 



92 SPECIAL ENDS FOR STEEL PASSENGER CARS 

21 A general idea of this collapsible vestibule is aflEorded by Figs 
13 and 14. Fig. 18 shows the construction entirely of steel, whil( 
Fig. 14 shows a series of wooden posts and platform and vestibuli 
members in addition to the steel members to secure the recognize( 
advantage of the elastic and cushioning properties of the wood. 

22 In this construction the longitudinal sills and floor member 
are designed to stop at the end sill of the car body proper, the end o 
which is sheathed with a heavy steel plate extending in one piec 
vertically from the roof downward to the bottom of the end sill. I 
the shock of collision is not entirely absorbed by the vestibule member 
before the end of the car body proper can be crushed, this plate wil 
tend to pull the roof downward and cause the direction of the on 
coming car to deflect obliquely upwards instead of the two car 
telescoping. Further to offset the effect, should the two cars chang 
their horizontal planes in collision, pressed steel shapes in the natur 
of anti-climbers are placed below the buffer beam and platform. 

23 Fig. 15 shows the skeleton of the platform members for th 
all-steel construction, and Fig. 16 shows the skeleton of the platforr 
members where wooden features are employed. 

24 The vestibule diaphragm posts are constructed of heavy stec 
I-beams rigidly secured at the bottom to the buffer beam and at th 
top to the vestibule end plate and longitudinal braces. 

25 The platform, vestibule and hood members are designed wit 
a view to withstanding all shocks incident to regular service, but i: 
abnormal shocks, such as would result from collision, the rivets cor 
necting the various members would shear off with the exertion of lee 
energy than would be required to crush the end of the car bod) 
thereby causing the vestibule to collapse, absorbing the shock am 
furnishing a cushion between the two car bodies proper. It is as 
sumed that in case of a collision these would be the only part 
seriously damaged, and the car could be repaired and replaced i: 
service with a minimum of expense and delay. 

26 The entire collapsible vestibule, comprising the platfonr 
vestibule and hood, is constructed as a unit, detachable and separat 
from the car body proper and can be applied after the car is built o 
in the alteration of cars already built and is equally applicable to car 
of either steel or wood construction. 

27 The object of the collapsible vestibule is, flrst, to protect th 
lives of the passengers and secondly to protect the body proper of th 
car from serious damage. 



No. 1388 n 

DISCUSSION ON STEEL PASSENGER CAR 

DESIGN 

Geobge Qibbs. On this occasion when the subject of steel pas- 
senger car design is under discussion, it may be of interest to make a 
brief reference to the early history of this important innovation in 
railway operation which had its origin in connection with the provision 
of car equipment for the first rapid transit subway in the City of 
New York. The writer was at that time consulting engineer of the 
subway construction company in charge of car design and construc- 
tion. It was obvious that the exacting requirements of the con- 
templated service, which involved tunnel operation at a high schedule 
speed with closely spaced trains crowded with passengers, must be 
conducted with all possible precaution against accident and, further, 
ui a way such as to minimize the fatal consequences of any accident 
which might occur in spite of such precautions. The two consequences 
most to be feared from an accident are the breaking up of the cars 
ui the train and the setting of a fire in the wreckage ; on an open 
nulway line the consequences of these are serious enough, but in a 
subway or tunnel they are potentially much worse, because of the 
confined space which prevents the prompt escape of passengers from 
the wreckage. 

Cars for such service, therefore, should be protected in an unusual 
degree against the possibility of telescoping in an accident, and the 
electric apparatus should be installed in such a way as absolutely to 
prevent the setting of fires. Incombustible metal cars were naturally 
suggested as the solution of the problem, but in the latter part of 
1901, when the question of car design was taken up for the subway, 
it seemed impracticable to consider the adoption of an all-steel car 
for the large amount of equipment required, because of the fact that 
no practical steel passenger cars had ever been constructed and it was 
evident that to develop a serviceable type a number of very serious 
mechanical problems had to be attacked by thorough study and ex- 
perimentation. Not least among the problems was that of keeping the 
height of a metal car within reasonable bounds, without sacrificing its 
strength and serviceability, light weight being an essential requirement 
ui rapid transit operation. 

93 



94 STEEL PASSENGER CAR DESIGN 

As the best practical solution of the car question, it was, therefore, 
decided to provide wooden cars initially, but to make them of an 
advanced type with metal imderframes, protected floors and copper- 
sheathed sides^ and to moimt the electric apparatus in incombustible 
envelopes. These cars were rightly considered at the time a great 
advance upon previous practice in safeguarding against accidental 
fires. The first lot of 500 of these protected wooden type subway cars 
was ordered in December 1902. 

While it was necessary to insure the operation of the subway at 
the date set for its opening by providing the initial car equipment, 
the writer believed the steel car feasible, and in this view he was 
encouraged by George Westinghouse, imder whose stimulating advice 
he was led to persevere in efforts to develop a metal car at the earliest 
possible date. A. J. Cassatt, president of the Pennsylvania Sailroad, 
was also impressed with the necessity for non-combustible cars in 
timnel service, as the great project of the Pennsylvania road in 
building a tunnel entrance into New York City was then in progress. 
He accordingly offered to the subway company the facilities of the 
Altoona shops to build, in the quickest possible time, a sample steel 
car, the design of which the writer had completed in October 1902. 
August Belmont, president of the Rapid Transit Subway Construction 
Company, concurred in this arrangement and early in 1903 the 
Altoona shops started upon the construction of this car, which was 
completed in December of that year. Realizing the many difficulties 
which would be encountered in getting material promptly at that time, 
commercial shapes were quite generally used in the design, and the 
car as built was found, therefore, to be quite heavy and not altogether 
sightly in appearance. 

The company still needed 300 cars to complete the early require- 
ments of the subway operation and it became a question of inmiediate 
necessity to determine whether these cars should be of wood or be of 
the all-steel construction. The writer was able, from experience with 
the sample car, to develop a new design and at a meeting of the 
executive committee of the subway construction company early in 
1904, he definitely recommended the letting of contract for 200 of 
the new design of steel cars. On the strong endorsement of E. P. 
Bryan, general manager of the road, Mr. Belmont decided to venture 
upon this important innovation in railroad operation. The contract 
for the 200 steel cars was accordingly let in March 1904, and followed 
in October of the same year by 100 more. Both these contracts were 
taken by the American Car & Foundry Company, which had the 



DISCUSSION 95 

courage of its convictions in assuming the heavy responsibility of 
tuning out these large orders at specified time and at a price which 
was not out of line with that of the previous wooden cars. A number 
of these cars were received in time for the opening of the subway, 
October 27, 1904, and are running today. 

During the same year the writer, who also had charge of the 
electrification of the Long Island Railroad, placed an order for 122 
steel electric motor cars of practically the same design as the subway 
cars; this service started Jime 28, 1905. The Long Island was the first 
steam railroad in the country to adopt steel cars for its passenger 
service. 

The New York Central a year later placed an order for 125 steel 
cars and inaugurated their electric service from the Grand Central 
Station in January 1907. 

The Pennsylvania Railroad, as a result of the progressive action 
of Mr. Cassatt, endorsed by Samuel Rea, then vice-president of the 
company, adopted steel passenger cars for all trains coming into the 
new terminal, a decision which has since had a far-reaching effect 
upon the standards of all railways of the country. The question of 
the best design for through passenger train cars was taken up ex- 
haustively and systematically by this company and was made the 
subject of a report by a special committee of its operating oflScials in 
May 1909. Today this company has in service 2139 steel passenger 
cars, excluding a large number of sleeping and parlor cars of the PuU- 
nian Company, and builds no other type. 

William F. Kiesel, Jr. The method of suspension described by 
Mr. Summers may be very good on short cars, but with long cars, 
especially passenger cars, it does not seem sufficiently flexible in the 
trucks to avoid unbalancing and putting the cars out of shape. The 
'>odie8 are long and the cars have some flexibility, but in some cases 
the tracks are such that it is necessary to have excessive provisions for 
flexibility aside from that in the truck. 

John A. Pilciter. Referring to Par. 2 of Mr. Summers' paper, 
the question of the amount of wind that has to be taken up between 
the two trucks on the car seems to be exaggerated ; in approaching a 
cune the rise in elevation of the outer rail is about 1 in. in 50 ft. On 
the ordinary modem passenger car truck centers are about 50 ft. apart 
80 that the total amount of wind is about 1 in. measured at the rails. 
Considering the car weighs 130,000 lb., with trucks approximately 



96 STEEL PASSENGER CAR DESIGN 

20,000 lb. each, and the car body about 90,000 lb., in order to take 
care of the wind in the track, the springs on the diagonals of the car 
would have to compress ^ in. more than the springs on the opposite 
diagonal assuming the springs as over the rails. On this same car 
this would mean that two diagonals would have 20,150 lb., and the 
opposite two 24,850 lb., or a difference of 4700 lb. This difference in 
deflection is taken from actual springs. 

To analyze this in connection with the swinging hangers, assume 
these hangers to be 11 in. long, and to be located at an angle with a 
vertical of 28 deg. 8 min., which is about that shown in the cut^ and 
also assume that they are located approximately over the track (the 
movement would have to be decreased or increased in proportion to 
their distance from the rail inside or outside) with a load of 22,500 
lb. for each group of hangers. 

In order to take care of the same amoimt of wind in the track afi 
considered in connection with the springs, that is, % in. difference 
in elevation on the opposite sides of the track, the angle woidd be 
decreased to 25 deg. 35 min. on one side, and increased to approxi- 
mately 30 deg. 45 min. on the opposite side in order to bring about 
stable equilibrium. The vertical loads would amount to 24,9*35 lb. 
on one side^ and 20,065 lb. on the opposite side, or a difference oi 
4870 lb., just a little more than when the springs were used. Ir 
calculating the deflection of the springs only that of the bolstei 
springs was taken into consideration ; the equalizer springs would alsc 
have to take an additional load, and would help to reduce the differ 
euce of loads necessary to bring about the proper amount of deflection 

Looking at a car from the rear approaching a curve, when th( 
front truck enters the curve the centrifugal force at that point woulc 
tend to throw the car body, relative to the truck, actually in tin 
opposite direction from what it should move in order to equalize th« 
stresses. This would put additional torque in the body of the car 
which would not be present in the case when springs only take car( 
of this movement. The torque would be ratlier reduced at the time o: 
entering the curve when the springs only are used. 

When both trucks are on tlie curve all of the wind is out of th< 
car ; the centrifugal force in that case throws the car body toward tin 
outside, and would tend to augment the lift in the track on the out 
side, which is hardly desirable. 

Angular hangers, while they may not have been intended for th< 
purpose described, have been in use for a number of years. It is ver; 
questionable whether they are of any advantage. 



DISCUSSION 97 

S. A. BuLLOOK. Mr. Pilcher referred to frictionless center plates 
and adjustable side bearings to reduce to a minimum the oscillation 
of the car. My experience has been that, to prevent the nosing of a 
car, which takes place almost entirely upon a tangent, it is necessary 
to transfer the entire weight from the center plate to the side bearings. 
Cars of the Pennsylvania Railroad design have been running in the 
Hudson & Manhattan Subway, and, although they have very short 
centers, it was found necessary, in order to prevent the nosing of the 
cars, to take as much weight as possible from the center plates and to 
put it on the side bearings. All of the weight would have thus been 
transferred had not the cars been designed with light side sills. It 
happens in this particular case that the distance center to center of 
the trucks was exceedingly small, but, even on long steel passenger 
cars, a saving in wheel flange wear would be effected by taking all of 
the weight from the center plates and putting it on the side bearings, 
that is, designing the truck so that immediately the car begins to take 
or leave the curve, an initial pressure is put upon the truck, which 
is thus slightly restrained in taking the curve. 

This test has been carried out on several railroads. Plaster casts 
were made of the wheels, and it was found in making outlines of these 
casts that there is approximately 50 per cent reduction of the wheel 
flange wear when the radial movement of the truck was restrained in 
curving. 

E. W. Summers.^ In writing a ten-minute paper, it was not 
POfisible to go into detail to any extent. The examples given were 
intended to be only general in character. Concerning Mr. Pilcher's 
criticism, the 1-in. wind in track in 50-f t. is the ideal condition. Cars 
cannot be built to operate only under ideal conditions. Wind in track 
of 4 in. to 5 in. in the length of a car is frequently encountered when 
^e alignment of the rails is disturbed by water or weather conditions. 
It is the abnormal conditions that cause wrecks. 

In making his comparisons, Mr. Pilcher has apparently neglected 
the action of springs which are included in the inclined-hanger ar- 
fWigement. If the inclined hangers make vertical adjustment on ac- 
count of the tracks being in wind, the springs will not have that to do. 
As a matter of fact, both the springs and the hangers make some of 
the adjustment, neither one doing all of it. 

As evidence that the vertical reactions given by him are incorrect, 
compare the ordinary center-bearing truck under a freight car with an 

*Pratident, SninmerB Steel Gar Company, Pittsburgh, Pa. 



98 STEEL PASSENGER CAR DESIGN 

inclined-hanger truck such as illustrated in Fig. 1 in the paper^ Sus- 
pension of Steel Cars, and used under a similar ear. 

The center-bearing truck must have side bearings^ which will be 
located, say^ outside of the wheels in line with the center of the side 
frame as located on the inclined-hanger truck. Any ezperienoed 
railroad man knows that side bearings so placed on a center-bearing 
truck, under such a car, will cause derailment, even on comparatively 
straight track. On twisted track the weight of the car outside of the 
wheel uses the wheel as a fulcrum and relieves the load on the opposite 
wheel, allowing its flange to climb the rail. 

It is a matter of record that new refrigerator cars which are com- 
paratively rigid, haying side bearings in line with the wheel, easily 
leave the rails where the track surface is warped. 

Contrast these with the inclined-hanger truck having its side 
bearings outside the wheels and over the center of the side frames 
under an absolutely rigid all-steel box car, and note that these cars have 
traversed the worst terminal tracks that could be found at higher 
speed than the engineman dared to follow with his engine without 
any indication of wheel lifting, and it is clear that Mr. Pilcher's re- 
actions are in error. 

As a comparison with his spring deflection taken from actual 
springs, some five years ago the writer built an all-steel box car 
ecjuipped with side bearings directly in line with the truck side frame 
and M.C.B. springs for a 50-ton car. When attempting to take this 
car on its own wheels from the riveting shop to the paint shop at the 
works where it was manufactured it was derailed six times, due to 
the side bearings being outside of the wheels and warped track surface. 
The side-bearing, inclined-hanger arrangement was applied to this car, 
no change whatever being made in the spring arrangement, and the 
car then traversed the worst tracks to be found around the works and 
has continued in regular interchange service on the railroads ever 
since with no indication of derailment or torsional injury to the car 
body. 



No. 1389 

TEST OF A HYDRAULIC BUFFER 

By Carl Schwartz, New York 
Member of the Society 

The object of this paper is to describe the methods used to de- 
termine the performance of an experimental hydraulic buffer for 
railroad terminal stations and the results obtained : also to illustrate 
the conditions imposed upon equipment when striking the buffer. It 
is not intended to enter into the question of design of hydraulic buffers 
nor to discuss the relative advantages and disadvantages of various 
loeans to protect the ends of the railroad tracks against overrunning 
of trains. 

2 The office of a buffer being to bring a locomotive or a train 
to a standstill when^ either by accident or carelessness, it overruns 
its stopping pointy an ideal buffer should be constructed so that during 
the period of its travel the pressure exerted against the train will be 
uniform. The buffer will thus absorb the greatest amount of work 
possible with the smallest maximum resistance against the train, and 
if it fulfills this condition the reaction will be least harmful to the 
equipment. In how far the buffer installed in its present form ap- 
proaches ideal conditions will be shown by the records. 

3 The buffer tested consists of a cast-steel cylinder of 22 in. 
internal diameter, or 380 sq. in. area, and 11 ft. working length. The 
cylinder is grooved to permit a variable quantity of water to pass by 
the piston, the amount depending upon the position of the piston, and 
18 largest with the piston drawn out in position to receive a train. 

^ The piston proper is attached to a steel ram 10 in. in diameter, 
extending through a stuflRng box, and carrying at its extreme end a 
head of cast steel with a wooden protection board accurately aligned 
with the locomotive buffer. The buffer cylinder is connected to city 
water service, the pressure of which is sufficient to drive the piston 
out, and the water discharged during the stroke is disposed of to the 
«ewer. 

5 The buffer is installed rigidly upon and partly imbedded in a 

Presented at the Spring Meeting, Baltimore 1913, of The American So- 
niTY or Mechanical Engineers. 

99 



100 TEST OF A HYDRAPLIC BUFFER 

block of concrete 20 ft. long, 12 ft. wide and 10^ ft. deep, a total of 
90 cubic yards. It ie beld on each side by five bolts of 2% in. in 
diameter extending through the foundation into bed rock by a length 




varying from 6 ft. in the rear to 13 ft. in the front. The weight of 
the structure ia approximately 390,000 lb. The buffer is illustrated 
in Fige. 1 and 2. 



CARI. SCHWARTZ 



101 



6 The infonnatioQ required to determine the perfonuance under 
different woiking cooditioDS outside of the weight of the train is 
principallj: 

a Speed of train Btrildng 

b FresBure performance in cylinder during stroke 

e Tnvd of buffer piston. 

7 The time of performance being exceedingly short, it was neces- 





-. ^■.-,^..,-,| 










"'^^•^B^^^ 1 



Fia. 3 Recordinq Instrument 

Wy to i«cord the readings automatically, and a special instrument 
for tiiia pnrpoee was built by an instrument manufacturer on specifi- 
tittaai prepared by the writer. (9ee Fig. 3). This instrument con- 
dlti of the following parte or mechanisms : 

Bacording Cylinder. A vertical cylinder bearing a recording 
chart is driven through a worm gear by a small electric 
motor and can be adjusted by means of a speed regulator 
to make one revolution in 12 seconds. The circumference 
of the cylinder being 24 in., 2 in. corresponds to a period 
of 1 second. 
Tram-Hpeed Recorder. An electro- niaguet moving a pen verti- 
cally over the chart in five suecessive steps. Five contacts 



102 TEST OF A HYDRAULIC BUFFER 

were placed on the track 25 ft. apart in front of the buffer, 
and these contacts were made and broken by the train and 
actuated the speed recorder. 

Pressure Recorder. Constructed like a steam-engine indicator, 
and by the change of pistons and springs can be used foi 
recording pressures from to 2400 lb. per sq. in. Con- 
nection to the rear of the buffer cylinder was made by a 
small copper tube. 

Piston-Travel Recorder, A worm screw carrying a pen verti- 
cally over the chart and actuated by a cord running from 
a wheel on a winding spring over a wheel on the worm 
screw to the head of the buffer. 

8 The pressure recorder and piston-travel recorder, operating 
above each other simultaneously, give the position of the buffer 
piston and the hydraulic pressure prevailing at any position of the 
piston. 

9 A few preliminary trials were made to adjust the testing appa- 
ratus, ascertain approximately the performance of the buffer, and 
familiarize the engineers making the tests with the apparatus. The 
tests finally recorded were made on March 8 and 9, 1913, with the 
equipment and train speeds as given in Table 1. The travel of the 
buffer piston and the maximum pressure in the buffer cylinder as re- 
corded are also given. 

10 From the readings obtained the curves in Figs. 4, 5, 6, 7 anc 
8 were plotted. In Fig. 4 the highest speed tested was 8.10 miles pei 
hour, at which the maximum cylinder pressure was foimd to be 113? 
lb. per sq. in., corresponding to a total resistance of 431,000 lb., 18,00( 
lb. of which was balanced by back pressure, leaving 413,000 lb 
effective to stop the train. All readings applying to the light locomo- 
tive fall almost exactly on the curve and the curve has been extendec 
to show the probable pressure at higher speeds. The readings applying 
to trains do not coincide as closely with the curve for the reason thai 
the car couplings and the swinging of the cars back and forth had ai 
erratic influence. 

11 In Fig. 5 curves a, b, c and d apply to locomotives and trainf 
of 100 tons, 228 tons, 343 tons and 458 tons respectively and shoi» 
corresponding maximum piston travels of between 3 and 7 ft. It 
will be seen that above 5^ and 6 miles per hour the speed of the 
train has practically no influence upon the travel of the piston; also 
below 5% miles per hour the difference in piston travel due to train 
speed is relatively small. 



CARL SCHWARTZ 



103 



12 Figs. 4 and 5 illustrate the fact that the impact and pressure 
against the train depend largely on its speed and that the piston 
travel is principally a function of the train weight. 

13 The curve in Eig. 6 was derived from the preceding and is 
intended to determine the maximum capacity of the buflfer. The 
highest train weight tested was 458 tons and the extension of the 
curve shows that a train weight of 1000 tons will drive the buflfer 
piston probably between 10 and 11 ft., or about the total travel for 
which the buflfer is constructed. 



TABLE 1 RECORD OF TESTS 









Speed 


Piaton 


Max. Cylinder 


Test 


Equipment 


Weight, . 


Striking, 


Travel, 


Pressure, 


No. 




Tons 


Milei per Hour 


Ft. 


Lb. per Sq. In. 


4* 


Looomotiye 


100 


4.46 


2.69 


460 


5 


Looomotive 


100 


6.00 


2.66 


626 


8 


Locomotive 


100 


5.30 


2.70 


686 


10 


Looomotive 


100 


6.40 


2.90 


730 


It 


Looomotive 


100 


7.21 


3.00 


940 


2 


Looomotive 


100 


8.10 


3.00 


1136 


3 


Locomotive 


100 


7.12 


3.00 


940 


4 


Locomotive 


100 


7.70 


3.00 


1030 


5 


Looomotive, 2 can 


228 


4.42 


4.26 


490 


6 


Locomotive, 2 can 


228 


4.48 


4.26 


460 


7 


Locomotive, 2 cars 


228 


6.37 


4.30 


690 


8 


Locomotive, 2 can 


228 


6.60 


4.60 


790 





Locomotive, 4 can 


343 


3.16 


6.26 


230 


10 


Locomotive, 4 can 


343 


2.0O 


6.20 


200 


11 


Looomotive, 4 cars 


343 


4.80 


6.76 


616 


12 


Locomotive, 4 can 


343 


6.76 


6.86 


790 


18 


Looomotive, 6 can 


468 


4.60 


6.66 


460 


14 


Locomotive, 6 can 


468 


6.92 


6.60 


820 



*TU fint four tests, Nos. 4, 6, 8, 10, were made March 8,1913. 
TTiits 1-14 were made March 9. 1913. 

H Pig. 7 covers test No. 1 on March 9 and the curves show the 
<x>niplete performance with a 100-ton electric locomotive running 
^^ as follows : 

a Speed of the locomotive approaching and during the stroke 

h Pressure during the stroke 

c Horsepower absorbed 
The area covered by the horsepower curve gives the total energy 
•biorbed by the buffer as 368,000 ft-lb., to which should be added 
^ redstance of the locomotive, calculated at 2400 ft-lb., to obtain 
» total resistance of 370,400 ft-lb. The energy in the locomotive based 
upon speed and train weights has been approximately calculated at 



TEST OP A HTDRADX.IC BDFFER 



370,000 ft-lb., which coincides closely with the resistance n 
The pressure curve starts with the city water prcEsure of abou 



















^ 


■ 














^ 


^ 












5^ 




^ 














^ 


^ • 














^ 


■y 






■ SItctr 


•icLoee./h.32X.>ftrght'ldoTona 1 


/ 



















400 uo BOO 1000 lEoo 1400 tno itoc 

Mailmvm C;^iirKler lyuaure. Peundi parSa.In.(PJ 
Fia. 4 PRESSURE IN BUFFBB AND TBAIH SPBKD 











a'E/lt.loa 


\ 

Sifal 


HH-^»J 










rf. 




■f ■ 




'-'* 


%'. 








'' 


, 






















J 














1 






/ 


\ 












1 




/ 


/ 


I 












/ 


/ 




/ 


1 










/' 


/ 


/ 


} 


7 










/ 


/ 


/ 


y 


V 












(f^ 




^ 


^ 
































1 



Flo. 5 Weight and Speed of Train and Piston T&avel or Bd 

and was found after the stroke to be about 80 lb., the differem 
due to resistance in the discharge valve. 

15 Fig. 8 covers test No. 11 and the curves show the c 



CARL SCHWABTZ 



■F 




fit foe 


tBfpl3t 
i/lDflSO 


wcrtwr. 


.^ 












1 
















,.'- 


" 






1' 










^ 


-'"' 










'' 






^ 


^- 
















/ 


/ 




















/ 






















t 


M K 


n s 


» « 


10 SM d 


M nw no 


wo IMM 



WBIght of Train in Ton* (W) 

WsoET 07 Tkain and Uaztuuu Piston Tkavel or Boms 









, 










Max.Prt3i'940ll>. 




















MatNtg.A 
























H-P.Cur 


ayBuflYrffnyTi 




















fiw-f atnorbttt by Bu f^rffnrr' 




i, 


M 


H/-' 


5 


^ 


^_. 




■^"S%< 


17)" 






^. 




1 








f 
















r 










E.r,^ 








































, 










1 


I A 
























1=0 


; 'Iv 


-Hone 


=bw 


' 


















1 


v^ 


•'-^ J ■" 




1 






1 




, 










■- 





A«cond4 b»for< AtriKinq Sacond^ of tvr StrJK'na 

Ite. 7 Total Psktobmakci — Test No. 1, Mabch B, 191S 



TEST OF A HTDRAUUC BUFFBB 




CARL 8CHWABTZ 107 

perfonnance with a train consisting of a 100-ton locomotive and four 
puUman cars, the total weight of the train being M3 tons. In com- 
paring this curve with Fig. 7, the following should be noted : 

16 The maximum pressure is only about 500 lb. instead of 900 
lb. because the speed of the train was only 4.8 miles per hour instead 
of 7.2 miles per hour. The peaks in the pressure curve are probably 
due to the locomotive and cars striking separately about as follows : 
Locomotive buffer 300 lb., locomotive body 500 lb., first car 390 lb., 
second car 300 lb., third car 420 lb. and fourth car 360 lb.; but 
evidently the train was drawn together and pulled apart, which makes 
the performance somewhat irregular. Comparison between the 
energy absorbed by the buffer and the energy in the moving train 
shows a discrepancy of about 128,000 ft-lb., or roughly, 25 per cent, 
which can be accounted for as energy absorbed in the train by its 
parts swinging back and forth during the impact. 

17 Other tests were calculated as the results given in Figs. 7 
and 8 and show similar and consistent performance. 

OONOLUSIONS 

18 Referring to Fig. 7, it will be seen that the bulk of the energy 
18 absorbed during the first ^ second of the stroke; the impact was 
considerable after striking, the pressure falling off immediately after 
^ceeding the maximum. Fig. S would show similar results had the 
speed of the train been higher than 4.8 miles per hour. 

Id It was demonstrated during the tests that the buffer was 
^ciently effective to prevent damage to the locomotive or equip- 
Dient though the speeds were at times relatively high. 

^0 It is evident that the impact can be made smaller by dis- 
tributing the pressure uniformly over the period of the stroke. To do 
^ the leakage in the buffer should be increased at the beginning 
o' the stroke to reduce the initial peak in the pressure curve at speeds 
®^**^iig, say 4 miles per hour. This will increase the travel of the 
Piflton for a given train weight and reduce the capacity of the buffer 
to some extent. If the leakage is brought into definite relation to 
we pressure curve the buffer should offer a uniform resistance against 
the train. 

M In how far these conditions can be approached in practice is 
* matter of investigation and the writer hopes that this contribution 
^y be of assistance in showing the conditions to be fulfilled. 



108 TEST OF A HYDRAULIC BUFFER 

DISCISSION 

P. H. Ci^BK. One of the important elements in any device in- 
tended to absorb the shock or arrest the speed of moving bodies is 
the length of stroke or the distance through which the device oper- 
ates. The disadvantage of the ordinary type of buffer or stop as 
used in railway service is the relatively short movement of the face 
of the buffer. In the hydraulic buffer described by Mr. Schwartz, 
this diflBculty is overcome to a great extent by the stroke or working 
length of 11 ft.^ and the tests naturally show that desirable results 
are obtained. The device has the disadvantage^ however^ of occupying 
a considerable amount of space. The length over-all is not given, but 
it would probably not be less than 30 ft.^ or about 20 ft. more than 
that occupied by the usual type of buffer. This would be an important 
item in a large terminal^ not only on account of the additional space 
required^ but also on account of the greater distance between the train 
and the station. 

Buffers as a rule are intended only for emergency use and are very 
seldom brought into action. It is generally desirable that equipment 
of this sort be of such construction that casual inspection may deter- 
mine whether or not it is in working order, and in cold climates, there 
might be some liability of the device freezing or becoming otherwise 
inoperative without its condition being noticeable. 

Arthur E. Johnson. This buffer could be so designed as to be 
similar to the simpler forms of brakes used to take up the energy of 
the recoil of guns, as follows : 

First by ascertaining as nearly as possible the amount of pressure 
which a given train construction will stand as a resistance. Then 
the length of action of the buffer can be arranged as permitted by 
the space available and as required by the weight of trains. Cylinders 
may be arranged either horizontally or vertically to save space. They 
may be provided with a by-pass if necessary to handle trains very 
much lighter than the maximum. The lighter resistance thus pro- 
vided would permit the same length of action for the light as for the 
heavy trains. And last, solid bumpers must, as before, be provided 
to prevent the pistons from bottoming whenever the energy is too great 
to be taken up entirely in the device. 

Oil would seem to be a much more suitable fluid for this use than 
water on account of the greater viscosity. 



DISCUSSION 109 

H. A. Jensenius.^ In traveling through Germany and England 
last summer^ I saw a buffer in Diisseldorf and also in England^ the 
construction of which was similar to the one described by Mr. 
Schwartz, but the stroke, I believe, was not more than 8 ft. At 
crowded terminals space is very precious, and therefore if an appa- 
ratus of this kind could be built with a little shorter stroke and 
probably with a larger cylinder or higher pressure, it might be better 
adapted for the purpose intended. 

Another point is the question of freezing. These buffers are filled 
with liquid and subject to low temperatures. Therefore, water would 
not be suitable. A device arranged with a closed pressure tank so as 
to confine the liquid and not to require any outside source of supply 
would, in my judgment, be more serviceable. In this case oil or any 
other non-freezable fluid could be used. 

Philandbb Betts. The curves showing the results of tests of 
the stoppage of trains made by the use of this apparatus show the 
great importance of the draft gear. I would like to know, if the 
question can be answered, whether note was made as to the types of 
^t gears and whether tests have been made with different types of 
draft gear to show the relative results in the stoppage of trains as 
indicated by the form of curve drawn by this apparatus. 

The Author. The length of travel of the buffer piston is largely 
Muenced by the weight of the train striking the buffer and relatively 
little by the speed of the train, the speed of the train determining the 
pressure in the cylinder and thus the resistance against the train. The 
buffer is built for a maximum train weight of 1000 tons, and with 
•bout 11 ft. travel will be able to bring such train to a standstill. The 
length of the stroke could be shortened by increasing the pressure 
•piinst the train with an increased liability of damage to the equip- 
ment. 

Mr. Jensenius is correct in stating that buffers installed in 
Germany and England have a shorter working length, and the reason 
»8 that trains in Europe have smaller tonnage than in this coimtry. 
The experimental buffer tested is the largest of this type ever con- 
structed, its total length being 301/2 ft. 

The suggestion is made to use a liquid other than water. Inasmuch 
w the energy absorbed is all transformed into heat, from a theoretical 
standpoint water would be the ideal medium because it is the medium 

*R. D. Wood & Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 



110 TEST OF A HYDRAULIC BUPTBR 

capable of storing the largest number of B.t.u. Practically, however, 
this feature is of little importance and the non-freezing qualities of oil 
or glycerine are more valuable. Water was used and disposed of to 
the sewer because the buffer is installed for experimental purposes, 
but for a permanent installation the suggestion to use a closed pres- 
sure tank to confine and circulate the liquid should receive careful 
consideration. 

The tests were made irrespective of different types of draft gean 
and the curves in Pig. 8, which apply to a locomotive with four Pull- 
man cars and a total train weight of 342.5 tons, show that a certain 
amount of energy was absorbed by the train itself due to the cars 
swinging back and forth during the impact. No doubt the type ol 
draft gear has some influence upon the behavior of the train during 
the impact period. 



No. 1390 

PATENT LICENSE RESTRICTIONS 

THE PATENT LAW AS AFFECTED Br RECENT AND 

PENDING DECISIONS OF THE SUPREME COURT OF 

THE UNITED STATES AND PROPOSED LEGISLATION 

By Edwin J. Prindlb, Niew York City 
Member of the Society 

The Supreme Court of the United States on March 11, 1912, 
rendered a decision in the case of Henry vs. Dick which has been 
generally misunderstood and has aroused clamor for changes in the 
patent law of great public importance. The court sustained the right 
of a patentee to dictate conditions under which his patented machine 
could be used, and the same reasoning would maintain his right to 
fii prices below which his product could not be sold. To many 
laymen and some lawyers the decision seems contrary to the Sherman 
anti-truflt act. 

2 The Supreme Court has also since rendered a decision in 
^kat is known as the Bath Tub case, which bears on the relation of 
^e patent law to the Sherman act, and tends to mark out the line 
between them. 

3 A case known as Bauer vs. O'Donnell is now before the 
Supreme Court for decision on the right of the patentee to dic- 
tate the price at which his article may be sold by the retailer. 

4 There is a general misunderstanding of the issues involved 
ui Henry vs. Dick, and most men, upon hearing an adequate ex- 
pUnation of what the decision means, see that the rights of the 
public are not in any manner jeopardized by it. In consequence 
®* this situation, and particularly of the decision in the case of 
'lenry vs. Dick, many bills have been introduced in Congress seek- 
^ to modify the patent law in fundamental particulars, and not 
®uly to cut down the monopoly of the inventor but to put his property 
*t a great disadvantage compared with unpatented property, and the 

^^fcsented at the Spring Meetinpr, Baltimore 1913, of The American So- 
^^™^ or Mkchanical Engineers. 

Ill 



112 PATENT LICENSE BESTRICTIONS 

situation is a serious one. It is the object of the present pa 
explain the meaning and effect of the decisions in question and 
proposed legislation. 

HENRY vs. DICK 

5 The case of Henry vs. Dick will be discussed first an 
be treated with what might otherwise appear to be disproporl 
fullness because it will be used as a basis for explaining most 
principles involved in the controversy. 

6 Dick invented a mimeograph or copying machine ant 

ented it. He sold it with this label prominently displayed < 

machine : 

License Restriction 

This machine is sold by the A. B. Dick Oompanj with the lice 
strictdon that it may be used onlj with the stencil paper, ink and oth 
plies made by the A. B. Dick Companj, Chicago, U. S. A. 

7 A Miss Skou bought one of the Dick machines and i 
Henry, the defendant in this case, sold her a can of ink, i 
ing that the ink should be used on the Dick machine, and kn 
that such use would be in violation of the notice on the ma 
The Supreme Court held that Miss Skou had no right to u 
machine with ink bought from any one else than the Dick con 
and that Henry, in aiding her intentionally to violate her oblig 
to the Dick company, was a contributory infringer and was pr 
enjoined from a repetition of his act. 

SEASONS FOR ENACTING THE PATENT LAW 

8 Before the patent law was enacted, the only way in wh: 
inventor could obtain a return from his invention was by h 
it secret; otherwise a competitor might copy the invention and 
out any overhead expense or initial investment of capital, as 
pared with the inventor, reap the benefit of perhaps a large ex 
ture of time and money made in producing and perfecting t 
vention. As a result, comparatively few inventions came into 
ence, and those that did were jealously kept secret so far as po 
Workmen were sworn to secrecy, and the inventions were pra 
only under lock and key and with every effort to prevent their h 
out. 

9 Under these circumstances, the public could not get th 
benefit of the invention, because the inventor could not mai 



EDWIN J. PBINDLE 113 

ture in as large quantities nor as cheaply as if it had been unner*es- 
sary to observe these precautions. If there was an ingredient or a 
formula or some particular step in a process which one person could 
take care of in the manufacturing, the inventor was likely to keep 
the knowledge of that one point entirely to himself, intending, usu- 
ally, to disclose it to some one else when death approached, but when, 
as often happens, death came without warning the inventor died 
without disclosing the secret, and the invention was lost to the world 
forever unless some one else rediscovered it. There are not a few of 
these lost secrets or *lost arts." 

10 When the patent law was enacted it said, in effect, to the 
inventor: "If you wifl give us (the public) a complete disclosure 
of your invention so that anyone skilled in the art can practice it, 
we will give you an absolute monopoly of this invention for seven- 
teen years. This will enable you to practice the invention without 
fear that it will be stolen, so that you can get the full harvest from 
it during the life of your patent, and we will have the benefit of it 
forever afterwards." The fathers of our country regarded this law as so 
important that they made provision for it in the Constitution itself. 
The first patents were granted by a board consisting of George 
Washington, his secretary of state and his attorney general, after a 
personal hearing of the inventor, and they personally signed these 
patents. 

WHAT A PATENT GRANTS 

11 The patent law simply says to the inventor: 'TVe will give 
you a clear field to make money out of your invention if you can. 
Whether you ever make a dollar or not depends upon your own ability 
^i industry in making, using and selling your patented invention." 
The patent does not cost the public one cent, for the inventor even 
pajs all the expenses of the Government in granting the patent. 

12 The patent, therefore, grants to the inventor the right to 
exclude or enjoin all others from any making, using or selling of 
his patented invention. He may either get his return by keeping 
the market wholly to himself and manufacturing and selling the in- 
vention, or he may sell to others immunity from the injunctions to 
which the inventor is entitled by his patent. In other words, he 
Dwiy sell licenses or other forms of grant under his patent, which 
"ieans, in effect, that "For the consideration which you pay me, 1 

• 

pve np my right to exclude you from my monopoly to the extent we 
«gwe upon.*' 



114 PATENT LICENSE RESTRICTIONS 

13 The patentee is under no obligation either to manufacture 
the patented invention himself or to let anyone else manufacture 
it. The Supreme Court has said, by a unanimous decision in the 
Paper Bag case, that' it is the patentee's right to sit still during the 
life of his patent and neither manufacture himself nor let anyone 
else manufacture. This exclusive monopoly is the reasonable price 
which the public agreed to pay for the making and disclosure of the 
invention, and during the life of the patent it must let the invention 
alone. When the term of the patent has expired, the public will have 
an unrestricted right to use the invention of which, but for tlie in- 
ventor, it would never have known. 

dick's RIGHTS UNDER HIS PATENT 

14 Dick, then, was at liberty to prevent anyone from using his 
patented machine during the life of his patent. That would have 
been to exercise his entire right of exclusion. He did not choose to 
do this, however. He might have sold his machine outright for 
a sum of money representing the entire profit to which he thought 
he was entitled for his invention. If he had charged more than the 
public thought the machine was worth, he would have made no sales. 
The public would have been under no obligation to purchase the 
machine. Dick found that his machine did not work successfully 
with every kind of ink, nor with every kind of stencil paper, but 
that it worked much better with a certain kind of ink, and with 
stencil paper having certain qualities. It was to Dick's interest that 
the machine should do good work, in order that he might sell a large 
number of machines, and it was also to the interest of the public 
that the machines should not be disappointing to the users. Dick 
considered that if he only partially released each machine from his 
power of injunction, to the extent of requiring that the ink and 
stencil paper be bought of him, he would be able to make certain 
that the users of it had the right sort of ink and paper. He would 
also be able to sell the machine for a comparatively low price at the 
outset and add his profit a little at a time to the ink and stencil 
paper. In this way the initial cost would not be burdensome, and 
the price that a person paid for a machine would be in proportion to 
the amount of use which he had of it; that is, in proportion to the 
amount of ink and stencil paper which he used upon it. 

15 Another case in which the Supreme Court upheld the right 
of the patentee to say that his patented article should only be used 
under certain conditions is the Cotton Tie case, .in which case tlir 



EDWIN J. PRINDLE 116 

court decided that the patentee of a buckle for fastening bales of 
cotton could lawfully impose the condition on the purchaser that 
the buckle should be used only once. The patentee stamped on each 
buckle the words "licensed to use once only." In removing the buckle 
from the bale it was necessary to cut the buckle. A rival manufac- 
turer bought the buckles after they had thus been used and cut, and 
repaired them and offered them for sale again. He, like Henry, in the 
Dick case, was restrained. 

16 As Dick, under the Paper Bag decision, had the power to 
say to the public, ^TTou shall not use my machine at all during the 
life of my patent," it was reasonable that he should have the power 
to say, 'Tou may use it, but only on certain conditions," providing 
the purchaser agreed to those conditions at the time he purchased 
the machine. 

17 A sale of a patented article without conditions puts it for- 
WW beyond the control of the patentee. It has been repeatedly de- 
cided that if an inventor once sells a machine without any conditions 
attached to the sale, that machine passes beyond, or without, the mo- 
nopoly, and he can never again exercise any control over it whatever. 
It is a misunderstanding on this point that has caused much of the cry 
•gainst the decision in this case. If Miss Skou had bought the ma- 
chine without any license restriction on it, or without such restriction 
being called to her notice in any way, she could have used it with any 
ink she chose without interference from Dick. When she bought the 
niachine with the license restriction displayed on it in such a way that 
she could not fail to notice it, she impliedly consented to the conditions 
of that license restriction and bought the machine subject to them. 
Having bought the machine with this qualified title to it, she 
conld not object to Dick^s wanting the bargain lived up to. 
1^^ physical machine belonged to her ; that is, the metal, the screws, 
ind other parts, and she was at liberty to make any use of them 
which did not infringe the monopoly granted by the patent, but she 
was not at liberty to trespass upon the portion of the monopoly which 
I^ck reserved to himself when he sold her the machine; namely, the 
'ight to use that machine with other inks and other stencil papers 
than those made by Dick. 

18 Many people think that this decision gives the patentee the 
right to pursue the purchaser of his patented machine and interfere 
with its use or sale after he has received his full pay for it, but that 
w not 80. If he once sold the machine free from his monopoly, it 
would be gone forever so far as he was concerned. It is only when 



116 PATENT LICENSE RESTRICTIONS 

he sells it with the distinct understanding, either expressly agreeu 
to by the purchaser or impliedly agreed to, because the underBtanding 
is stated in a notice fixed on the patented article so prominently thai 
it cannot be reasonably overlooked, that he can exercise any oontrol 
whatever over the patented article in the user's hands. It is not 
conceivable that an injunction would be granted by any court in 
a case where the printed notice on the patented article was not so 
prominently displayed as to be certain to attract the purchaaer'e 
attention. 

19 Ex-President Taft, when on the bench, participated in a 
decision which upheld rights similar to those in the Dick machine. 
This related to machines for fastening buttons on shoes, the ma- 
chines being sold under the license restriction that the purchase! 
should use them only with button fasteners bought of the manu- 
facturers, as follows : 

Conditions of Sale 

This machine is sold and purchased to use onlj with fasteners made h} 
the Peninsula Novelty Company to whom the title to said machine reverti 
upon violation of this contract of sale. 

20 These button fasteners were not patented, and the manufae 
turers took their profit on the machine chiefly through charging f 
larger price for them than the market price. The payment for tiw 
machine was entirely inadequate, considered by itself, to compensate 
even for the machine. The court said that the button fasteners were 
in effect, counters by which the payment for the machines were meas- 
ured. This case was not appealed to the Supreme Court, but thai 
court referred to it in a later case as a "leading case,'* which is i 
strong expression of legal approval. 

21 Henry could not have been enjoined unless he knew tha\ 
his ink was to he used on the Dick machine. The injunction wai 
issued against Henry in this case only because he intentionallj 
helped to bring about a violation of the rights reserved by Dick anc 
consented to by Miss Skou under Dick^s implied contract with Mia 
Skou. It has been repeatedly held that one who intentionally help 
another to infringe a patent can be enjoined as a contributory in 
fringer. This is precisely what Henry did. He sold the ink t< 
Miss Skou, knowing that she was under an implied contract not t( 
use the ink on the machine, and Henry intended that she should ua 
it on the machine. If ITcnry had merely sold Miss Skou the ink 
having no reason to suppose that she was going to use it in violatioi 



EDWIN J. PRINDLE 117 

of a license, he would not have been an infringer and could not have 
been enjoined. There is absolutely no foundation for any fear that 
thifi decision would render any dealer liable to injunction who sells 
ink, or any other supply, without any reason to suppose it is going 
to be used in violation of a patent. 

22 The decision does not give Dick a monopoly of ink. There 
has been fear on the part of many people that the effect of deci- 
sions like the Dick decision and the button fastener machine deci- 
sion would be to give the patentee a monopoly of unpatented prod- 
ucts; for instance, in the one case of inks, and in the other case 
of unpatented button fasteners. This is erroneous, however, as the 
public is just as free to buy ink for any other purpose than for use 
on the Dick machine as it ever was, and so, also, with the button 
fasteners. It is only when ink is bought or sold from others than 
Dick for the specific purpose of use with the Dick machine that Dick 
can interfere under his patent. It is impossible that this control 
over the inks to be used with Dick^s machine should affect the price 
of ink for other purposes. Dick could not control the price of one- 
tenth of one per cent of all the ink sold in this country, for all of 
his machines together would not use that amount of ink. Whatever 
market for ink Dick controlled was of his own creation, by inventing 
the machine which uses the ink. 

THE BAUEB VS. o'dONNELL CASE 

23 This case is closely connected in principle with the case of 
Henry vs. Dick. The Bauer Chemical Company manufactures a 
food tonic, and sells this tonic with the following label pasted on each 
package: 

For Bale and use at a retail price not less than one dollar ($1). Any 
«le in violation of this condition, or use when so sold, will constitute an 
Infringement of our patent, under which [the tonic] is manufactured, and all 
pcnons 80 Belling or using package or contents will be liable to injunction 
iid damages. 

A purchase is an acceptance of this condition. All rights revert to the 
^undersigned in the event of violation. 

24 A Washington druggist bought the preparation from the man- 
^acturers and sold it at a price below $1. He also bought it through 
jobbers and cut the price. Upon his failure to abide by promises 
that he would not cut the prices, the company owning the patent 
brought suit against him under the patent for an injunction to re- 
strain him from cutting the price and for an accounting of profits 



118 PATENT LICENSE RESTRICTIONS 

and damages. The Court of Appeals foi the District of Ooluinbia 
certified this case to the Supreme Court of the United States 
for instructions^ and the case is now awaiting a hearing by the lat- 
ter court. This is the first case which has ever brought squaiely to 
the Supreme Court the question of the patentee's right to dictate 
the price at which his product shall be sold^ although the question is 
involved in a number of other suits now pending in the lower courtBy 
and has been many times decided by the lower courts in this coimtiy 
and in England. The decision of the Supreme Court will, of couney 
settle the law on this point in the United States. 

26 As explained in connection with Henry vs. Dick, the pat- 
entee really has three separate monopolies: The right to exclude 
all others from making, from using, and from selling his inven- 
tion. These rights, with one very recent exception, have been treated 
by the lower courts in the United States as separate and distinct and 
capable of being separately sold. They have also each of them been 
held to be capable of sale for a limited territory, or for limited times^ 
or limited to special trades or arts. 

26 In Henry vs. Dick, the Supreme Court sustained the right 
of the patentee to prescribe the conditions under which his pat- 
ented product should be used. In the Bauer vs. O'Donnell case, the 
question before the Supreme Court will be whether the patentee can 
prescribe conditions under which his article can be sold. The ques- 
tion is very important to patentees because the whole advantage of the 
patent would be lost in some instances if it were not for this power 
over the sale of the article. 

THB DICK DECISION NOT IN CONFLICT WITH THE SHERMAN ACT 

27 While this right of the patentee to maintain the prices of 
his patented article, and Dick's control over the ink, may appear 
a violation of the Sherman act, in reality it is not. The Su- 
preme Court has expressly decided that the control of the patentee 
over his patented article is not a violation of the Sherman act. The 
reasons will be apparent upon considering the purposes of the two 
acts. The patent act was for the purpose of inducing inventors to 
make inventions and to put the public in possession of a working 
knowledge of them, and the sole inducement was a monopoly granted 
to the patentee for a limited time to make money out of the inven- 
tion, if he could. 

28 On the other hand, the Sherman act was for the preservation 
of the rights of the public in trade which it already possessed and 



EDWIN J. PBINDLE 119 

to prevent raising by a monopoly the prices of articles in which the 
public already had a right to trade. 

29 The patent statute was for the purpose of bringing into 
existence trade in articles which never had and perhaps never would 
have existed but for the monopoly offered by the public as a reward 
to the inventor for inventing them, while the Sherman act was to 
preserve to the public free competition in trade which already ex- 
isted and belonged to the public. The patentee takes no rights from 
the public when he restricts the conditions of use or price of sale of 
patented inventions. He is but dealing with his own. He can sup- 
press it if he wishes. The public can have it without price simply 
by waiting until the patent has expired, but the patentee has a con- 
tract (his patent) giving him the exclusive right until that time. 
The public never had any right to sell ink for use with Dick^s ma- 
chine, for the machine never existed imtil he invented it. Therefore 
be has taken nothing away from the public which belongs to it, and 
there is nothing for the Sherman act to operate upon. 

30 The control of the patentee over the conditions of use or 
sale of his patented article is not so absolute as it might seem. The 
only way in which he can get return from his patented article is 
by inducing the public to use it. If, then, he imposes restrictions 
which are too burdensome or which take away the advantage of the 
public in using the article, he cuts down the sales which he might 
otherwise make. This fact alone puts a limit on the restrictions 
which the patentee will impose on his patented article. 

THE BATH TUB DECISION 

31 The patent involved in the bath tub decision was one relat- 
ing to an implement for shaking sand, more or less automatically, 
on a red hot iron bath tub for the purpose of forming an enamel 
on the bath tub. Tinder the guise of licensing manufacturers under 
the patent to use the implement, a combination of manufacturers 
was affected, which prescribed prices and conditions under which bath 
tubs were to be sold. The association forbade the selling of "seconds^' 
OP bath tubs which were in any manner imperfect, and not only fixed 
the prices, but imposed penalties for selling below those prices. The 
(Uiociation also provided a jobber's license agreement which he had 
to execute before he could purchase the licensed sanitary enamel 
ware. Various zones were established which were to be preserved 
to specified parties. There were other regulations too numerous to 
mention. 



120 PATENT LICENSE RESTRICTIONS 

'6Z The Supreme Court in the Bath Tub case held, in effect, 
that the manufacturers had formed a combination in restraint oi 
trade and in violation of the Sherman act^ and that the patent wu 
a mere cloak. The vital objection was that the manufacturers formec 
a combination between themselves. The court did not decide tha' 
the patentee could not have lawfully imposed the same oonditioni 
separately upon each manufacturer as a license if there was no com 
bination and conspiracy between the manufacturers. If the manufac 
turers had all had their relations directly with the patentee and ther* 
had been no combination between themselves, so far as the .Supreme 
Court decided, it would not have been objectionable. The court di< 
not decide whether or not it was lawful to regulate the price of un 
patented bath tubs under a patent for a patented implement use< 
in the manufacture of the bath tubs. 

THE PROPOSED PATENT LAW REVISION 

33 Following the Dick decision a flood of bills was introduces 
into Congress seeking to amend the patent statute to cut down th 
inventor's monopoly and greatly restrict his control over the propert; 
which he had created. The theory of the framers of these bills wa 
that this property was going to come into existence anyhow, no mal 
ter how little the inducement, and it was perfectly safe to r^gulat 
it to any extent, any monopoly wliich remained in the inventor be 
ing mistakenly thought to be a free gift from the public instead o 
an inducement, without which the invention could not come int 
existence. 

34 The principal bill, which was recommended by a majorit 
(only) of the Patent Committee of the House of Representatives 
contains almost every negative amendment of the patent law tha 
anybody has suggested. This bill has not yet passed either hous 
of Congress. The three principal provisions of the bill are : 

a Compulsory licenses which are to be obtainable from ; 
Federal District Court by anyone who can establish tha 
the owner of the patent (not being the original inven 
tor) has purchased the patent for the purpose of sup 
pression. The Patent Committee of the House of Rep 
resentatives was unable to point out any tangible in 
stance of such patent suppression, and only an averag 
of one to six out of about sixty witnesses who testifiet 
before the Committee, or who presented communication 
on the subject, were in favor of any such provision. J 



EDWIN J. PRINDLE 121 

complete discussion of the provision would be beyond the 
scope of this paper, but a few of the main objections may 
be stated as follows : 

If this amendment were made, no manufacturer would 
dare to patent or disclose anything but the preferred form 
of the invention, because inferior forms which he might 
patent and disclose could be manufactured by others, un- 
der the compulsory license, in competition with his pre- 
ferred form. This might destroy the effect of a generic 
or parent patent which was parent to the children. It 
is unlikely that a court would require the licensee to 
pay a price commensurate with the expense to the manu- 
facturer of the cost of developing the preferred form, 
so that the manufacturer would be at a disadvantage. 
The manufacturer could not afford to improve his prod- 
uct, because the moment he began to manufacture the 
improved form, somebody would demand the right to 
manufacture the poorer, original form. No manufacturer 
could afford to own more than one patent in a given 
line. The constant danger of litigation to compel a 
license would make patents much less desirable prop- 
erty than they are today, and greatly decrease their 
value. Thus the effect of the compulsory license would be 
to discourage invention instead of to encourage it. It 
is believed that there are very few instances of suppress- 
ing the best invention in a particular line, and so long 
as a manufacturer furnishes the public with the best 
form of the invention, it is to the benefit of the public 
to give him a monopoly during the years which it will 
take to establish the article thoroughly in the trade. 

h The bill also forbids license restrictions as to the manufac- 
ture, use or sale of his patented product by taking away 
practically all power to enforce any such restrictions, even 
though the purchaser agreed to them in order to induce 
the purchase. This again would very greatly lessen the 
value of patents and consequently reduce the incentive 
to make inventions, so that inventions would not be made 
to the same extent as today. The bill forbids the patentee 
the control over his property which largely resides in 
the owner of unpatented property. It puts the inventor 



122 PATENT LICENSE RESTRICTIONS 

at a disadvantage as compared with the owners of otb 
property. 
c The bill also provides that a presumption that the Sh.^ 
man anti-trust act has been violated shall be condnsir^ 
presumed, when any one of a large number of the m^^' 
common business transactions is entered into in connectL^ 
with patented property, regardless of any surroundi^ 
circumstances. If the patentee attempts to restrict tJ^ 
price at which the article may be resold; if he attempt ^ 
to compel a purchaser to buy an unpatented article fro^ 
him with the patented article (such as in the Dick case^ 
if he purchases other patents with a view to preventing 
competition with his patented article; if he attempt: 
to control the territory in which his article shall be sold 
or to sell to one person on conditions less favorable thai 
to another; or to do business under any other nam.^ 
than his own, or that of his firm or corporation, he it 
conclusively presumed to have violated the Sherman anti- 
trust act, and anyone who has been injured may bring 
a suit within three years after he has been damaged and 
recover three-fold damages, the costs of the suit, and 
his attorne/s fees. Moreover, the patent may be declared 
forfeited and the owner of the patent may be fined $5000 
and imprisoned for a year. In other words, the patentee 
is tremendously worse off with his valuable property, which 
he has created with his own brain, and which is a great 
benefit to the public, than the owner of any other kind 
of property. 
35 There is grave danger in putting the knife to the inventar^i 
reward. The temptation may be strong to prohibit the patentee from 
exercising such control over the sale or use of his patented article 
as the Dick decision gives. It looks so easy simply to amend the 
patent statute and cut down the extent of the monopoly grantee 
by the patent. It seems as though the public might just as well hav( 
this advantage as not. But, as a practical matter, it is to be con- 
sidered whether the public would not lose more than it would gain 
Taken as a whole, the price is a mere bagatelle which the public hsi 
paid for the inventions that have been produced solely as a resull 
of the patent statute. The patents have not cost the public a singh 
penny, for the inventors have, by their fees, paid all the cost to th< 
Government of granting them. On the other hand, the price paic 



EDWIN J. PRINDLE 123 

by inventors in the cost of experiments, and in the time involved 
and the energy expended, has been beyond all calculation. 

36 There is one machine in the shoemaking art upon which 
over $500,000 was expended before it was considered perfect enough 
to put on the market. Instances are not at all rare where $100,000 
or more has been expended in developing an invention. Most of the 
large progressive manufacturing concerns of the United States main- 
tain a corps of inventors who are seeking to improve their products 
and cheapen the cost of manufacture, all of which goes into the 
general fund of human knowledge, and, after the short period of the 
patent has passed, is forever at the service of anyone who wishes to 
use it. Not only have the patented inventions cost the public ab- 
solutely nothing, but the inventor will get no return whatever, unless 
he can succeed in making money out of the invention. This means 
that he must further serve the public by supplying it with the patented 
product in order that he may have. any return. 

37 The patent statute has been a cardinal factor in the develop- 
ment of our country. No one statute in all history has made for 
the material advancement of mankind to an extent at all comparable 
with the patent statute. Man's hands have been multiplied and made 
more efficient and skilful by the inventions produced as a result 
of the patent statute, so that the average man today lives with a 
degree of comfort, a power of communication and transportation, a 
quantity of reading matter, a variety of pleasures and a control over 
nature which were unobtainable by the man of 100 years ago, regard- 
less of his wealth. 

38 Let us take the tools and appliances which the inventor has 
supplied the farmer as a typical instance. In 1791, the best plow 
was a wooden structure shod with iron, and it was so imperfect that 
but an acre of land could be plowed in a day, and even then the 
Mil was not much more than scratched. The plow had hardly been 
unproved at all in 40 centuries. Now, a steel plow turns up the 
ground so much deeper and better that a much larger crop is ^rown, 
ttd several times as much work can be done in a day with the ordinary 
one-horse plow as with the old form, while with the steam-driven gan^ 
plow 30 times as much work can be done in a day. In George Wash- 
ington's day thrashing was done by the use of a flail, producing 
about five bushels of wheat a day. Now, a steam thresher can thresh 
a thousand bushels in the same time, and there are even steam-pro- 
pelled harvesting machines which rut a swath 26 ft. wide through 
* field of wheat, and thresh, clean and sack the grain at the rate 



124 PATENT LICENSE RESTRICTIONS 

of three bushels a minute, and yet but seven men are required to 
such a machine. All these changes have come about as the t( 
of the American patent law, and practically within the space of 
than a century. If there were time to review the similar chai 
in other fields of industry due to our patent law, it would i 
like a fairy tale. Many arts and industries owe their very creal 
and existence to the patent law. 

39 The inventoT^s reward should twt be disturbed, but, insU 
the patent law should be simplified and strengthened. With the 1 
gain already so tremendously one-sided in favor of the public, 
with the burden already so heavy on the inventor, we should be exo 
ingly slow to lessen the inducement to the inventor to continue 
work. At the very longest, his monopoly can exist but 17 years, 
considerable part of this period is usually taken up in getting 
invention successfully upon the market, even in the case of the i 
successful inventions. The necessity he is under to sell his produ- 
a natural limitation on the conditions which he may impose. 
the most, the public need only wait the 17 years in order to 1 
perfect freedom to make, use and sell the invention. 

40 It would be unwise, in the extreme, to jeopardize the e 
tive continuance of this most advantageous work on the part of 
inventor by cutting down in any way the return to him whicl 
any case, costs the public nothing, and is a trifle compared with 
benefit to mankind. The effect of any present change in the pa 
laws would not become evident for a considerable length of time, 
it might take many years to recover the lost ground, not onl; 
the degree to which we have fallen behind invention abroad, 
in the loss of inventive power due to incentive to develop it. 

41 The patent law needs changes, but changes to build it 
not to tear it down. The Patent Office should have a suflSc 
force of adequately paid examiners so that it can make practi< 
certain it is issuing patents only for inventions which are new. 
procedure of adjudicating a patent should be made cheaper, sin 
and shorter. For that purpose there should be enough judges so 
patent cases may be quickly tried by testimony taken orally in 
presence of the judge, instead of by printed records of testiu 
taken slowly and expensively before a master and then read befc 
judge. The fees now payable to the clerks of the courts shoul 
reduced to merely a fair compensation for the services perfor: 
And a single court of patent appeals should be established, iiu 



EDWIN J. PRINDLE 125 

of the present intolerable system of nine separate circuit courts of 
appeals, each having equal and independent jurisdiction in their own 
circuits of every patent. 

DISCUSSION 

J. NoTA McGiLL.^ Mr. Prindle's paper should awaken the mem- 
bers of the Society to a realization of the necessity for vigorous pro- 
test against the enactment of dangerous legislation aimed at the fun- 
damentals of our patent system, and which, if enacted, will be a fatal 
step backward and tend seriously to impair that set of laws which 
have done more for mankind physically, socially and financially, 
than any laws on our statute books. 

The growth of that system has been co-extensive with the growth 
of our country ; it can truthfully be asserted that to the growth of 
the inventive genius of our people is due America's great progress. 
The increase in population in practically the last 60 years of the 19th 
century was about 530 per cent; the increase in patents about 6400 
per cent. At the beginning of the 19th century the world knew 
nothing of telegraphy, telephony, steam navigation, or the myriads of 
labor-saving devices, the introduction of which has revolutionized 
the social, financial and commercial world. At that time agricultural 
products constituted our export trade. Manufactured products were 
nearly all imported, as it had been England's policy to suppress all 
industries of this kind in the colonies. 

The American inventor could, witli justification, claim much at 
the hands of his country ; he asks only for fair treatment. In the 
grant of patents for invention there is no undue advantage bestowed 
upon any man; the inventor is given the right, for a limited time, 
to exclude others from practising his invention, on the condition and 
with the express understanding that he shall disclose and make known 
to the world what he has produced, so that at the expiration of that 
limited period the public may be free to use his Invention without 
payment or tribute. 

Until a few short months ago no serious complaint was heard 
against our patent system. Then suddenly came the proposed amend- 
nients. If we look for a cause it is difficult to find, unless it be the 
JMthodfl adopted by the Shoe Machinery Trust. But even granting 
that their methods were the cause, it is a safe assumption that had 
there been no dissenting opinion in the Dick case we would not today 

'Beeretarj, Patent, Trademark and Copyright Section, American Bar Asso- 
oatioa, Washington, D. 0. 



126 PATENT LICENSE RESTRICTIONS 

be confronted with menacing legislation. There has been no publ 
clamor for a change. The pronouncement in the Dick case invohe 
no new proposition of law. The decision in the Button Fastener cag 
was rendered in 1596, and for 16 years thereafter (nearly the life 
time of a patent) the commercial world accepted the doctrine of tha 
case practically without question, and the public suffered no hart 
ships. The public are not required to take what the patentee offei 
if his terms are unreasonable. If they subscribe to the conditions in 
posed it is but a tribute to the value of the invention. If, on ti 
other hand, they are not accepted, the public are deprived of not) 
ing to which they had any legal or moral right. The patentee 
alone the sufferer if in consequence of his attitude he is without 
market, and this fact alone precludes him from ever imposing xu 
reasonable demands. The American public can be depended npc 
neither to require nor to accept unfair conditions in affairs of bm 
ness. 

The other radical change now advocated (compulsory licenses) 
even more dangerous and less justifiable than the curtailment of tl 
right to dictate the terms of use and sale. 

It has been said that the patent privilege "encourages the invei 
tor to bring his invention to the highest possible condition of praetic 
utility by inventing improvements on it constantly, in order to kec 
pace with the public wants and to control the trade from which h 
compensation is derived." But this stimulus to improve will no lonp 
exist if the patentee is to be penalized because of the improvement. 

Mr. Edison stated to the committee of the House that while 1 
had heard and read numerous statements that many corporatio] 
buy valuable inventions to suppress them, he did not know of 
single specific case of suppression. When Mr. Fish asked the con 
mittee if during the hearings or at any time there had been brougl 
to the attention of the committee a single specific case of suppre 
sion, he was told* that one man had stated instances where his o^ 
inventions had been suppressed. Considering the fact that over 
million patents have bqen granted in this country, the complaint < 
a single or even a hundred or more persons is practically negligible. 

It is imreasonable to assume that the American manufacture 
would for a moment refrain from placing on the market an invei 
tion that would insure a fair return on the investment. America 
capital has never been known to indulge in such pastime as is 8U| 
gested by a handful of persons demanding privileges which the la 
has always reserved to tlie inventor and those claiming under him. 



DISCUSSION 127 

Once suffer such an amendment to be made, and a serious blow 
will be struck the inventors of our country. Capital, ever appre- 
hensive, will hesitate to accept the risk entailed ; the inventor will find 
it more diflBcult to secure support; and progress will be arrested 

i{ the cost of adopting an improvement may mean an advantage to 

competitors, royalty or no royalty. 

Action and untiring action alone will avert the impending dangers 
pointed out by Mr. Prindle. Concede to the members of the commit- 
tee of the House the best motives, they are not actuated by any de- 
sire other than to discharge their duties honestly and faithfully. It 
is within the power of the members of this Society interested in 
maintaining the integrity of our patent system to impress upon every 
member of Congress that the proposed changes are not desirable, but 
on the contrary will prove a decided menace. 

The author did riot desire to present a closure. — Editor. 

ADDENDUM BY THE AUTHOR 

As the foregoingr paper was written in March 1913, the foUowing is added 
to indicate briefly the changes which have taken place in the decisions and the 
^^lative situation between that date and February 1, 1914: 

The Supreme Court has since decided the case of Bauer vs. O 'Donnelly 
holding that a patentee may not prevent a retailer from cutting the price on 
^ patented article by attaching thereto a label stating that the article is 
IiCQUed for sale at retail under a patent at a price not less than a specified 
price. Thia decision was rendered by a majority of but one of the nine 
•foatiees of the Court, so that it is possible that future decisions of the Court 
opon analogous but somewhat different states of facts, may be in favor of 
the patentees. The Court mentioned various conditions as absent from the 
itate of facts in Bauer vs. O 'DonneU, thereby seeming to imply that if they 
had been present, the decision would have been favorable to the patentee. 
The decision is, therefore, not to be regarded as absolutely denying the 
patentee all right under all circumstances to control the retail price at which 
the article shall be sold, but only under the conditions then before the Court. 
The decision is said to have affected goods whose annual sales amounted to 
approximately one billion and a half doUars a year. 

The United States Circuit Court of Appeals in New York (doubtless fol- 
^OMiti^ the decision of the Supreme Court in Bauer vs. O'DonneU) affirmed 
the deeiiion of the lower Court in the suit of Waltham vs. Keene, denying the* 
right of the Waltham Watch Company to compel Keene, a retailer, to seU 
their nH>vements only at specified retail prices. There have also (since Bauer 
H. O^Donnell) been decisions of United States District Courts between other 
P^ei to the same effect. 



128 PATENT LICENSE RESTRICTIONS 

The Legislative Bill, described in Section 34 of the paper, has 
introduced into the House of Representatives at the present sessiozE 
Congress in substantially the same form as described in the paper. 

A bill known as the Kahn Act slipped through Congress practically 
public notice, and without public hearings, whose object it is to make ^ 
Panama-Pacific Exposition at San Francisco more attractive to foreign ^ 
hibitors by giving such exhibitors a monopolistic protection to their arti^^' 
which are exhibited at the Exposition for three years after the dose of '^' 
Exposition. The bill became a law on September 18, 1913, making it unlai^^ 
to * * copy, imitate, reproduce or republish ' ' anything exhibited at the Exp^>* 
tion which is protected by a foreign patent, copyright, trademark, etc, withO^ 
the authority of the '' proprietor " thereof. A branch copyright and paU^ 
office is to be maintained at the Exposition and required to give the "prop^^ 
tor,'' free of charge, a certificate amounting to legal evidence of 8U>^ 
' ' proprietorship. ' ' The rights are to be enforced by injunction, the asseesixi 
of damages and profits, the surrender of alleged infringing articles to be hd* 
during the suit, the surrender of articles found to infringe, and all means o: 
making them to be destroyed. The law makes lawful infringement a peiUk 
offense, punishable by imprisonment for a year or less, or a fine of $100 to 
$1000, or both. The effect of the Act is to grant a patent, trademark, copy- 
right, etc., to every exhibitor who holds a foreign patent, trademark, copyright 
etc., from the time his goods are exhibited to December 4, 1918, and longer 
if the Exposition should be prolonged, and the penalties are far more severe 
than any penalties for infringing any copyright, patent or trademark obtained 
of the United States Government in the first instance. 

This law is exceedingly dangerous and unjust. The United States Govern- 
ment will grant patents only for new inventions, while many of the foreign 
governments grant patents without any examination whatever; that is, thej 
grant patents upon mere application, even though the invention be as old ai 
the hills. The Kahn Act requires the United States Government to give the 
same force to such foreign patents, as it does to its own patents, which an 
only granted for new inventions. Thus, a United States manufaetorer irbx. 
could not obtain a patent in the United States for his product, can send tc 
France, and obtain a French patent without the slightest difficulty, and thei 
by exhibiting his article at the San Francisco Fair, the American manufaetarei 
can obtain a certificate of '' proprietorship " from the Branch Patent Offiei 
at the Fair, and not only shut out his competitors from what they have t 
perfect right, under our patent law, to make, but put them in prison foi 
exercising that right. 

The scope of this footnote will not permit further discussion of this Act 
but enough has been said to indicate its effect. There is no need for such i 
law, for foreigners to have the same rights as United States citisMns to obtaii 
United States patents for inventions and designs, and to obtain copyright anc 
'trademark protection. The Act was never even presented to the Patent CSom 
mittee of either House of Congress, and there is a strong movement on foot U 
secure its repeal or modification. 



No. 1391 

COST OF UPKEEP OF HORSE-DRAWN VE- 
HICLES AGAINST ELECTRIC VEHICLES 

By W. R. Metz, Washington, D. C. 
Member of the Society 

During the fall of 1910 the writer and the accountant of our office 
were instructed to submit a report as to the desirability of purchasing 
motor trucks to replace horse-drawn wagons^ and an investigation 
was made covering certain Government departments and private 
finns. This report was submitted in November 1910, and it was 
estimated that the office would save approximately $11,000 per annum 
if electric vehicles were purchased and all of the horse-drawn equip- 
ment sold. 

2 This report was approved and equipment purchased as outlined 
herein, and the results were most gratifying as the saving during 
the first year was nearly $12,000, in spite of the fact that during this 
year, only a part of the electric truck equipment was purchased and 
six horses were kept. Five of these horses have since been sold, and 
the saving during the next year will undoubtedly be increased. 

PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION 

3 The naval gun factory at Washington operated five electric 
trucks, two of which had been in operation for four years; one of 
these had a capacity of 2^00 lb., and the other a capacity of 5 tons. 
The first was furnished by the McCrea Motor Company of Ohio, and 
the other by the Studebaker Company. The cost of operation and 
the saving accomplished were as given in Table 1. 

PIVK-TON ELECTRIC TRUCK 

4 The cost of operating this truck was about the same as the 
^WO-lb. wagon, excepting that the 2500-lb. wagon cost 76 cents for 
charging per 40 mile radius while the 5-ton truck cost $1.10 for the 
ttose radius. The total cost of operation is given as $2396.84, and 

Preiented at the Spring Meetings, Baltimore 1913, of The American 
SocuerY or Mxcuanical Engineers. 

129 



130 UPKEEP OP HORSE-DRAWN VEHICLES AGAINST ELECTRIC VEHIOLXl 

if depreciation and interest on the investment of $3725 are incliadec 
the total cost will be $2843.84. 

TABIJ: 1 250a-LB. ELECTRIC TRUCK 

Cost of Truck $2230.00 

Labor for charging batteries $46 .44 

Charging 16.50 

Acid 18.00 

Rubber jars 15 .00 

Batteries (partly renewed) 64 .98 

Carbon brushes 1 .80 

Repairs 99.96 

1 Operator at $2.48 per day 776.24 

2 Laborers at $1.92 per day each 1201 . 92 



Totab $2230.00 $2240.84 

Depreciation 10 per cent 223 .00 

Interest on investment at 2 per cent 44 . 60 



To tal cost $260S - ^ 

Total Mileage per Year 3366 

Cost per mile $0 . 745 

This truck displaced 5 horses and carts, costing as follows: 

5 Carts by contract at $1.92 per day $3004.80 

5 Laborers at $1.92 per day each 3004.80 



Total $6009.60 

Net Saving of Truck over Horses per Year » $3501 . 16 

5 This truck displaced two 2-horse wagons costing as follows ^ 

3 Laborers, each wagon, at $1.92 per day $3605.7^ 

Stabling, shoeing, etc., 4 horse at $4 per day 1252.0(^ 

Total $4867.76 

Net Saving of Truck over Horses $2460.92 

In this case depreciation and interest are not included as the original 

cost of the horses was not known. 

6 One large company operates a number of horse-drawn wagons, 
also a number of motor trucks, both electric and gasolene driven. 
Their experience is given in Table 2. 

7 From Table 2 can be estimated the yearly expense of vehicles 
requiring more than one horse^ by adding the items for horses and 
harness to the one-horse vehicle costs as follows: 

l-horse vehicle expense $464.81 

Vehicle and 2 horses expense $464.81 plus $275.71 740JS2 

Vehicle an<l 3 horses expense $740.52 plus $275.71 1016.23 

Vehicle and 4 horses expense $1016.23 plus $275.71 1291.94 

These costs do not include labor and stable expense. 



W. R. METZ 131 

TABLE 2 HORSE-DRAWN VEHICLES 

:i vestment 

1 Horse $250.00 

1 Vehicle 125.00 

HameflB 30.00 

Total $406.00 

Aidnteiuuioe and Upkeep 
Depreciation 

Horae at 20 per cent $50.00 

Vehicle at 15 per cent 18 . 76 

Hamees at 16 per cent 4 . 50 

Interest on $406 at 6 per cent 24 .30 

Total $97.66 

Horse Upkeep 

Feed at 47.4 centsX366 days $173.01 

Shoeing at 7.6 centsX3d5 days 27.38 

Veteiinary at 1.1 centsX365 da3rs 4.02 

Total 204.41 

Vehicle Expense at 43.4 cents per day $158 . 35 

Hamees Expense 4.50 

Total 162.85 

Total Expense exclusive of Labor and Stable $464 .81 

8 In Table 3 are given the costs of operation for the electric 
trucks used by this same company. Table 4 compares the operation 
costs of the first two trucks recorded in Table 3 on the basis of 300 
dsjB* service per year. Table 5 makes a similar comparison of 
the commercial and individual gasolene machines assuming 300 days' 
wrtce per year for the former and 365 days for the latter. The 
following makes of gasolene cars were in use : Cadillac^ Brushy Buick, 
Ford, Franklin and Maxwell, ranging from 10 h.p. to 30 h.p. 

9 In addition to the records obtained from this company, the 
attempt was made to secure data from a number of private firms, 
but unfortunately none of them had any exact figures and could 
only approximate the savings due to the use of both electric and 
gMolene-driven trucks over horse-drawn vehicles. 

VEHICLES IN USE BY OFFIOB 

10 During the fiscal year 1910 and 1911, which were the last two 
years that horse-drawn vehicles were used exclusively, the total 
expenses for the stable were $31,113.58 for 1910, and $31,231.93 for 



132 UPKEEP OF HORSE-DRAWN VEHICLES AGAINST ELECTRIC VEH 



TABLE 3 EXPENSE OF OPERATING ELECTRIC COMMERCIAL VEHIC 



Capacity. Lb. 


850-1000 


1500-2000 


2500-3000 


4000 


7 


Interest and Depreciation 
(Machine less Batteries 
and Tires. 


S244.50 

67.64 

70.28 

130.50 

20.00 


$306 30 

84.15 

97.30 

175.36 

30.20 


$391.40 

101.70 

155.05 

219.34 

40.00 


$422.04 

110.06 

267.60 

271.54 

60.00 


$47 


Mechanical and Electrical 
Upkeep 


12 


T«re Repairs and Renew- 
als 


5S 


Battery Repairs, Cleaning 
and Renewals 


31 


Current at 1 cent per kw- 
hr 


c 






Totals 


$541.82 


$693.31 


$007.40 


$1133.04 


$14{ 







TABLE 4 TOTAL MILEAGE OF THE FIRST TWO CARS, AND THE COST PEl 
OF EACH. EXCLUSIVE OF INTEREST AND DEPRECIATION 



Capacity, Lb. 


Miles per Day 


Miles per Year 


Cost per Year 


Cost p< 


8f»0 to 1000 


25 


7500 


$297.32 


$0 


1500 to 2000 


25 


9125 


$277.01 


$0 



TABLE 5 COST AND MILEAGE OF COMMERCIAL AND INDIVIDUAL MAC 



Service 


Miles per 
Day 


Miles per 
Year 


Total Cost 
per Year 


Co. 


Commercial 
Individual 


22.2 
19.7 


6660 
7190 


$896.69 
809.53 


$0 




W. R. METZ 133 

TABLE 6 COMPARATIVE EXPENSE OF OPERATING MOTOR VEHICLES IN 

PLACE OF HORSE-DRAWN VEHICLES 

Vehicles for Emergency Work 

Two 2-hor8e vehicles at $740.52 $1481.04 

One S-horse vehicle at $1016.23 1016.23 

$2497.27 
One 4000-lb. automobile $1133.04 

One 2500-lb. automobile 907.49 

$2040.53 
Annual Saving by Use of Automobiles, not indud- 

ing Labor $456.74 

Supply Wagon 

One 4-mule wagon $1291.94 

One 4000-lb. automobile 1133.04 

Annual Saving $158.90 

Paymaster's Money Wagon 

One S-horse vehicle $740.52 

One 850 to 1000-lb. vehicle 541.82 

Annual Saving $198.70 

1911; and for the same years the cost of the delivery section was 
117,093.93 for 1910, and $17,1^56.19 for 1911, making a total cost for 
the delivery and stable sections of $48,207.51 for 1910, and $48,488.12 
for 1911. It should be stated here that the stable and delivery sec- 
tiona were entirely separate at this time, each being in charge of a 
foreman, whereas after the automobiles were used these sections were 
combined, although the costs were separated. 

11 The equipment, number of men employed, and the expenses 
of the stable and delivery sections during the fiscal year 1910 are 
given in Table 7. 

12 Omitting the wages paid the drivers and messengers, the 
stable section alone cost $18,447.^7, making the cost per horse per 
year $802.06, or $2.20 per day, of which 373^ cents was for feed. 

13 From Table 7 can readily be obtained the operating cost of 
one2-hor8e, 6000-lb. capacity wagon, and these are given in Table 8. 

14 During the month of November 1911, there wore purchased 
Md put into service two 1000-lb. trucks, two 2000-lb. trucks, and 
two 5000-lb. trucks, all of the electric type, and at the same time 17 
horses and their equipment were sold, leaving six horses, one 5-ton 
capacity, two-horse truck, one single-horse truck, one carriage driven 
by two horses, and one carriage driven by one horse. 

15 In November 1912, one additional 5000-lb. truck and an 



134 UPKEEP OF HORSE-DRAWN VEHICLES AGAINST ELECTRIC VI 

TABLE 7 EQUIPMENT, NUMBER AND CLASS OF MEN EMPLOYED. AND < 
OPERATION, MAINTENANCE AND REPAIR FOR HORSE-DRAW) 
VEHICLES FOR YEAR ENDING JUNE 80, 1910 

Equipment 

23 Horses (average per year) $ 

Harness, blankets, etc 

1 Five-ton truck (2 horse) 

7 Large delivery wagons (2 horse at $475.00 average) 

6 Single delivery wagons (1 horse at $275.00 average) 

3 Light mail wagons at $200 

4 Depot wagons (carriages) at $300 

2 Coupes, with pole and shafts, at $540 

Total $1 

Number and Class of Men Employed 

STABLE SECTION DELIVEBY SECTION 

1 Foreman at $2000 per year 1 Foreman at $2000 per year 

I Mail carrier at $3.20 per day 4 Helpers at $3.04, 2.80, 2.72 i 
1 Messenger at $2.40 per day per day 

11 Drivers at $2.40 per day 12 Messengers at $2.40 per day 

1 Stableman in charge at $2.88 2 Unskilled laborers at $2.00 pe 
per day 

8 Stablemen at $2.40 per day 

Total employees^ in both sections =" 42. 

Cost of Operation of Stable Section 

Wages of foreman and staLlemen $1* 

Wages of drivers i; 

Rent 

Feed 

Supplies 

Repairs to harness, wagons, etc 

Shoeing 

Gas and electricity 

Total Cost of Operation, Maintenance and Repair $3 

Depreciation, Horses 20%, Harness 15%, Wagons 10% .... 
Interest on Investment at 2% 

Total Cost including Depreciation and Interest on In- 
vestment $3 

Cost of Operation of Delivery Section 

Salaries and wages $1 

Material and supplies 

Total Cost $1 

1 20 per cent additional is allowed for night service. 



W. R. METZ 



135 



electric-driven carriage were installed, and two carriage horses and 
one truck horse and their equipment were sold. 

16 In January 1913, one 8000-lb. capacity truck was installed, 
and two more truck horses and their equipment were sold. 

17 The truck equipment, and the number and class of men 
employed for caring for the electric vehicles and the remaining horses 
during the year 1912 is given in Table 9. 

TABLE 8 COST PER YEAR OF ONE 2-HORSE, 5000-LB. CAPACITY WAGON 

Wagon Expense 

Cost of truck $425.00 

Cost of maintenance and repair $31 . 75 

Cleaning and washing 66 . 76 

Lubricants 1 .00 

l>epreciation, estimated at 10% 42 . 50 

Total $142.01 

Hone Expense 

Cost of two horses $615.00 

Cost of feed $264.33 

Costof care (hostler) 702.60 

Cost of veterinary and office labor 250 . 10 

Cost of medicine 2 . 17 

Cost of shoeing 78.84 

Cost of blankets, nets, etc 12 .22 

Rental value of space (2 horses) (based on 

S2400 for 22 horses) 218.00 

l^preciation, estimated at 20% 125.44 

Total $1641.48 

Harness Expense 

Cost of harness $123 .00 

Cost of maintenance $7 . 68 

Depreciation, estimated at 15% 18 .45 

Total $26.13 

^fi«oelUneou8 Supplies $10.00 

divers* Wages 751 .20 

Helpers' Wages 751 20 

Gm md Electricity 23 34 

Interwton Inveetment at 2% 23.50 

Total $1559.24 

Total Original Cost $1175.22 

Total Expense for One Year $3368 86 

18 During the coming year, and after the remaining six horses 
•re sold, the four stablemen will be dispensed with and in their place 



136 UPKEEP OF HORSE-DRAWN VEHICLES AGAINST ELECTRIC VBB 

there will be employed probably two helpers and cue laborer 
total cost of $6.80 per day, or $2128.40, thus indicating a fi 
reduction of $1377.20. 

19 All of the electric trucks were purchased from the 
Motor Vehicle Company, of Cleveland, Ohio, and the iron-clad 
storage batteries from the Electric Storage Battery Compai 

TABLE 9 EQUIPMENT AND NUMBER AND CLASS OF MEN NOW EMPLO 

Equipment 

Two 1000-ib. trucks $4,639.00 

Two 200a-lb. trucks 5,498.78 

Three 5000-lb. trucks (two in use during full year) 10,625 .22 

One 8000-lb. truck (installed in January 1913) 5,509.00 

One electric-driven carriage (installed in November). 3,671.00 

Total Cost 129; 

Number and Class of Men Employed 

1 Foreman at $2000 per year $2,000.00 

12 CHiauffeurs at $2.40 per day each 9,024.40 

3 Helpers at $3.20, $2.80 and $2.72 per day 2,729.36 

10 Messengers at $2.80 (two) and $2.40 (eight) per day. 7,762 .40 

1 Mail carrier at $3.20 per day 1,001.60 

2 Messenger boys at $1.20 each per day 751 .20 

1 Stableman in charge at $4.00 per day 1,252.00 

3 Stablemen at $2.40 each per day 2,253.60 

2 Drivers at $2.40 each per day 1,502.40 

35 $28,: 

Note — Labor charge is based on day service. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

20 It will be noted that there have been no tire costs durii 
year. This, of course, was due to the fact that none of the tira 
worn out, but it should be stated that the tires on the 6000-lb. 1 
are practically worn out and, in fact, were being replaced durii 
month of Januarv 1913, so that the tires on these trucks woi 
after running since December 1911, or a period of 13 monihs. 
tires on the 1000 and 2000-lb. trucks are still in fairly good cone 
The tires on the 5000-lb. trucks would undoubtedly have lasted 1 
than they did were it not for the fact that these trucks were 
loaded up to 7000 lb., making a considerably harder service 
could have been anticipated by the makers. 

21 The total cost of operating the combined delivery, stabL 
garage during the year 1912 was as given in Table 10. 



W. R. METZ 



137 



22 In Table 10 it is interesting to note that the six electric 
trucks, doing practically all of the work, cost only about twice as 
much as the six horses. As a matter of fact the six electric trucks 
alone did as much work as the total stable force did during the year 
previous, and the horse-drawn equipment simply took care of the 



TABLE 10 SALARIES, WAGES, LEAVE OF ABSENCE, HOLIDAY AND LIABILITY 
PAYMENTS. MATERIAL AND SUPPLIES. REPAIRS, ETC., FOR DELIVERY, 
STABLE AND GARAGE, JANUARY 1, 1912 TO DECEMBER 31, 1912 





Salartss. Waqss, Lbavk of Absence. 


Material and Supplies, 




HOUDAT AND LlABIUTT 


Payments 


Repairs, Etc. 




Month 
















Delivery 


SUbles 


Garage 


Delivery 


Stables 


Garage 


Jinoir>' 


91,429.23 


$523.71 


$818.23 


$14.75 


$149.85 


$223 87 


Febfuiry.... 


1.330.50 


465.88 


822.56 


2.74 


127 00 


224.89 


Mwch ... 


1.345.76 


487.61 


828.97 


2.28 


189 36 


240.67 


April 


1.245.10 


484.17 


891.61 


13.51 


76.21 


197.08 


May 


1.378.52 


543.23 


1.019.64 


25.65 


114.27 


183.87 


June 


1.141.73 


453 61 


821.78 


66 96 


213.18 


495.99 


July 


1.454.96 


512 77 


887.06 


9.40 


124.35 


173.57 


Aufuit 


1.372.38 


447.99 


889.27 


6.00 


127.84 


251 64 


September.. 


1,487.09 


429.50 


678.68 


4 34 


122 . 56 


198.60 


Octobw.... 


1.391.65 


443 33 


710.59 


9.94 


129.54 


307.26 


NoYMnber.. 


1.565.02 


337 95 


809.68 


1.35 


57.76 


222.40 


Dewmber. 


1,460.70 


252 00 


910.13 


13.95 


48.81 


203.41 


ToUl ... 


$16,602.73 


$5381.75 


$10,088.20 


$170.77 


$1480.78 


$2923.25 



Equipment iitued January 1 to December 31,1912 $70 . 00 



$24,446.00 



increased work. 

^ Table 11 shows in detail the cost of taking care of the electric 
^cks, and as the cost of the trucks of any given size is about the 
*wie, only one of each size is given. 

W Prom the given figures we can readily ascertain the cost of 
operating one 5000-lb. capacity electric truck as compared with one 
5000-lb. capacity 2-horse wagon. The cost of two 2-horse wagons 
being $6737.72 (Table 7), the saving due to the use of the electric 
^ck is $4204.39. 

25 Unfortunately no mileage record of the horse-drawn vehicles 
^as kept during the previous years, but the records show that the 
two-horse wagon made an average of four trips per day, and the 



138 UPKEEP OF HORSE-DILI.WN VEHICLES AGAINST ELECTBIC VE 



a 



•J 



•O 



o 
H 






§ 

I 

s 



Jd 
•J 



CI 



5 

o 



I 



a 

7 
S 



•J 



3 

o 
H 



5 

3 



o 
a 

s 

*-» 

I 

s 



8 « ^ 
o a» M ob 



•- » ^ O r* 
io CO r^ •! 

eo 



• CO CI <^ 

• I- r* N 



eo o o 
•^ p o 






8Q m « 
O 00 « c« 



« CD 






!5 ® 2 
«o M o 



882 



to 



O C4 U3 00 -4 

00 O !>« CO 

>0 CO to •» 

CO 00 C4 



sss 



s s 



S8S8!o 



CI O CO CO o 

5C4 CO CO 

IO O C4 
CI 



eo to IO 
^ t* « 



ss 






o o CO ^ r» 


■ 00 ^ r^ 
• TO ^ CO 


^ o CO a» r^ • 
«e "^ 00 « • 

00 1* CO •» • 








SSScoS : 


:{2S2 


00 O CO CO w 
» O lO •» • 

C« »-• r^ 


• O ^4 *-i 
<* CO 

1^ 



O O CO O CO 



'* 1^ c« 

^ »n 

lO o 

CO t^ 



eo 00 iQ 
« ^ « 



^38 

CO 



s 

8 



o o -^ S S 


:SS& 


3511 
8459 

1303 
$16 

• • • « 


• C4 ts* « 

M CO 

^4 






O Q lO t^ . 
O O 00 00 CO 


:SSS 


CO 00 CI a> ^ • 
1-1 » ^ ,-1 . 

CO 00 •-< 


^4 




5 

o 



£ £ fc. o i.- 

e 6 ^ S ^ 2 
< < W O OQ E- 



I 



U S i2 



W. R. METZ 



139 



present records show that the 5000-lb. electric trucks make an average 
of eight trips per day. The mileage of the electric trucks being about 
24 per day, it may be assumed that the mileage of the horse-drawn 
trucks was about 12 per day. 

TABLE 12 COST OF OPERATING ONE 5000LB-. ELECTRIC TRUCKS 

Cost of Truck and Equipment (including spare battery and 

parts) S3745 .00 

MainteDance and repair (as per statement above) $581 . 53 

Depreciation at 10% ! 374.50 

Interest on investment at 2% 74 .90 

(^lauffeur's wages at $2.40 per day 751 .20 

Meseenger's wages at $2.40 per day 751 .20 

Total original cost $3745.00 / 

Total expense for one year $2533 . 33 

' Om of then dectrie trucks easily replaces two 2-bor8e trucks. 

26 For the sake of comparison the costs of the three sizes of 
electric trucks and of the two-horse wagon are given in Table 13. 

TABLE 13 COSTS OF ELECTRIC TRUCKS AND 3-HORSE WAGON 



Atwih Trips per Day 

Milwie per Day, Average 

MilHce per Month (Loaded Halfway)... 

Averue Load per Trip, Lb 

Toul Loed per Day. Lb 

Tom 

foul L(Md per Month. Tons of 2000 Lb.. 

ToUl Cort per Month 

CortpwMUe 

^ P« Mile (Omitting Driver's and 

Helper's Wages) 



2-Hor8e 

Wagon 5000 

Lb. Capacity 



4 

12 

312 

4000 

16.000 

8 

208 

$280.74 

0.899 

0.499 



5000-Lb. 

Electric 

Truck 



8 

34 

624 

5500 

44,000 

22 

572 

$211.11 

0.338 

0.138 



2000-Lb. 

Electric 

Truck 



8 

20 

520 

2500 

20.000 

10 

200 

$187 81 

301 

0.121 



1000-Lb. 

Electric 

Truck 



9 

20 

520 

900 

8100 

4.05 

105.3 

S180.93 

0.347 

0.107 



^Om of these electric trucks easily replaces two 2-hor8e trucks* 

"^^ tverage load on the 6000-lb. electric truck is 5600 lb., that on 
the 2000.1b. truck is 2600 lb., that on the 1000-lb. truck is 900 lb., 
^i that on the 2-horse wagon was 4000 lb. 

27 The methods of keeping the records are given as a matter of 
mtereai The Daily Meter Record and the Daily Charging Record 
^ made out, one for each truck, by the employees in the garage. 
^686 are turned in to the o£5ce each morning and transferred to the 



140 UPKEEP OF HORSE-DRAWN VEHICLES AGAINST ELECTRIC VEHia 

Electrical Vehicle Record each month. This card is printed on Ik 
sides, thus providing space for a whole year. 

28 The electrical and mechanical upkeep are obtained from ' 
regular mechanics' work slips. Every machine in the office is gi^ 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

ELECTBICAL SECTION 



DAILY METER RECORD—ELECTRICAL VEHICLE 



FoBM S— 450 
(SUmeO)... 



Machine Xo 


Battery No 

READING OP 
ODOMETER 


. . Date 




191 




t 








READING OP 
AMP. HR. METER 


TIMB 


REMARKS 


IN 










OUT 












■ ■>■>■> >••«■•• 







DIFTEBENCE . 



















GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

ELECTRICAL SECTION 



DAILY CHARGING RECORD— ELECTRIC 

VEHICLES 



Battery No Date. 



191 



TIME 


VOLTS 


AMP. 


BP.QR. 


TRMV. 



































Form S— 447 
iSiijned). . 



a number, and all repairs made and materials used are entered 
the work slip and charged against the machine number and tabulal 
in the office. In this way an accurate record is kept as to the c 
uf each machine. 

29 Under inspection is charged the time for charging batter! 
washing the trucks and similar miscellaneous work in the gara 
and all of this cost is evenly distributed among all of the trucks 
service. 



W. R. METZ 



141 



Form S-406 

GOVERNMENT PRINTTNG OFFICE 

OFFICE aUPT. OF BXTIItDlNOS 

ELECTRICAL VEHICLE RECXDUD 



MACRiNa No. 



MONTH 


JAN. 


FEB. 


MAB. 


APR. 


MAT 


JUNE 


TOTAL mUfl 














hXf. HIS. USED 














kUf. BM. PER UILC . . . 














I. W. HIS. SUPPLIED . . . 




• 










COST Of CURRBNT 














lATTIBT UPKEEP 














thi upkeep 


••••• 












KUcniCAL upkeep . . 














MtCHANICAL UPKEEP. . 














WWECTION 














TOTALS 
















p 




H'MARU ... 













DISCUSSION 

H. H. Smith.^ Scientific costkeeping is unfortunately a very 
niodern practice, and we who must displace outworn institutions with 
^6w and better ones are at a disadvantage because there is nothing 
^gible available concerning the old. 

The saving effected by the substitution of power trucks in the case 
''•ted by Mr. Metz is surprising, as it is not unusual for the cost of 
operation during the first year to be reduced very little. Usually this 
'8 because the delivery routes and system have not been altered where 
necessary to fit the new conditions. Obviously if an electric truck is 
P^en the work of a horse truck on the horse-truck schedule, the cost 
pet delivery will be much higher because the advantages of the motor- 
''Hven vehicle will not have boon properly utilized. The case under 

'Edi«on Storage Battery Co., Orange, N. J. 



142 UPKEEP OF HORSE-DRAWN VEHICLES AGAINST ELECTRIC VBHICLB:& 

discussion indicates what may be accomplished by careful study and 
rearrangement. 

Another point brought out in the paper which confirms other 
investigations along the same lines is the insignificance of the co0t 
of energy in the operation of electric vehicles. It seems to ran 
generally between 6 and 1 per cent of the total cost. Bepairs and 
depreciation usually constitute a greater item of expense, while the 
cost of labor ranges from 40 or 50 per cent up. These relations should 
be carefully borne in mind when the purchase of trucks is under con- 
sideration. 

It is an interesting fact, brought out more clearly in other investi- 
gations, that the advantage of the electric wagon over the horse wagon 
increases with the distance of the delivery zone from the startiiig 
point in light parcel delivery, and with the weight of the load in work 
near the point of distribution. It is even recorded that the horse may 
be of slightly less cost in congested territory where the radius of action 
is small and the number of stops large. 

It is stated in the abstract of the paper that possibly the gasolene 
truck meets with favor in certain classes of service because of the 
ease with which fuel may be obtained. This may be true today, but 
it will be a matter of only a very short time when power companies 
will have boosting stations in as large numbers as could be desired 
and there will also be garages with boosting facilities when the 
demand is present. If careful study is given to the transportation 
problem, however, boosting will not be required in commercial servioe 
except where it has been specifically allowed for in the design of the 
vehicle. 

A. M. Peahson.* The principal feature which Mr. Metz*s paper 
indicates is the fact that the horse is a thing of the past. It does 
not take a long stretch of imagination to see why this is so when 
you take into consideration the fact that the volume of business of 
this country has increased about 165 per cent in the last ten years, 
and that the number of horses and mules has increased only about 
10 per cent; therefore, the only means by which this increased 
business, which means increased distance, as well as increased volume 
could be overcome, was to substitute a mechanical method of trans- 
portation for a physical method. But there are still many serious 
problems facing truck manufacturers and truck distributors, the larg- 
est one of which is the one called the customers* problem; that is, 

^The Locomobile Company of America, 2314 Market St.j Philadelphia, Pa. 



DISCUSSION 143 

methods by which the short haul and the facilitating of loading and 
unloading of merchandise, and the increase of the efficiency of a single 
unit in the form of a truck may be accomplished. 

There are still many things to be desired. For instance, the com- 
pany that I represent makes a truck with an engine which has a capac- 
ity of 45 h.p. It is obvious that there should never be a state of affairs 
where a truck with such an engine would stand idle while six or eight 
men load it. The power of this engine should be utilized in every 
instance for loading and unloading, and all the concomitant features 
of transportation to bring into existence the full efficiency of a motor 
vehicle. 

We know how to build a chassis ; we know how to build engines, 
both electric and gasolene; but there are many other things which 
are directly in line with the craft which this Society represents that 
are badly needed and clearly indicated. For instance, we need fold- 
ing boxes, and we need them very badly. There have been many fold- 
ing boxes placed on the market, but there seems to be some weakness 
in the hinges, which prevents the article from being a practical part 
of h'ansportation. 

We need different types of dumping bodies from those that are now 
offered to the public by body makers. Too many people are trying 
merely to place a truck instead of so many horses, and too many body 
builders are offering us the same conditions as we had with horse 
wagons. What we need are bodies that are made and adapted espe- 
cially for motor vehicles. We need different power appliances ; we 
need a satisfactory winch for a truck ; we need a satisfactory crane 
for a truck, and in all these appliances we need a condition whereby 
the number of men necessary to operate them is reduced to a mini- 
mum. 

L. H. Plandebs.* The general agreement in results and conclu- 
sions of the paper with the reports of the electrical engineering depart- 
ment of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in its exhaustive 
investigations of The Economical Transportation of Merchandise in 
Metropolitan Districts, is observed. 

In the last report, Vehicle Research Bulletin No. 3, presented last 
March before the Electric Vehicle Association, Messrs. Pender and 
Thompeon show how important is the study of service requirements, 

* 

^n securing a proper selection of the size and type of vehicle to give 
* resultant minimum cost. Among the figures thoy prosont the time 

'The Electriij Storage Battery Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 



144 UPKEEP OF HORSE-DRAWN VEHICLES AGAINST ELECTRIC VEHia 

the wheels are in motion to the time the vehicle is in servicey i 
the mileage factor, is most impressive. 

Referring to Mr. Metz's paper, Table 13, the average mileage per c 
runs from 20 to 24 for the electrical vehicles at a cost of from 3 
to 36.1 cents per mile, of which roughly two-thirds is labor for driv 
and helpers, while with the horse-drawn vehicle the driver and hel; 
wages amount to about 44 per cent of the cost per mile. Anyth: 
therefore that will increase the percentage of the time the wh< 
are turning will decrease the cost of operation per mile. 

It would also appear that with a mileage factor such as would i 
essarily exist it would often be foolish to run even a 2000 lb. cap 
ity vehicle continuously at the speed that now prevails. With a red 
tion of speed, vehicle and battery maintenance drop an amount ^ 
worth the sacrifice. To illustrate: Assume from Table 13 that 
2000-lb. electric truck is in service 10 hours. It has a maximum sp 
on the level somewhere near 12 miles per hour, and an average sp 
of say 8 miles per hour, which would mean for 20 miles per day 
actual running time of 2% hours, with an idle time of 7^ hoi 
By cutting the maximum speed to 9 miles per hour the time of r 
ning would be increased to only 3 hours, which would necessitat 
reduction of half an hour in the idle time, or approximately 7 
cent. This is particularly true in congested city streets where ii 
impossible to utilize the high speed on account of frequent stopp 
and starting. 

Effecting this change through increased gear ratio would m 
reduced battery draw for a given tractive effort or a greater tract 
effort for hills and greatly reduced vehicle and tire depreciation, 
the very fact that the electric vehicle is a so-called slow-speed mad 
may be attributed one of the reasons for its superior economy 
nearly every situation over the commercial gasolene vehicle. ' 
larger the scale upon which the electric vehicle is used the grei 
is the economy, particularly in battery efficiency and maintenance. 

The radius of operation with electric vehicles has been much 
creased in the last few years by cooperation between the vehicle ma 
facturer, the motor manufacturer and the battery manufacturer, € 
designing his part to make a harmonious equipment suited to the ] 
ticular service. 

Attention is called in the abstract of the paper to the larger rac 
of action of the gasolene machine as well as to its greater cos! 
operation as comparorl with the electric car. In this connection tl 



DISCUSSION BY L. H. FLANDERS 145 

would appear to be many an opportunity for increasing the radius of 
action of the electric vehicle by changing batteries or boosting during 
periodfi of idleness at outlying distribution points, or at the home load- 
ing platform during the noon hour. 

In many delivery systems it is the practice to carry merchandise 
to outlying substations in large gasolene transfer trucks and from the 
substation to the points of ultimate destination in electric delivery 
wagons. In collection service the process is reversed. Many of these 
substations readily lend themselves to taking care of large electric 
transfer trucks by allowing for changing batteries which will take 
from 20 to 30 minutes, or by providing facilities for boosting charges. 
By changing batteries the radius of action of such trucks is, of course, 
doubled. 

The lead storage battery, particularly with that form of construc- 
tion using protected cores, is adapted to be recharged at exceedingly 
High rates and with remarkable efficiency for short periods. To be 
specific, that form may be recharged at an energy efficiency of over 
84 per cent and a current eflBciency of upwards of 97 per cent. The 
battery may be recharged at a rate in amperes equivalent to its state 
of discharge in ampere-hours. This would, of course, mean a decreas- 

• 

'ng rate of charge. This can be secured practically by providing a 
constant potential circuit of approximately 2.3 volts per cell, and sim- 
ply by plugging in the battery without intervening resistance. By 
tbis method of charge with 100 per cent of the battery discharge 23 
per cent can be restored in 20 minutes ; 32% per cent can be restored 
in 30 minutes ; 52^^ per cent can be restored in 1 hour. 

With the battery three-quarters discharged 44 per cent of the total 
opacity can be restored in one hour, giving a total capacity of 144 
per cent of the normal capacity on one charge and a corresponding in- 
crease of mileage per charge. * 

Where constant potential circuits of suitable voltage are not avail- 
able, the battery may be boosted at a constant current, provided gassing 
{which means wasted energy), and high temperatures are not pro- 
duced. A safe rule within this limit is to charge at a current rate 
»n amperes equal to the discharge state of the battery in ampere hours 
divided by the time in hours available for charging, plus one. To illus- 
trate: The ampere-hour meter shows 100 ampere-hours have been dis- 
'baff^ed from the battery; one hour is available for boosting; the 



146 UPKEEP OF HORSE-DRAWN VEHICLES AGAINST ELECTRIC VEHICLES 

100 

charging rate will be — ==50 amperes for one hour. If 15 minutes 

100 

are available for charffinff the rate would be = 80 ampeTes 

^ ^ 1+0.25 

and the input would therefore be 20 ampere-hours. 

Referring to Table 11, this figure would mean on the basis of 3.69 
ampere-hours consumption per mile with 95 per cent current efiS- 
ciency, about 13 miles increased action with one hour available for 
boosting. 

An ampere-hour meter would be necessary as a guide in following 
this method, and in general the results would be as follows: A vehi- 
cle after having given 40 miles on a charge could be boosted so as to 
give additional mileage as follows: in ^ minutes, 10 miles; 40 min- 
utes, 16 miles additional; 60 minutes, 20 miles additional; 80 min- 
utes, 22.8 miles additional. 

The same vehicle could be boosted for one hour after having given 
10, 20 and 30 miles from a fully charged battery so as to give 5, 10 
and 15 miles respectively. 

These data show the possibility for long hauls and the flexibility of 
application of the electric vehicle. 

William P. Kennedy. There is general demand for operation 
cost information such as is given by Mr. Metz. There has been con- 
siderable difficulty in getting accurate cost information from users of 
motor vehicles, particularly for the reason which is illustrated in this 
paper, that the installations are made partially instead of completely, 
and with the partial installation retaining part of the former horse 
installation, it is hard to segregate cost to do justice to the motor 
vehicle. Mr. Metz's paper has taken care of this very nicely and 
shown differences in cost as to partial, initial and final installation. 
The best practice would be completely to analyze the situation first 
and prepare a statement of the operating costs, and to use that as 
a standard table, so to speak, by which the entire proposition might be 
worked out. It is not just nor desirable to make comparison of unit 
costs of large motor equipment as against the cost of the horse-drawn 
vehicle in the horse-equipment installation; the only way to arrive 
at cost in either horse installation or motor installation is to take the 
entire cost of operation, preferably on an annual basis and, with all 
the charges against the installation, determine the operating unit 
cost. 



DISCUSSION 147 

John Younger.* In the abstract of the paper there is a state- 
ment rather damaging to the gasolene truck, and not at all substan- • 
tiated by the figures given. Many like statements are made by those 
favoring the electric storage battery truck, but when the test of actual 
accounting is applied, they are found to be without actual foundation 
in fact 

The only gasolene cars mentioned in Par. 8 are the Cadillac, 
Brush, Buick, Ford, Franklin and Maxwell. These are distinctly not 
commercial vehicles, as properly understood, but merely touring cars, 
probably specially adapted. These cars nin at high speed and it is 
a well-known fact that it is exceedingly diflScult to keep the drivers 
from abusing them by stolen "joy rides'* and by fast driving over 
bad roads. For these and many other reasons, their cost of operation 
is on the high side, but should not be as high as stated in Table 5 if 
there had been careful supervision. For instance, the running sheet 
of a gasolene 5-ton truck selected at random shows that it ran at a 
cost per mile of $0,267, i.e., exactly twice the cost of running the 
80-called gasolene commercial car in Mr. Metz^s paper. 

It may be interesting to state here the method used by the Pierce- 
AiTow Motor Car Company in taking operating costs of their 5-ton 
truck. It will be noticed that every item of importance in determin- 
ing a true and accurate cost is taken into account, including' insur- 
ance and garage charges, and a reasonable interest at 6 per cent per 
annum on the investment. Mr. Metz^s figure of 2 per cent on Table 
12 is altogether too low, though, of course, in agreement with that 
allowed on his horse-drawn vehicles. 

Investment of truck with full equipment, including body and 

all tools $4800.00 

Interest at 6 per cent per annum $288.00 

General insurance 200.00 

Garage at $30 per month 360.00 

^ver at $21 per week. 1092.00 

Fixed charges per year $1940.00 

Fixed charges per day (1/365) 5.32 

RUNNING COSTS PER MILE 

Tires (8000 miles guaranteed) at $468* $0.05850 

Gasolene, 4% mi. per gal. at 18 cents per gal 0.04000 

Lubrication 

Motor, 250 mi. per gal. at 60 cents per gal 0.00240 

^Mechanical Engineer, Truck Department, The Pierce- Arrow Motor Car 
Co., Buffalo, N. Y. 

'Based on cost at present time. 



148 UPKEEP OF HORSE-DRAWN VEHICLES AGAINST ELECTRIC VEHICLES 

Transmission, 5000 mi. per 5 gal. at 65 cents 0.00065 

Rear Axle, 5000 mi. per 5 gal. at 65 cents 0.00065 

Allowance for daily repairs and overhaul (maintained and 

overhauled at 15,000 mUes) 0.02500 

Depreciation at 150,000 miles, or seven years 0.03200 

Operating expenses for 1 mile $0.15820 

These figures are based on actual average working and can be oo: 
siderably improved on by careful supervision. Tire mileage^ for i 
stance, can be bettered by the driver exercising precaution on 
roads. 

We find that the field of the gasolene truck is limited only by t 
length of the highways. We have 5-ton trucks operating successfuL^y 
in short hauls as well as long hauls. There is a very good de8cripti^3ii 
of a short haul job in the Engineering Record, October 26, 1912. 

In our experience a comparison of costs with horse haulage is 
rarely asked for nowadays. There are many other benefits accmrxx^ 
beyond monetary saving. Users, for instance, are able to extend th< 
territory and push sales at greater distance. Other users find the 
ing in time a valuable item. Still other users are operating trucks 
successfully where horses and mules are practically impossible. Th^ 
extremes of heat and cold in our climate have rendered the horse ao 
"unstable'^ animal, and the motor truck, electric or gasolene, is surely 
replacing him. 

E. R. GuRNEY. In Table 8, the operating expense of a two-hors^ 
team is given as $1559.24 per year, which, reduced to a ton-mile 
basis, assuming 1^ miles per day, 200 days, loaded one way, gives 
33 cents per ton mile. This figure checks very closely with an aver- 
age of horse-drawn costs as \vc have been able to compile it. 

In Table 12, the operating expense of a 5000-lb. electric truck 
reduced to a ton-mile basis is 27 cents per ton mile assuming 24 miles 
per day 300 days. This is within 1 cent of the result obtained as an 
average of our 6000-lb. o^asoleno truck. 

We have no data on elect rio operation nor on the lighter gasolene 
delivery systems. Our data begin where this paper leaves oflf and deal 
with the heavier class of units reduced to a cost per ton-mile basis. 

Harrington Emerson. Reliable and adequate comparative rec- 
ords of costs of motor trucks and horse-drawn vehicles at the present 
time would be exceed incrly valnable. The conclusions reached are not 
satisfactory, liowovor. as the data arc not standard. For instance, in 



DISCUSSION 149 

estimating the cost of a truck Mr. Metz puts down interest at 2 per 
cent per annum which is not a legitimate industrial charge. Six per 
cent, perhaps 7 per cent, and in certain portions of the country even 
higher, would be the very lowest that ought to be charged. Deprecia- 
tion is put down at 10 per cent. There is inadequate experience to 
justify the assumption that the depreciation of an electric motor truck 
is only 10 per cent per annum. In ordinary machinery we assume 
about 10 per cent a year for depreciation, and certainly on such an 
article as a motor truck, 10 per cent is too low for depreciation. On 
the other hand, when it comes to the horse-drawn vehicle, we have 
the statement that five carts, five horses and five men were displaced. 
How do we know that three men could not have done the work per- 
fectly and three horses and three carts? Usually these horse-drawn 
vehicles are not operated at more than 60 per cent of possible ra- 
tional efficiency. It is absolutely impossible to compare a truck operat- 
ing probably at 100 per cent efficiency and a horse-drawn vehicle whose 
efiSciency we do not know. In one table the horse-drawn vehicle is 
put down as costing $1.9t2 a day and in the very next table the cost is 
put down at $1.56, showing no standard of costs. What evidence is 
there that a horse-drawn vehicle ought to cost $1.92 a day? If the 
$1.92 is not correct, and is merely a record of incidental cost instead of 
in any way being a standard cost, all conclusions drawn from the 
figures are invalidated. 

Chahles W. Baker. The figures on depreciation seem open to 
criticism. Mr. Metz allows 15 per cent depreciation on the horse- 
drawn commercial vehicle, but I know of such vehicles that have been 
^wed for many years and are not yet worn out. He charges the same 
rate of depreciation on the motor vehicle, but my observation is that 
the depreciation of such vehicles is very rapid indeed. 

The Author. Mr. Flanders recommends a reduction in speed, 
ginng as his reason therefor, that it would greatly reduce vehicle 
and tire depreciation. While it is true that the speed reduction would 
^uce this depreciation, it should also be remembered that a necessary 
reduction in speed in congested city streets makes it imperative to 
obtain a higher speed at certain times in order to get mileage out of 
ihe cars sufficient to make them pay. The exact speed at which com- 
niercial vehicles should be run is open to question, but I believe that 
the present speed is about as nearly right as it can bo made under 
present conditions. 



150 UPKEEP OF HORSE-DRAWN VEHICLES AGAINST ELECTRIC VEHIC 

Referring to the discussion by Mr. Emerson, it is my opinion 1 
interest charges should be made to agree with the actual interest wl 
any particular establishment has to pay. If the government can 1 
row money at 2 per cent, it is fair to charge 2 per cent interest 
investment for government work. If private establishments hav( 
pay, say 4 or 5 per cent, then they should charge 4 or 6 per i 
interest on their investment. 

The figures in my paper were given from actual experience, 
the charges were therefore made to agree with the facts in the case 

It will be an easy matter for anyone desiring to install automol 
to separate the interest charges and make his particular inte 
charge agree with the interest which he will have to pay. 

Eeferring to the depreciation charges, it is a well-known fact 1 
the horse is not much good for heavy trucking service after five yi 
of use, and the horse-drawn wagon is not much good for the » 
service after ten years of use, so that the 20 per cent depreciation 
the horse, 10 per cent on the wagon, and 15 per cent on the han 
represent average figures. The depreciation on electrics is, of cou 
not yet well understood, but there are plenty of electric vehicles in 
at the present time which were purchased ten years ago, or more 
that the 10 per cent depreciation for this class of vehicles is on 
safe side. 



No. 1392 

PKACTICAL OPERATION OF GAS ENGINES 
USING BLAST-FURNACE GAS AS FUEL 

By Charles 0. Sampson, Joliit, III. 
Member of the Society 

The question of the operation of gas engines using blast-furnace 
gas as fuel includes several important factors outside the actual 
operation of the engines themselves. It will therefore be aside from 
the present purpose to do more than state that the usual blast-furnace 
gas has the following composition : 

AVXEAOB OF DAILY ANALYSIS FOR SIX MONTHS 

Per Cent of 
Dry Gas 

Carbon monoxide 27.1 

Carbon dioxide. 121 

Hydrogen 3.1 

Methane 0.1 

Vapor of water from 3 to 5 grains per ft. dry gas 
Nitrogen 57.6 

Mid t calorific or heating value of about 97.6 B.t.u. per cu. ft, and 
gives a consumption of 95 cu. ft. per i.h.p-hr. in the engine. 

GLEANING OF THE GAS 

2 One of the most important of these factors and one which 
"cld back the general use of these engines many years is the cleaning 
of the gas. As delivered by the furnaces to the downcomer the gas 
contains normally from 3 to 10 grains of dust per cubic foot of dry 
S^ but at times of slips or other sudden changes in the furnace. 
it carries much more. For use in engines the gas must be cleaned 
*t most to 0.02 grains of dust to satisfy the requirements of the engine 
Mdere, but even this figure is too high to satisfy the operating 
^'^eer since it is possible to clean the gas to 0.005 or 0.006 grains 
P® cu. ft. with great benefit to the engines. 

^ The method of cleaning most used at present has three stages : 
\y dry cleaning to 1^^ to 2 grains per cu. ft. which is always done 

^^i^Mnted at the Spring Meeting, Baltimore 1913, of The American 
^itTy Of Mechanical Engineers. 

151 



152 PRACTICAL OPERATION OF GAS ENGINES 

by the blast-furnace department; (b) primary washing in static wash- 
ers to about 0.15 grains per cu. ft. ; (c) dynamic or mechanical clean- 
ing in highly developed machines to 0.015 or less. The last stages 
are usually handled by the gas-engine departments, though as the 
furnace men realize more and more that a cleanliness of 0.2 grains 
per cu. ft. or less is of great benefit to the stoves and boilers they 
will take over the second stage, leaving only the final cleaning for the 
gas-engine department. 

4 The dry cleaning is done in dry dust catchers, the standard 
design being a large diameter, vertical, cylindrical shell into which 
the gas enters tangentially near the top and leaves through a vertical 
outlet pipe which extends about two-thirds down from the top. These 
dust catchers remove the heavier particles of dust, but their efficiency 
is only about 80 per cent as they pick up, or perhaps do not drop, the 
finer dust which is carried on by the upward current of gas to the 
outlet. 

5 The refinement of design in dry cleaners has advanced ma- 
terially in the past three or four years, as shown in the modern 
apparatus resulting from the careful study of the problem. One 
of the latest of these is the centrifugal dust catcher shown in Fig. 1. 
This device makes use of the centrifugal separation of dust from 
the gas as it passes inward through a cylindrical spiral opening into 
a dust basin at the bottom. The gas enters at the top of the outaide, 
leaves at the top of the inner end of the spiral and passes upward 
through an extension of the pipe around which it is wrapped. The 
gas passes free of all obstructions at the upper end of the spiral while 
the dust separated drops to the bottom through the open end. There 
is no tendency for the gas to pick up the separated dust and carry it 
out as is the case in the older types of dry cleaners. 

6 It is frequently found that sudden changes in the direction of 
flow of the gas, as at water seals or other necessary bends in the pipe, 
are quite efficient in the removal of dust. In one case gas carrying 
about 5 grains per cu. ft. passed through four sharp bends and gave 
all dust but about 2 grains per cu. ft. For this reason every part 
of the dry gas main where such bends are necessary can be made to 
assist materially in the cleaning of the gas, if pockets are added 
equipped with valves so that the dust can be conveniently removed. 

7 Where long gas mains are necessary they can be made to add 
to the cleaning of the gas by building them in successive lengths 
with sufficient rise and fall to allow the dust to settle in pockets at 
the bottom angles for cleaning. If the gas for any reason moves slowly 



CHARLES C. SAMPSON 



153 



in a long main the loss of heat through the pipe will probably reduce 
the temperature below the dew point and thus condense some of the 
moisture carried with the gas from the furnace and cause the deposit 
of wet dust which adds greatly to the cleaning plant labor. This is 
especially apt to occur where two or more groups of furnaces supply 
one washing plant; the gas from the one with the lower top pressure 
will move slowly or even reverse its direction of flow at times, allow- 
ing excessive cooling and the resulting condensation. This condensa- 





Stctlon B-B 



Stctlon A'A 

Fig. 1 Centrifugal Dust Catcher 



tion will begin when the temperature is reduced to 115 deg. to 120 
^« f&hr. and will of course give more trouble in winter when the 
condensed moisture will freeze in the dust valves and drips and 
require continual thawing to allow its removal. 

S It is possible to keep the gas mains clean without taking 
them out of service if they are equipped with sufficient openings 
to allow every part of the pipe to be reached witli a stream from 
ft high-pressure water system, and with valves or doors at all low 



154 PRACTICAL OPERATION OP GAS ENGINES 

points for the removal of the mud washed down. The mains near 
furnace of course do not need this equipment as they can easily 
designed to be entirely self-cleaning, while it is quite neceesaiy 
long mains where condensation may occur be so equipped. 

9 The present primary washers (the first stage of wet deani 
are of the static scrubber type and include all those in which the 
passes through a stationary shell without moving parts, the water 
washing being supplied either in spray or sheets. The spray 
hurdle^ Mullen, baffle, and rain type scrubbers come under 
classification. 

10 The spray and hurdle system is preferred on account oj 
better distribution of water, and since it is self-cleaning it n 
inspection only after long periods of operation. Several of t 
scrubbers have been opened after from one to three years* service 
in every case have been found perfectly clean and required no rej 
whatever before being returned to service. The wood was in j 
condition as it is continually wet and oxygen does not have accef 
it to start decay. In the rain or baffle types the gas is more ap 
channel and travel up one side of the scrubber and the water d 
the other. 

11 It is important to secure uniform distribution of the 
as well as of the water in any scrubber. For the inlet a cone a 
two-thirds the diameter of the shell with a cone-shaped ring b 
it open in the center about one-half the diameter of the shell 
give good distribution. These should both slope about 45 dej 
keep the mud from remaining on them. 

12 Two outlets at opposite sides of the top are better than 
on account of the deflection of the water by the gas currents if 
one is used. This is particularly true if the water is sprayec 
falling on spray plates as the gas current may then be strong enc 
to blow the water clear of the plate and thus entirely lose its el 
Spray nozzles are not subject to this fault but are not able to ha 
water that has much dirt in it without a great amoimt of atteni 

13 In designing the scrubber bottom, its foimdation and 
basin and overflow for the outlet water, it must be remembered 
while the usual working pressure will be from 6 in. to 18 is 
water, a slip will give pressure of from 40 in. to 50 in. for a s 
time. A normal head of water of 36 in. from the bottom of 
scrubber to the water overflow level with the basin walls 24 in. a 
this and an emergency overflow 4 in. below the top of the basin ^ 
will care for slip pressure without blowing out any gas or overfloi 



CBASLES C. 8A.HPBON 



155 



the bgBin into the yard. The bottom of the basin wall will be self- 
cleuiing if it has a eteep slope and the outlet pipe is from the center 
of tiie bottom. The whole design of scrubber and basin must be 
eximined to eliminate all places where mud can remain long enough 
to cake. Fig. 2 shows this arrangement of scrubber bottom. 

U Should the water overflow pipe be stopped even for a short 




tune the heavy mud will settle to the bottom of the basin and when the 
overflow pipe is cleaned there will be such a quantity that even the 
srtr* head of water to the emergency overflow will not force it out. 
'Or this reason the forming of heavy chunks must be prevented as 
nnch u possible and provision must be made for stirring the basin 
witer both with hoes or rakes and with a stream of water from the 
end of a pipe which can be thrust into all parts of it. It will be 
lonnd conveoient also to have the pipe bent at the end so that the 
*tnun can be directed up the overflow pipe to furnish additional head 



156 PRACTICAL OPERATION OF GAS ENGINES 

for starting the flow when necessary, or a special pipe with return 
bend and short nipple to thrust down the overflow pipe itself will 
surely be able to start the flow. 

15 The final stage in cleaning is done with mechanical scrabben 
or washers. These are highly developed and the Theisen patented 
gas washer has been in the lead for several years though other t^pes 
are now being worked out, their builders claiming better results with 
less water and power consumption than the Theisen. The Theisen 
washers require about 3 per cent of the power-plant output for their 
operation and from 16 to 18 gal. of water per 1000 cu. ft. of gas 
cleaned, which added to the 75 to 80 gal. required in the scrubbers 
makes the total from 90 to 100 gal. for the whole cleaning process. 
The newer apparatus, which are along the lines of the mechanical 
disintegrator, claim to use about 20 gal. of water per 1000 cu. ft. of 
gas for the whole cleaning process and to operate on less power than 
the Theisen washers. 

HOLDERS 

16 In blast-furnace gas-engine plants the engines are entirely 
dependent upon the continuous supply of gas from the furnaces; 
a 100,000-cu. ft. capacity holder can only be considered a pressure 
regulator with capacity for enough gas to allow retiring in good 
order when the gas supply is cut off for any reason. Thus in a 
1000-kw. plant with such a holder the gas on hand would operate 
the plant only for about 25 to 30 minutes and should not be counted 
on for more than 15 to 20 minutes. This in an emergency would 
give time to notify the various departments using power and allow 
them time to prepare for a shutdown. 

17 The quantity of gas consumed by the engines is regulated 
by the governor to suit the power output, but since they must be 
supplied with gas at uniform pressure for satisfactory operation, 
it is necessary to regulate the gas supply by some type of gasometer. 
This is best done by a gasometer of capacity such that the pressure 
fluctuations are not noticeable at the engines, and since it is well to 
have an emergency quantity of gas the gas holder itself will meet both 
demands at once if supplied with an efficient regulation valve. The 
holder will regulate the pressure perfectly between the maximum limit 
of the total quantity of gas that can be forced through the mains with 
the furnace pressure available assisted by the gas washers and the 
minimum limit of the leakage at the regulating valve. 

18 There should also be the possibility of regulating the gas 



CHARLES C. SAMPSON 



157 



quantity at the secondary washers since at times of very light loads 
the gas pressure between the holder and washer may blow out drip 
teals or cause dangerous gas leaks. This can be cared for by the 
inatallatioD of butterfly valves with quadrants either before or after 
the mechanical washers. The latter is to be preferred for then the 
gas remains longer in the washers and receives additional cleaning. 

19 A good regulating valve at the holder is a butterfly valve 
stiached by means of levers and cables to the holder bell so that 
it will remain wide open until the bell rises within a few feet of its 




upper position, and close gradually till at the highest position it is 
completely closed. The arrangement shown in Fig. 3 works satis- 
fictorily. The weight A must be heavy enough to close the valve 
uid the weight B must be heavy enough to open the valve and also 
lift the weight A. 

20 All exposed water lines must be protected from freezing. 
Tliis is especially true of the supply to seals, drips from the gas main, 
find any line that does not have a continuous flow. With good water 
uparators after the secondary cleaning apparatus, freezing weather or 
even 8 deg. or 10 deg. fahr. below zero, will not cause trouble in the 



158 PRACTICAL OPERATION OF GAS ENGINES 

gas mains themselves, though any valves which may be nearly closed 
or which are closed part of the time must be carefully protected. 
The butterfly valve for regulating the gas should be enclosed in a ti^t 
box with steam coils to keep it in working order. This also is tme of 
the valves at the gas-washing plant unless it is possible to iimtall 
them within a heated building. 

21 The water in the gas holder must also be warmed. The 
exhaust from the regulating valve coil will easily keep the holder 
water warm enough to prevent freezing except in the coldest weather 
(under deg. fahr.), when it is usually necessary to supply additional 
steam through several nozzles arranged to set up a circulation of the 
water around the tank. These should be well down in the water or ioe 
will form on the lower part of the shell and build in toward the oenter 
and prevent the lowering of the bell. 

22 During the time the holder water is warmed it is important 
freciuently to observe its temperature; if too hot it will charge the 
gas with water so that condensation and freezing will take place in 
the gas-engine supply pipes. When the water circulates properly in 
the holder it is not necessary to have it any warmer than 38 d^. or 
40 deg. fahr., while a rise to 65 deg. or 70 deg. will give trouble. 

23 If the gas holder is not visible from the gas-washing plant 
the operator needs a visible signal to give him its position^ also an 
audible signal to inform him if it should lower beyond safe working 
position, the amount of the drop allowable before the audible signal 
operates being determined by the position of the regulating yalve 
at the holder. The drop should be less than an amount to give a 
complete opening of the valve. The gas-washer operator should have 
telephone connections with the engine room, besides the usual whistle 
or bell signals which are used to notify him of the starting or stopping 
of engines. He should also be in close touch with the blast-furnace 
department in order that any change in the gas supply can be known 
in advance. 

RELIEF DOORS 

24 In all gas-pipe lines so-called explosion doors are installed. 
These are as a rule useful only for access to the main for cleaning, 
dually being made of cast iron and hinged; on account of their 
weight and method of attachment the moment of inertia is so great 
that they will not open quickly enough to prevent the dertmction 
of the main in which they are installed. Any gas main that will 
support itself over the span usually employed will easily stand any 



CHARLES C. SAMPSON 159 

pressure that can be produced in the cleaning plant, and the use 
of these valves or other relief valves is not necessary. The inconven- 
ience of escaping gas makes it advisable to design them as cleaning 
doors only^ and to arrange them with a clamp fastening to avoid this 
moonvenience. If it is thought necessary to install explosion doors 
or Yslves I would suggest the use of sheets of light material arranged 
in frames so that they will be blown out should an explosion occur in 
the main. 

25 The best protection against explosions is careful operation^ 
especially to guard against a reduction of pressure of gas at the 
furnace side of the cleaning plant due to no air being drawn into 
the main at the stoves^ and to see that no piece of apparatus is put 
in service with air trapped so it can be mixed with the gas and sent 
along to the engines. 

RECORDING INSTRUMENTS 

26 Thermometers and pressure gages for indicating the tem- 
perature and pressure of the gas : entering the cleaning plant, between 
the primary and secondary washers leaving the latter, and before and 
after the gas holder, form important parts of the gas-cleaning system. 
The ordinary gas works thermometer with a stem reaching about 
8 to 10 in. into the gas mains are to be located at each of the above 
points, while pressure gages of the U-tube type with inches of water 
as a measure of the pressure can be located in the gas- washer building 
wid connected to these points by %-in. or ^/^-in. gas pipe. Recording 
P^ should be used in connection with the indicating water column 
for the gas pressure at the entrance to the cleaning plant in the gas 
Q^ leading to the gas holder. 

LOG RBCORDB 

27 The successful operation of the gas-washing plant is very 
much advanced by the proper understanding of the meaning of 
the variation shown by these thermometers and gages. For this 
'fiMon it is important to keep a record of these variations on 
cwefuUy designed daily log sheets with at least eight daily notations. 
Tlic gas-washer operator soon learns to interpret the gage and ther- 
mometer changes, and will often fortell serious trouble by such 
wideratanding. For instance, the partial filling of a water seal is 
indicated some time before it will cause trouble by the swinging of the 
water in the Tl-tube, this movement being so markedly different from 



160 PRACTICAL OPERATION OF GAS ENGINES 

any other that he knows at once the trouble and from the location of 
the gage can easily tell which seal is filling. 

28 The daily log sheets should have space reserved for tihe 
operator to note any unusual occurrence and the work done to keep 
the plant in condition. It should be in fact a complete report of 
each day's work to the engineer-in-charge, keeping him in close touch 
with the changing conditions in the gas-cleaning system. 

ENGINE STARTING 

2d A second most important factor in successful gas-engine- 
operation is good engine operators, and the same characteristioB 
which are valuable in steam-engine operators are valuable in the 
gas engineer. 

30 The operation of the engines themselves is exactly similar 
as far as the running gear is concerned and it is only the fact 
that the gas engineer is fireman as well as engineer that makes it 
necessary that he be more alert and watchful. Economical operation 
of gas engines on the same account requires that the engine operator 
must have his sense of "the feel of the machine*' well developed. 

31 Compressed air at from 150 to 200 lb. per sq. in. pressure 
has proved satisfactory for starting gas engines and is especially 
desirable on account of the ease with which a suitable quantity 
can be stored under pressure ready for use at any time. 

32 In a starting system of 2000 cu. ft. capacity the air pressure is 
lowered about 20 lb. in starting one 3000-kw. twin-tandem unit^ and 
since 150 lb. pressure is sufficient for a start there is a possibility of 
at least three starts from 200 lb. initial pressure, which is certainly 
sufficient to get imder way even during the excitement of an emergency 
shutdown. 

33 Record was kept of the pressure drop in starting an 1800-h.p. 
twin-tandem Allis-Chalmers engine from an air system having two 
tanks of 1100 cu. ft. capacity each. This record included 19 starts, 
16 using the full capacity of the system and 3 with one tank out of 
service. This record is plotted in Fig. 4, the pressure in the system 
being shown as ordinatcs and the pressure drop as abscissae; the 16 
starts witli complete air system in use are indicated by circles, and the 
3 that were made with one of the air tanks shut off by crosses. It 
may be noted that the quantity of air required to start the engine was 
about the same, regardless of the pressure in the air tanks. 

34 The necessary capacity of air tanks and air compressors for 



CHARLES C. SAMPSON 



161 



1 given plant depends upon the number and size of engine units, 
aiiJ [lie fretjuency witli wliieti tlioj may need to be started. After 
tlie engine operator becomes familiar with the operating peculiarities 
of tlie engines he should be able to start them at intervals of from 
to 8 minutes and not lower the air pressure more than the compressor 
m make up iu that time, if an engine lowers the pressure 8 lb. per 
!<|- in. in a 2000-eu. ft. eapacity system, the compressors should 
ss 8/15 of 2000 ^ lOGO cu. ft. free air in the maximum time 
illowable between starts or say 10 miiuites. This would require 
iwo 106-cu. ft. compressors. 
35 For the ordinary blast-furnaee gas-engine plant of from three 



























~ 




~ 




~ 




~ 


*' 






































\, 






































!!■ 












































































V.' 




















































^ 














X 










^l 
















































« 


































































3 












a 


























} 




































^,1. 










1 






























„. 


m 


w 








OS 




,ft 




P' 


V 


». 




" 



Rgcokd 0* I'RBssuHG Drop 



la Kx 



engmes 



\\v cimipiessors of 100 en. ft. capacity and air 



'«ii( rapai'ily of SJUOO cu. ft. are (juite snfTu-ient, while for more than 
"ii engines the compressor capacity should be iin^reascd rather than 
tbe tank volume. At least one of the compressors must derive its 
powrfrom some source outside of the gas engine in order to be able 
■o start (be plant if all units should be down. 

■16 It is important to keep the water jackets thoroughly clean 
Mtl the item of jacket cleaning should appear regularly in the engine 
"pfratioii seliedule. This clcnniiig n'(]uircs careful attention since, 
■ilh the class of labor usually put on this work, it will be slighted in 
ihe places where the most eare is needeil. 



162 



PRACTICAL OPERATION OF CAS ENGINES 



LUBHIOATION, CLEANING OIL 

37 The question of lubrication 18 one of so many variatio 
can only say that for general lubrication of such as main bear 
crosshead and cranlipiiis and crosshead slides where the rub 
surfaces are at room temperature, an oil of the following phj 
characteristics has given excellent service: 

Specific gravity 888 

ViBcoHity (Tagliabua) 210 at 70 deg. tabi. 

Cold test 35 deg. fahr. 

Flaah temperatura 435 

3S This service also includes satisfactory separation of water 
dirt by settling and filtration. On account of the almost cei 




Oil- Cleaning Ststiu 



miiing of water from the cooling system with the system oil, 
necessary to provide means of separating the water and oil ii 
filtration process and it can be done thoroughly only by heatinj 
oil to about 160 deg. or 190 deg. fahr. and giving it time in a 
condition to allow the separation. A large part of the dirt will i 
with tlie water. Such that does not, must be removed by filtr 



CHAKLES C. SAMPSON 163 

through fine cloth either of organic fiber or of fine wire. The latter 
is more to be desired because of the ease with which it can be cleaned. 

39 A good oil-cleaning system giving excellent satisfaction con- 
sists of one 1500-gal. water-separating tank, shown in Pig. 5, with a 
heating coil over which the oil flows as it enters on returning from the 
engines, and an adjustable automatic water overflow to discharge the 
separated water, two settling tanks of the same size through which the 
oil passes in tandem to allow time for quiet settling of dirt particles, 
and a filter unit with 20 filter bags, 10 each in two filter tanks. 

40 An extra tank is used when either of the other three is out 
of service for cleaning. An auxiliary tank of about 200 gal. capacity 
is used for **boiling up*' the sludge taken from either of the large 
tanks or the filters at time of cleaning as well as such dirty oil as can 
be drawn off daily from the bottom of the overhead oil tank. 

41 This system is shown in Pig. 6. The oil from the engine 
drips enters tank A over the steam coil, flows down through the 
inner cone, then up and out the overflow to C aud D, thence to 
the filters F and through E, which is also a water separator. The 
clean oil is pumped from the filters by one of the duplicate pumps at 
^) to the overhead engine supply tank in which the quantity of oil 
on hand is shown by an index on a large gage visible from the engine- 
^m floor. Oage glasses on each tank show the level of the line 
t>etween the oil and water both as an operating convenience and as a 
means of checking the quantity X)t oil used during the month. The 
separated water flows down the inside of the cone in 4 to the bottom 
of the tank from which is flows through the automatic overflow H. 
The nipple in the tee at H is adjustable so that the water in A can be 
held at the level found best in operation. 

42 A part of the dirt is oil-coated so that it floats between the 
water and the oil and will accumulate imtil its removal is necessary. 
The oil from the engines is then turned into tank B, the supply to C 
and D being kept up by stopping the water overflow and fllling A 
with water as long as good oil flows out. The water is then drawn off 
to the sewer and the sludge pumped into the boiling tank J where 
M much oil is reclaimed as possible. The other tanks are cleaned in 
the same way. There are pipe connections from the bottom of all tanks 
to one of the pumps, also from the discharge of this pump to the 
ttnkj. 

43 Such an oil system will keep the oil clean for a plant circu- 
lating 500 to 600 gal. per hour. Of course some oil is lost through 



164 



PRACTICAL OPERATION OF GAS ENGINES 



leakage at the engines, and some is wiped up in keeping the en 
clean, but the addition of new oil need not amount to more tha] 
gal. per month. In blowing-engine plants where the engine 
drawn into the blowing cylinders from mechanically operated i 
the oil consumption will not be so low Unless good oil separatoi 
installed in the cold blast mains arranged to discharge this oil 
into the oil system. 




Tarn 



From OverheadTank 





Fig. 6 Oil-Cleaning System : A and J5, Water-Separating 
Tanks; F a:^d G Filters; J Boiling Tank 

44 Tha cylinder oil question is also one of many opL 
The varying cleanliness of the gas, hardness of cylinder wall 
piston rings, piston speeds, mean effective and maximum prei 
all have their influence on the action of the cylinder oil. A 

ft* 

showing a specific gravity of 0.902; viscosity (Tagliabue) of 



CHARLES C. SAMPSON 165 

212 deg. fahr., and a flash temperature of S80, gave excellent results 
in a gas blowing-engine plant where the dust was low (0.01 or less) 
and piston speeds less than 600 ft. per min., and was not satisfactory 
in another, with 0.012 dust and piston speeds of 850 ft. per min. In 
the latter case the oil was replaced by one of specific gravity, 0.9i20 ; 
vifioosity, 203 at ^12 deg. fahr.; and flash temperature, 502, and 
immediate improvement was shown. 

45 With the lighter oil the cylinders were not dry In any part 
though they did show more wear than was expected for the time in 
service, the machining marks in the bore being almost invisible after 
three months' operation. 

4H The cylinder oil can be put in a tank in the basement and 
piped to all cylinder oil pumps by using compressed air at 15 lb. per 
sf|. in. This provides opportunity for the installation of oil meters 
to keep accurate account of the oil used on each engine, or the supply 
tank may be equipped with graduated glass and record kept of the 
supply to the whole plant. 

IGNITION 

47 The mechanically operated igniter is much to be preferred 
^'> the magnetic type. The current supply should be from a source 
not liable to fluctuation, such as that from a motor generator set that 
supplies current to the ignition system alone and arranged in connec- 
ti<»n with a storage battery so that should anything happen to the 
motor generators the battery would take up the load, automatically 
•signaling tlie operator. The location of the ignition plugs is impor- 
tant, since an explosion on one side only of the piston will force it 
t'> the other side and cause it to strike the cylinder wall. This is 
^»«ily apparent in cylinders having the combustion chamber at the 
'^ide and the effect of one-sided explosions can be seen when one 
^»^ three equally spaced igniters is not working. 

•^ Premature ignition is usually caused by excess hydrogen in 
t'H' gas, and will occur when the quantity of hydrogen reaches 4.6 
P<'r cent, depending also upon the cleanliness of the cylinders. This 
prematuring is one of the first indications of leaking cooling plates 
'n the furnace and the gas-engine operator will often be able to 
inform the furnaces of this condition before they learn of it them- 
wlves. When a furnace has the wind off for casting, the water 
pressure in the cooling plates is greater than the furnace pressure 
*nd the water enters the furnace and is immediately dissociated ; the 
oxygen being consumed by the coke loaves the excess hydrogen in the 



166 PRACTICAL OPERATION OF GAS ENGINES 

gas. When the wind is put on again this gas, rich in hydi 
sent along to the engine causing prematuring. 

MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION 

49 The pistons of the early large gas engines were of cast 
these gave considerable trouble by cracking because they ^ 
properly ribbed. Several builders changed to cast steel, hv 
they gave trouble either by cutting the cylinder walls or by 
over and binding the rings. Cast iron was again resorted to 
improved design. In the cast-steel pistons also the 
ment of the rings widens the grooves so that in a short time 
too much clearance which necessitates turning the grooves and 
new rings. 

50 Cast-iron snap rings of uniform cross-section giv 
service than any other type. This has been learned aftc 
attempts to design a complicated ring, the designer believinj 
to hold gas-engine pressure would be more difficult to ma 
one for steam-engine pressure. 

51 Piston-rod packing furnishes one of the difficult j 
for the designer and also for the engine operator. A good 
must be simple in design and, as in the case with the piston ri 
forms with the fewest parts seem to give the best service. B 
iron and babbitt have given good results. The success or fi 
this part of the engine depends largely upon its cleanliness 
much care cannot be used in assembling it to insure its proper 
tion. 

52 The engine-room basement has not received the att€ 
deserves. Two items the designer of any power plant will 
to consider are: make the engine-room floor high enough < 
basement floor to allow 6 ft. clear imder all suspended pi] 
have the basement floor slope enough for rapid drainage ( 
12 in. for 100 ft.). A dry basement with plenty of head 
easily kept clean and a clean basement is a great help in kee; 
whole room in good condition. Ventilation and lighting 
more easily accomplished in a high basement. 

53 The question of the safety of the employee in all occ 
is at present a live one and is to be considered in the engine 
well as in the rolling mill. Safety demands the eliminatio 
dangerous conditions by covering gears, guarding flywheels, ge 
and crossheads, enclosing electrical apparatus and keeping 



CHARLES C. SAMPSON 167 

pipes tight and free from leaks. The men must be trained to watch 
out for their own and their fellow workmen's safety. It is just as 
important that the lives and limbs of the engine crew be protected as 
it is that the cost of electricity should be low. 

54 Complete records of operation are invaluable as it is only by 
the study of accurate records of the actual happenings that we can 
hope to improve. It is not possible to trust to memory for a compari- 
son of the results of different types or arrangements of apparatus. 

55 A daily log of the various pressures and temperatures must 
be kept to learn whether the plant conditions are changing and to 
know the cause of these changes. Any unusual occurrence or the 
r^lar recurrence of repairs noted on the log sheets puts the informa- 
tion regarding the plant where it can be used in predicting and 
preparing for the future. Not only should this information be kept 
daily but it should be collected and averaged monthly and yearly for 
the comparison of month with month and year with year. Much of 
the engineering information is best shown graphically, for a sheet 
full of figures does not give a true conception of the actual conditions. 

56 The original information is necessarily furnished on the daily 
log sheets written by the shift engineer and he should be supplied with 
a copy of the resulting data sheets. He is just as much interested 
in the power plant as is the chief engineer and this information 
cannot be placed anywhere to do more good than with the engine 
operators. The rate of progress in the gas-engine field depends 
entirely upon the rapidity with which engineers are able to gain 
understanding of this machinery and the collecting and compiling of 
these records is of the greatest service for this purpose. 

DISCUSSION 

Prkd. H. Wagner. From reports received, I find that with 
practically the samd character of apparatus, (a) dry dust cleaners, 
H) some sort of static towers like the Czchokke or Steinbardt, and (c) 
the Theisen washer, the final cleaning varies between 15 cents and (52 
cents per 100,000 cu. ft. of blast-furnace gas cleaned; this being based 
on $10 per 1,000,000 gal. of water and 1 cent per kw-hr. The great 
discrepancy in these final figures has led to the question as to why such 
discrepancies should exist. The answer is a difficult one to give ; for 
instance, at one blast furnace the final cleaning based on 100,000 cu. 
ft. of gas costs 61 cents, at another 47 cents, at another 42 cents, 



168 PRACTICAL OPERATION OF GAS ENGINES 

m 

at another 25 cents, at another 20 cents, at another 19 centn, « 
at another 15 cents. 

Mr. Sampson mentioned that some new apparatus, which is alo 
the line of mechanical disintegrators, claimed to use about 20 g 
of water per 1000 cu. ft. of gas for the whole cleaning process, a 
to operate on less power than the Theisen washers; also that with t 
present process from 90 to 100 gal. are used for the entire cleani: 
process. 

At the last meeting of the West of Scotland Iron and St( 
Institute, B. \V. Ht^ad read a paper^ giving the residts of his vii 
on the European continent, for the purpose of examining blast-furna 
conditions. After calling attention to the failure of the Scotti 
steel manufacturer to take advantage of the improved methods adopt 
in Germany, Belgium and France, he takes up the subject of washi 
blast-furnace gases for gas-engine purposes and points out the diff( 
ence in tiie methods practised in the British Isles and on the Con 
nent, mentioning especially the Feld vertical centrifugal washer i 
the cleaning of gas. 

Besides the Theisen washer mentioned by Mr. Sampson, a 
the Feld waslier, there is a third, the Schwarz. The last two i 
attracting a great deal of attention in Europe in connection w 
this process. 'J^hey recjuire less ])ower than the Theisen washer, a 
the Feld requires considerably less power than the Schwarz. 

At the blast furnaces in Donawitz, where 1,600,000 cu. ft. of bla 
furna(!e gas is treated per hour, the total power with the Schw, 
washers amounted to from 12-1: to 128 h.p. At the blast furnaces 
Ponipey, France, of exactly the same capacity, the Feld washers u 
from 50 to 55 h.p., the power given including the necessary power 
exhausters. Unfortunately in mv data on the Schwarz washers 
have not tlie power of the washer and the exhausters separate; h< 
ev(»r, for the Feld washers, the washer power amounted to from 
to 20 h.p. and for the exhausters 1^5 h.p. This great difference 
power reciuirements is due to the fact that the Feld washer thri 
absolutely no back pressure — the washer operating with an e 
gage on botli the inlet and outlet, while the Schwarz washer thr< 
a considerable back pressure. 

In speaking of the quantity of water required for cleaning 
gas, I would mention tliat two factors enter into this discussion: • 
being the cooling of the gas to a temperature which retains the h 

'The Journal, West of 8cotlninl Iron & Steel TnHtitute, vol. 19, Nos. 6 
7, pp. 266 and 319. 



DISCUSSION BY FRED. H. WAGNER 169 

units and at the same time reduces the volxime of the gas to the 
smallest possible compass in order to avoid large gas-engine cyl- 
inders. The cooling of the gas is a thermal question, and the amount 
of water required is determined by the amount of water vapor which 
carries the heat contained in the gas. This amount of water would 
be necessary, no matter in what sort of washer the gas is cooled, as 
a certain number of heat units must be extracted, and the water 
cannot take up any more than its temperature will permit. 

With a temperature of 500 deg. fahr. and treating 5,400,000 
cu. ft. of gas per hour, with the gas coming from two furnaces, 
reducing this temperature to 86 deg. fahr. requires about 31 gal. of 
water per 1000 cu. ft. of gas. The cleaning of the gas after the 
water is cool, is done by the hot water from the cooling chambers, 
about one-quarter of the amount given above, or 71/2 gah, being 
run into the washing chambers of the Feld washer. For this purpose 
the Feld washer is built in seven sections, the upper four acting as 
cooling chambers and the lower three as cleaning chambers. It is 
a known fact that if an impalpable powder be placed on a floor, and 
cold water is thrown on it, the water forms globules on the surface 
of the particles, but if hot water is thrown on the powder, it imme- 
diately mixes and forms a mud. This is the principle on which the 
feld washer is operated. Each one of the sections of this washer 
contains a series of perforated truncated cones, the lower ends of the 
t^ones (lipping into the water, and by the revolving of these cones, given 
a periphery speed of IfiOO ft. per min., the water is carried up inside 
these cones and hurled out through the perforations in a finely 
divided spray. 

Those conversant with dust washing will admit that the proper 
niethod to wash dust out of gas is to bring the gas into intimate 
w^ntact with the smallest particles of water possible, and this is 
•lone in the Feld washer. 

In a lead smelting fiiriia(?(», where these Feld washers are in use, 
these washers recover six tons of dust containing fnmi 80 to 100 per 
t*nt lead every 24 hours and entirely remove the lead particles, which 
formerly escaped into the atmosphere to the detriment of the sur- 
rounding vegetation. 

In the blast-fnrnace plant at Pompey, France, where the Feld 
''^Mhers are also in use for cleaning blast-furnace gas for gas-engine 
purposes, I would state that prior to the use of the Feld washers, it 
^as necessary to open up the valve ch€\sts on the engines about once 



170 PRACTICAL OPERATION OF GAS ENGINES 

every ten days and remove the accumulated dust; since the instal 
tion of the Feld system, it has become necessary to open up 
valve chests only about once every three months. These washers it 
been in continuous operation for about 30 months without i 
moment^s shutdown for cleaning or repairs, the washers being » 
cleaning; the water carrying the dust leaves the washer in the shj 
of mud, which is easily handled by means of centrifugal pumps. 

The aim of the modem engineer is to reduce the cost of operat 
and at the same time to secure better results. This has led to i 
Feld washer, and I would earnestly recommend anyone treating fi 
nace gases for gas-engine purposes to investigate the Feld wasl: 
before purchasing other apparatus, as the first cost of the initial inst^ 
lation, as well as the ground space occupied is less than with the u 
of static towers. 

A washer of the Feld type has just been placed in the works of t 
American Smelting and Eefining Company at Maurer, N. J., i 
the purpose of removing the last traces of gold, silver, lead and sdc 
ium from the gas which comes from the mud cupel furnaces. 

In order to clean 100,000 cu. ft. of blast-furnace gas for gi 
engine purpose, or so that the final gas does not contain more th 
0.01 grains of dust per cu. ft. and to reduce the temperature £k 
500 deg. to 86 deg. fahr. would cost with the use of nine Steinbai 
coolers with the necessary Theisen washers, less labor and exhausi 
power, 141/^ cents ; with nine Steinbardt coolers and Schwaxz washe 
11 cents; and with three Feld primary and two Feld final washc 
5.2 cents. This is based on the cost of water at $10 per 1,000,0 
gal. and power at 1 cent per kw-hr. in a plant capable of handli 
5,400,000 cu. ft. of gas per hour. 

The author did not desire to present a closure. — Rditou. 



SYMPOSIUM ON FIRE PROTECTION 

No. 1393 a 

DEBARMENT OF CITY CONFLAGRATIONS 

By Albsbt Blauyelt, Chioaqo, III. 
Member of the Society 

Opinions take opposite sides as to whether the central districts 
of our leading cities are today subject to conflagration. 

2 Passing over interested and private opinions, the 1911 report 
of the Joint Conunittee of the Senate and Assembly of the State of 
New York, on insurance and fire waste; the Illinois Fire Insurance 
Commission Beport of 1911 ; the Ohio Fire Marshal Beport for 1907 ; 
the United States Department of the Interior, Bulletin 418, of 1910; 
the Wisconsin Senate and Assembly Committee of 1913 and all other 
public reports the writer can find agree that each of our cities is today 
subject to conflagration. Our cities appear to spend in public and 
private ways enough money to make a conflagration impossible for the 
central districts, but they do not achieve this result. 

3 The horizontal hot blast of a heavy fire driven by wind ranges 
fn)m a few himdred to more than a thousand feet, whereas the most 
powerful hose streams are not effective at over one hundred to two 
hundred feet. 

4 Such fires develop in the heart of our cities in the face of 
niore firemen and apparatus than can be quickly used, as at 
Boeton in 1872 and 1889 ; Montreal in 1901 ; Paterson in 1902; Balti- 
more and Toronto in 1904; and such fires also develop in city out- 
^farta or cheap quarters and by force of wind sweep into the city 
proper as at Portland, Me., in 1866 ; Chicago in 1871 ; ,St. John, N. B., 
•n 1877; Ottawa-Hull in 1900; Jacksonville, Florida, in 1901; at 
Chelsea, Mass., and other cities. 

6 Inasmuch as any engineering plan to debar conflagration, if 
^tended to cover an entire city, inclusive of cheap districts, would 
^ prohibitive in cost; any such plan must be limited to the central 
or high value district and designed to prevent free spread of flre 

Presented at the Spring Meeting, Baltimore 1913, of The AicEaiCAK 

^^^CKTT OF MJECHANIOAL EnOINXKRS. 

171 



172 DEBARMENT OF CITY CONFLAGRATIONS 

within same, and also debar any deep inroad of conflagration fr 
without such district. 

6 Every conflagration must necessarily begin in one of two wi 
or a combination of both, Chicago in 1871 and Baltimore in It 
being examples of the two types. 

7 The Chicago fire started outside of the congested distr 
developed into hot-blast form, and swept through and beyond 
congested district, and burned out for lack of fuel. 

8 On the other hand, the Baltimore fire began in the heart 
the city and ramified more swiftly than the firemen could opera 
then took the liot blast form and burned out for lack of fuel. 

9 Such a hot blast has never been stopped by firemen while 
wind held, but has, however, been checked and deflected upward 
barriers consisting of two or more fire walls or their equivale 
with a free air space between, as per the known instances of fires ( 
of control, which have been stopped by a mere alley if fully shuttei 
on each side. 

10 It has also been possible to absorb the hot-blast attack 
such fires by a very deep and fixed mass of spray in the form 
sprinklered buildings. The Boston fire of 1893 was largely absorl 
by an ex(;epti()nally good water sup])ly in such form, and somewl 
similar experiences have been had at Toronto in 1904, and otl 
cases. 

11 These successful experiences in checking hot-blast fires 
defiecting the fiame or by absorbing it in a mass of spray have b 
but little appreciated and instead of acting upon the lessons wh 
they teach, our cities today have a collection of safeguards, part 
which lend themselves to the debarment of conflagrations and part 
which do not. 

SAFECUJAROS Wllinir SIN'(}Ly (CANNOT DEBAR CONFLAGRATIONS 

12 The recognized and partly recognized safeguards against i 
no one of which alone vau debar conflagrations, are twelve 
number, viz., fire prevention: the fire limits; the water supply; 
fire department; the high-j)ressure fire system; the uniform h 
thread; the water curtain; the so-called fireproof building; the h< 
zontally divided building; the protected window; the sprinkle 
building; and the piped building. 

13 Dynamite, private hose, steam jets, carbonic gas systems, i 
fire walls separate from buildings are not listed because they are 
recognized by fire chiefs for valid reasons. 



ALBERT BLAUVELT 173 

U Fire Prevention. The preponderance of disasters from 
trivial, unknown or unguessable causes appears to forbid hope of 
elimination of conflagrations through fire prevention. A half century 
of experience also shows that the skill and effort directed to prevent 
city fires from becoming disasters has been successful within 0.00003 
of the total fires. This 0.00003 is what has hurt, and appears to be 
the only considerable task of correction remaining for the engineer. 

15 The Fire Limits. This is an expression indicating a central 
territory, within which frame construction or shingle roofs are 
prohibited and better construction enforced, especially for large 
area buildings. The elimination of frame buildings and shingles is 
an essential part of any plan to debar conflagration. 

16 The Water Supply. The water supply is indispensable and 
also adequate in most of our cities. Were this not so, Baltimore and 
other conflagrations would have gone to the extent of San Francisco, 
whose water mains were wrecked by earthquake. 

17 The Fire Department. While no fire department has ever 
been able to put water on the front or rear of any hot-blast type of 
conflagration, nevertheless, the fire departments at time of conflagra- 
tion have been of gigantic value in keeping the fire from spreading 
across the wind, in extinguishing brands thrown far ahead, etc. The 
fire department, therefore, is indispensable and this paper argues to 
increase its opportunity, but not its cost and size. 

18 The High-Pressure System. Those cities which are partly 
ecjuipped with costly high-pressure systems enjoy an advertisement 
which does not appear to be shared nor courted by the group of valley 
cities with reservoirs on high blufTs or hills. The latter afford a high- 
pressure service for the whole, not parts of such cities. Powerful 
^igh-pressure hydrant systems have also long existed in a goodly 
number of cities in the form of special inland hydrant lines operated 
k fire boats. 

19 High-pressure develops long and large hose streams, but 
there is nothing about it to enable firemen to use such hose streams 
either in advance, or in the rear of, a hot-blast conflagration, nor is 
^ high-pressure system especially flexible to check the ramification of 
fire as at Baltimore in 1904. 

20 The Uniform Hose Thread. Since the fire department is 
indispensable, ability to double up departments is obviously wise and 
Mr. Griswold's long labors and the report of the sub-committee on 
^re protection on this subject arc exactly in point. 

21 The Water Curtain. Tt is fair to say that a water curtain 



174 DEBARMENT OF CITY CONFLAGRATIONS 

has successfully held off some heavy fires, but never a conflagratiou. 
The fatal weakness of the water curtain is that it is blown away or 
scattered by the brisk breeze which necessarily accompanies a hoi- 
blast conflagration. The depth of the spray is also far too shallow. 

22 The water curtain, as shown by fire record results, is a 
valuable safeguard for moderate exposure fires, or even for fairly 
severe exposure when favored by quiet air, but fails in severe tests. 

23 The Fireproof Building. The typical, so-called "fireproof* 
building, having merely incombustible fioors, roof and walls, cannot 
debar a conflagration (because of its unprotected windows and large 
volume of contents) any more than can an ordinary brick building 
with a good roof. 

24 A hot-blast conflagration moves laterally, and a "fireproof 
building in its path, as evidenced at Baltimore, is merely a crate which 
holds up the fuel contents in position for free burning and augments 
the general hot blast. 

25 It is contents, not buildings, which make the bulk of property 
loss ; contents, not buildings, which are hazardous ; and contents cause 
buildings to bum in most cases. 

26 Repeated experience shows that no building can withstand 
the heat due to burning any large quantity of contents or even verj 
moderate contents if in a large rotunda, half fioor office or like large 
area. The writer submits to all who are authorities on heat the 
feasibility of constructing a high structure of large retorts, each 
capable of restraining 10,000 to 50,000 lb. of ignited fuel, and alsc 
filling with customary taste and beauty the needs of utility and healtl 
for habitation. 

27 The fireproof building has unequalled habitability and utilitj 
and also lends itself admirably to conversion into a piped building 
and even more excellently lends itself to conversion into a building 
having protected windows. 

28 The Horizontally Divided Building is designed to hold a 6n 
from rising through the floors. Repeated experience in tall buildingJ 
has proven that excessively large and dangerous fires develop quickh 
if the floors are not fire tight. 

29 Such horizontal division is obviously of no value against s 
hot-blast fire moving laterally from without, and it also does not pre- 
vent an internal fire from jumping from floor to floor on the outside 
of the building. 

30 Horizontal fire-tight constrnction is very rarely found when 



ALBERT BLAUVELT 175 

fire-tested, its worst drawback being that in the opinion of the public 
it injures the habitability and utility of the building, hence all sorts 
of concessions are made. 

31 The Protected Window, Protected windows can debar city 
conflagrations, but do not because there are too few of them, except in 
a few special and minor localities. 

38 The Piped Building. The building piped with fusible out- 
lets, whether with automatic water supply or with water promptly 
applied, can but does not debar city conflagrations for the same rea- 
son given respecting the protected window. 

TRUE HOT-BLAST CONFLAGRATIONS CAN BE DEFLECTED OR ABSORBED 

33 Hot-blast conflagrations have been successfully controlled both 
by deflection and absorption. 

34 Taking up the deflection idea first, all will doubtless agree 
that if the four walls of every city building were solid brick with no 
doors or windows, a spread of fire would be impossible, even with no 
fire department. From this it follows that if all doors and windows 
were protected by wire glass, shutters or fire curtains, the walls of 
the buildings would have the same tendency. Any experienced 
fire chief will testify to the enormous fire-stopping effect of an alley 
shuttered on both sides, the heat and hot blast being deflected up- 
ward. 

35 Experience shows, however, that when a hot blast reaches a 
building prepared to act as a deflector by suitable protection for its 
doors and windows, the first result is partial failure. This is owing 
to the fact that the heat will radiate through the wired glass, or leak 
through the shutters, and ignite the contents. 

36 Nevertheless, there will be a retardant effect and it is obvious 
that if other buildings located to the right or left of the center of the 
hot blast have window openings, similarly stopped, they must suffer 
lese and the elsewise lateral ramification of the fire decrease. 

37 The hot blast is thus largely deflected upward, partly checked 
Mid less able to cross the next street or alley, assuming protected win- 
dows throughout. 

38 Just how many deflector walls and air spaces could be jumped 
or burned through by a conflagration of given severity is a matter of 
judgment based on observation, precisely as tlie extinguishing power 
of a hose stream is a matter of judgment from experience, not reduci- 
ble to exact figures. 

39 The writer submits that if all the alloy windows were pro- 



176 DEBARMENT OF CITY CONFLAGRATIONS 

tected and also all the street windows on the second floors and 
in the solid three and four-story parts of a town, a conflagratioi 
without could not then bore a hole or a bay into such a district 
than through four deflector walls and across three air spaces, 
would mean two blocks and three streets, of which one might 
alley. 

40 Not that the fire would be put out, nor that tongue 
fire brands would not have to be taken care of; but that the ho 
would be deflected upward so the firemen could take a front 
and the general advance and ramification of the fire subside to 
of normal fire department control. 

DEBARMENT OF CONFLAGRATIONS BY ABSORPTION 

41 There remains but one other known means to regai: 
trol of a conflagration, that of absorbing the hot blast by me 
the piped building. Experience has demonstrated that a ho' 
can be absorbed by a spray if the spray be very deep and fairly 
from the wind as is true of the cage of spray represented by a sp: 
installation in full action in a building whose windows have 1 
out. 

42 The most notable demonstration of this was the Brown- 
sprinklered building at Boston in 1893. Inasmuch as this bi 
became a single large cage of spray which absorbed the mail 
of a down-town fire that was wholly beyond control, it is certai 
a row of such cages of spray, if placed two or more deep, would 
accomplish the same thing, and do so without the aid of pr< 
windows. 

43 The writer submits that if a city throughout all of iti 
and four-story and higher parts were composed exclusively of s 
j)ipod buildings, aiul special water supply provided, a conflaj 
from a district without could not burn across a street, thn 
l)lo(^k doop of s])ray, and across the next street. 

44 The fire would not be put out and fire brands wouL 
to be taken care of ; but there would be no ramification of fire 
sprinklered territory and there would be a full restoration of i 
fire department control. 

VALUES, COSTS, GAINS 

45 The Boston big fires proved out burnable property va 
a rate of over $500,000,000 per square mile, and it is well knoin 



ALBERT BLAUVELT 



177 



today there are several city centers which have grown to a far higher 
rat« of concentration of value. 

46 It seems fair to assume $^50,000,000 per square mile as an 
average burnable value over the central districts of our twenty leading 
cities. 

47 For such a square mile, standard automatic sprinklers (in- 
cluding masonry) would cost about four per cent of the burnable 
values, or $10,000,000 with fixed charges of about 16 per cent per 
year. 

48 Empty sprinklers, or, protected windows, would each cost 



ABLE 1 FIXED CHARGES. FIRE COST SAVING AND NET GAIN ON A BASIS OF 

$250,000,000 PER SQUARE MILE 



On an Annual Basis 



Invwtment per sq. mi 

Fuwl charges as giveo above 

Stved by eliminating risk of con- 

flacratioo at 33 ct. per $100. . . 
Sired by eliminating common ex- 

poiure firee at 7 ct. per $100 

^ved by reducing fire cost within 

buildings in which fire originated 
Differpnce between charges and 

■svings 

Per cent earned by savings 



For Standard 

Automatic 

Sprinklers with 

Double Water 

Supply 



For Empty 
Sprinklers and 

Piping to be 

Supplied by the 

Fire Department 



$10,000,000 
1,600,000 

825,000 

175,000 

2,000,000 

1,400,000 



$6,000,000 
450,000 

825,000 

175,000 

1,125.000 

1,675,000 



14 



33.5 



For Shutters, 

Fire Curtains, 

or Wired Glass 

Appued as per 

Preceding Test 



$5,000,000 
450,000 

825,000 

175,000 

nominal 

650,000 



11 



alxmt lialf aa much, or $r),()00,()00 per square mile for either, and each 

•Hnir fixed charges (about the same as the buildings), or about 9 per 
m\i. 

1'^ The savings per $100 of burnable values per year, would be 
8'^ given in Table 1. 

'^^ In surveying any actual square mile it would develop that 
"ut one of the three, viz., protected windows, automatic pipes, or 
t*nipty sprinkler pipes, would best suit any one building, and this 
^■<Hil(l be likely to result in a detail plan calling for gross investment 
*•' awut three per cent of the burnable values at a net gain of about 18 
\^T cent. 

'"^1 But figures cannot include the grief, loss of work and trade 
lollowing every large conflagration. 



178 DEBARMENT OF CITY CONFLAGRATIONS 

52 Our fire limits, fire departments and waterworks ai 
well developed, and protected windows or piped buildings thr 
the costlier districts are all that is needed, to debar conflagrati< 

RECAPITULATION 

53 To recapitulate the advantages and disadvantages of 
tected window and the two types of piped buildings : 

54 The protected window delays the entry of severe fires i 
prevents general ramification of fire through innumerable 
openings. 

55 Not that the protected window does this perfectly, 
shutters may be out of order or not within reach to close if oj 
because wired glass transmits heat by radiation very rapidly, 
theless, as aided by existing air spaces, alleys and streets, 1 
tected window is a proven success. 

56 The protected window is beginning to be required in 1 
codes ; it also is tangible to the public eye, something that can 
as representing a fire stop or check; in wired glass form it h 
working advantages, at least for skylights, and finds favor wit 
tects on the better class of buildings; in the form of shuti 
fire-stop effect is better than for wired glass, but this is large 
by the fact that shutters do not get the care which comes to a 
which is in more or less constant use. 

57 The advantage of the piped building with automatic 
source water supply, the well known sprinklered building, is 
all the protection to life. Apparently this specific form of fin 
tion is the only one which to any dependable degree conser 
An experience with say 10,000 buildings over a period of a 
years gives rise to the statement that no life has ever been 1 
building so equipped, either by fire or smoke, and to the bes 
writer's knowledge this is literally true. 

58 The operation of an automatic sprinkler system de 
powerful drenching spray not only on the fire but around 
compels escaping smoke to pass through a dense spray whi< 
up the acrid quality and heavier carbon contents of the smc 
thus has much to do with the protection to life. 

59 While mathematical safety against loss of life is ] 
impossible, it is within the truth to say that where people 
masses, or are asleep, safety cannot exist if the fire hazards 
under the automatic sprinkler. 



ALBERT BLAUVELT 179 

60 A second advantage of the automatic sprinkler system, and 
the one most in point under the title of this paper, is that it has been 
found in practice that, given brick buildings, well secured pipes, and 
reasonable water supply, a fire even when of conflagration magni- 
tude cannot bum completely through such spray further than the 
depth of one, or say two, buildings. 

W A third advantage is that the fires are put out so quickly 
and with such economy of water by reason of its accurate application, 
with 80 little smoke and so great a reduction of the harmful quality 
of the smoke that the aggregate fire, water, and smoke damage to 
goods is far less than for any other form of protection. 

62 Referring to the plain piped building, or building equipped 
with fusible sprinklers on empty piping with exterior hose coupling 
for fire department use and relying solely on the fire department for 
water supply, the main advantage is that the first cost and low fixed 
charges make it applicable to the medium value buildings. 

63 Another advantage is that of safety to life, compared with 
that of buildings not piped at all, because in practice the empty 
sprinklers can be operated nearly as quickly, and necessarily to the 
same effect as automatic water-supplied sprinklers. 

64 Still another advantage is that the technique and upkeep es- 
f^ntial to efficiency are far less thati' with the full standard automatic 
sprinkler equipment. 

65 The main disadvantage of the protected window is that it 
protects only as between neighboring buildings and this saving aver- 
ages too small an amount to cover its fixed charges, on a basis of 
every-day fires. 

66 A disadvantage of the standard automatic sprinkler system 
is that it is a special engineering product, technical to a high degree, 
yet depending on this quality for its efficiency, an efficiency imparted 
by a few skilled contractors and experts. The system therefore is 
open to criticism by all who rail at any control of skill or service. 

67 Another objection to this form of piped building is that its 
water supplies are often direct from city mains through the influence 
of large property owners, thereby saving them the expense of private 
water supply. In Manhattan Island and Chicago the city water is 
of too low a pressure to be so used, but in other cities there are too 
rew sprinklered buildings to check a conflagration and just about 
enough of them to jeopardize complete crippling of waterworks and 
fire department at such a time by reason of these buildings being 



180 DEBARMENT OF CITY CONFLAGRATIONS 

wrecked and bleeding the general water supply throughout the break- 
ing of large pipes. 

68 Hence a wise requirement for a piped district, would be to 
provide a special border pipe line into which water would be pumped 
or admitted under control. 

69 iStill another disadvantage of standard automatic sprinkler 
equipment is in first cost and in fixed charges. The investment and 
fixed charges do not have any fairly constant relation to tlie value of 
building plus contents, and at city labor costs are usually excessive, 
except for large and costly buildings. 

70 A disadvantage of the empty pipe sprinkler system is that 
this mode of protection has as yet but few applications; no extended 
study has been given the art of cheap extinguishment of fire in me- 
dium value property. Anotlier disadvantage is that fire department 
practice is at variance; some chiefs favor and ask for such equip- 
ment, and others evade or object. 

71 It does not seem to be generally realized that a building in 
a central district does not burn badly before the department arrives. 
Were this not so, modern fire departments would not, as the records 
show year after year, hold the fires within moderate loss, except 0.003 
to 0.005 of the total. The fire department does arrive while the fires 
are yet incipient, though perhaps inaccessible. It seems to be accepted 
as a matter of course that a costly proportion of buildings shall burn 
and soak, subsequent to the arrival of the department, for the sole 
reason that the department cannot quickly put ample water where, 
and only where, it is needed. Yet to do the latter is all that the stand- 
ard automatic sprinkler equipment does or professes to do, and water 
can be supplied to empty ])ipes nearly as quickly by firemen as by a 
private tank. 

72 Even in a case of purposely delayed alarm and sprinklers 
shut off (incendiary), the writer has seen work done in this manner 
by only one steamer with wonderful success, extinguishing a four- 
story fire which otherwise would have required many hose streams, 
and this after there was no time to set up ladders and place hose. 

73 The fire cost of empty sprinkler equipment would admitttedly 
be greater than for automatic sprinkler equipment because while there 
would be no failures through pipes frozen or valves shut off, the fire 
department would not put water on the fires at quite as early a stage 
of incipiency. 

74 A willing fire department, however, would put water on the 



ALBERT BLAUVELT 181 

irough such pipes while a fire was yet incipient, hecause our fire 
tment records show tliat the department arrives and the vast 
rity of city fires are put out while incipient. 
» To pay for the greater fire and water damage in practice 
empty pipes as compared with automatic sprinkler equipment, 
azures given in Table 1 allow for the typical square mile, $825,000 
ear, to say nothing of $1,160,000 reduction of annual fixed 
es. 

I However, the standard automatic sprinkler system has been 
demonstrated for over 20 years, yet it is but just coming into 
m, and the empty sprinkler system must in turn wait for recog- 
1 and extend in application by degrees. 

1 The practical difficulty, therefore, of debarring disastrous 
igrations in our cities seems not in lack of means, nor in lack 
lowledge based on experience, so much as in the lack of agree- 
on a plan, and the difficulty of apportionment of expense. 



No. 1393 b 

BALTIMORE HIGH-PRESSURE FIRE 

SERVICE 

Bt James B. Scott, Baltimore, Md. 
Member of the Society 

The Conflagration of 190^. The conflagration of 1904 was due to 
the simultaneous occurrence of an incipient warehouse fire gaining 
head,way unobserved on a Sunday morning; a high wind; inferior 
building construction and inadequate fire-fighting equipment. 

2 During the first eight hours of the fire the wind was blowing 
from the southwest, after which it shifted 90 deg. to the northwest, 
causing the fire to advance with its broadside of 1500 ft. for a front. 
Although supplemented by engines from other cities, after the fire 
had got beyond control the operations of the department might be 
described as a skilful retreat, an engine and a truck being lost under 
falling walls because the retreat had not been sufSciently rapid. 
I)ynamite was freely used by skilfid operators, but was practically 
ineffective. The fire raged for 30 hours, covering 150 acres, causing 
a loss of $100,000,000 and finally burned itself out when the wind 
changed again to the north and drove the fiames toward the open 
harbor. 

3 There was no scarcity of the water supply. The topography 
of Baltimore shows elevations ranging from 6 to 460 ft. above mean 
low tide, and to prevent excessive pressures in the low lying sections 
or a deficiency in those higher up, the supply is divided into five 
separate services. The "low^^ and "middle" services are fed entirely 
by gravity, the three higher services being supplied by pumps and 
bigh storage reservoirs. Suitable by-passes are provided so that in 
^ emergency any service can be supplied from the next higher. At 
^he time of the conflagration there was available a total reservoir 
opacity of over 1,750,000,000 gal., in addition to pumps of 63,000,- 
^ gal. capacity. At that time the consumption for domestic and 
^dustrial purposes was about 60,000,000 gal. daily, and the draft 
^fom the reservoirs for fighting the confiagration was approximately 
^ same amount, or a trifie over 3 per cent of the available reservoir 

^^f^sented at the Spring Meeting, Baltimore 1913, of The American 
^^^^^^tftr OF Mechanical Engineers. 

183 



BALTIMOHE HIGH-PRESSURE FIRE SERVICE 




JAMES B. SCOTT 185 

lapacity. In addition to the reservoir draft, about two hours after 
the fire started the two 17,500,000-gal. pumps in one of the high- 
service pumping stations were by-passed into the "middle" or upper 
jrravity service. The fire originated in the middle service district 
and shortly afterward extended into the low service district. As 
s(H)u as this occurred the by-pass between the two was opened, and 
the pressure was maintained at 80 lb. during the remainder of the 
fire. 

1 Tlie operations against the conflagration demonstrated that, 
for effective fighting of a dangerous fire, large volumes of water 
must he delivered on the fire with the least possible delay, and at 
suitahle pressures. To meet these requirements a separate high- 
jjressure fire service was designed and installed, covering the greater 
portion of the congested value districts of the city. 

5 Characteristics of the Congested Value Districts. The corporate 
hmitsof Baltimore embrace an area of 31V^ sq. mi., with a density of 
lH>pulation of 17,729 per sq. mi., a density greater than any other of 
tlie larger American cities. The congested value districts cover ap- 
proximately 300 acres, tlie area at present covered by the high- 
pressure mains is about 175 acres, or assuming that the territory for 
200 ft. outside the mains is protected, the high-pressure district may 
iie t'onsidered to be 215 acres. 

6 The elevations of the congested value districts vary from 6 ft. 
to 100 ft. above mean low tide, about one half of the area being 
Wow elevation 50. The pump centers at the high-pressure station 
are at about elevation 12.5. 

7 The character of the building construction in the congested 
vahie districts varies from first-class modern fireproof structures to 
I'oiiverted residences, except in the rebuilt burned district, where a 
iH'tter type of construction exists. In the districts in question all 
eleotric wires have been placed underground in conduits owned by 
the city, with the exception of the street railway trolleys. Before re- 
huilding the burned district, several narrow and congested streets 
>Tere widened and plazas established around important public build- 
^H^y 80 that the conflagration hazard in that section has been con- 
^'iderably decreased. 

DESIGN OF TIIK lIKai-PKKSSl'RK SYSTEM 

^ The Time Element. High-speed automobile hose wagons are 
P'^vided, housed at convenient locations, in order that the minimum 



186 BALTIMORE HIGH-PRESSURE FIRE SERVICE 

time possible may be consumed in reaching the scene of a fire af 1 
the alarm is received. Each wagon is equipped with a four-cylind 
four-cycle motor of sufficient power to develop a speed of 30 mi. m 
hr. through the streets of the city, with a load of 5000 lb. EJa^ 
body is 50 in. by 34 in. by 12 ft. inside, and carries 2000 ft. of 3-iJ 
hose. Each body is equipped with one ^2000-gal. Morse InvindbJ 
monitor nozzle and two 1100-gal. monitors. 

9 The Pressure Element, The pressure required for effective 
work varies widely according as conditions demand the flooding on ' 
of a basement fire or fighting on the top floor of a modem skyscraper 
At times both extremes may be required simultaneously. 

10 To meet efficiently these conditions requires the maximum 
pressure to be available at each hydrant, with means for the separate 
control of the pressure on each hose line. The speciflcations called 
for a combination operating valve and regulator capable of adjust- 
ment from shut-off to 50, 75, 100, 125, or 150 lb., or if desired, tc 
the full line pressure of 300 lb. The pressures were to be plainly 
marked on the valve by notches to be used by the operator as t 
guide for setting the handle. Regulators were to hold the pressure 
steadily within 10 lb. of the set amount, whether the play pipe wen 
open or closed. The regulator was also to be provided with a loci 
whereby the handle could be prevented from passing the 150 In 
notch, but after unlocking could be moved to the full line positioji 
When wide open under the maximum pressure of ^00 lb. the valvt 
was not to show a loss of head in excess of 15 lb. The hydrant hea< 
was to contain four horizontal outlets and one vertical outlet, eaH 
horizontal outlet to be provided with a regulator, and the complet 
head including four regulators was not to weigh over 110 lb. Th 
head and regulators were to be designed for 300 lb. working pressur 
and were to be tested with a static pressure of 600 lb. 

11 While the above requirements may seem simple enough, onl; 
one of the valves submitted by different makers met the remiire 
ments in all essential points, a regulator designed especially for th 
purpose by the Ross Valve Manufacturing Company of Trov. N*. Y 
(Figs. 2 and 3). 

12 The main regulating valve is inserted in an opening just ove 
the hose connection, and is inclined outward at an angle of 20 dee 
The opening is closed with a plate carrjring a pilot valve and a eruid 
for the main valve. The pilot valve with its diaphragm is covere* 
with a spring chamber, the whole being held in place by cap screws 



JAMBS B. SCOTT 187 

The main valve is balanced and is provided with a flat seat and 
leather face. The upper part of the main valve acts as an operating 
piston, being provided with a cup leather packing. The pilot valve 
is balanced against the delivery pressure by the regulator springs, 
which are made double to secure a wide range of pressure in a short 
length. The top of the spring chamber is revolved by the operating 
handle attached to it, and being provided with a coarse square 
thread screw, less than one revolution is suflScient to give the full 
range of pressure on the springs from fidl open to closed. The pilot 
valve is held positively in the two extreme positions independently 
of the springs by stops at the top and bottom of the stem. The full 
hydrant pressure is admitted to the operating chamber of the main 
valve through a small tube projecting below the seat of the valve. 
Thi& tube is extended in order to keep the entrance clear of the 
varying velocity near the valve seat, which would tend to vary the 
flow of water to the operating chamber. When the pilot valve is 
open, water wastes from the operating chamber, the pressure is 
lowered and the main valve is opened by the unbalanced pressure 
below. When the pilot valve is closed the full hydrant pressure is 
maintained in the operating chamber, and as the area of the operat- 
ing piston is somewhat larger than the area of the main valve, the 
pressure is unbalanced in the opposite direction and the main valve 
is closed. Intermediate positions of the pilot valve are followed by 
corresponding movements of the main valve, maintaining the de- 
livery pressure within a few poimds of the amount indicated by the 
notch at which the operating handle is set. The main valve when 
fully opened presents an unobstructed waterway. The entire 
mechanism is simple in design, easy to operate and has proved entirely 
satisfactory in service. 

13 Quantity of Water Available, The National Board of Fire 
Underwriters after a careful study of the situation recommended 
that a total delivery of 15,000 gal. per min. should be available 
^thin any area not exceeding 100,000 sq. ft., at a pressure of not 
less than 200 lb. at the hydrant. As installed, each hydrant has four 
«74"in. horizontal and one vertical outlet for mounting a monitor 
nozde. At present the 3-in. hose is connected through reducer 
couplmgg^ but in the future all hydrants will be equipped with 3-in. 
outlets and connections to 2V^-in. hose will be made through reducers. 

H The quantity of water which can be delivered through a 
hydrant is a function of the number, length and size of hose lines 



188 BALTIMORE RIOR-PREBSURE FIRS SERVICE 

attached, and the diameter and type of nozzles. Assuming four I 
of 3-iii, rubber-lined hose each 100 ft. in length, and 200 lb 
the hydrant, with 134-in. smooth nozzles, each hjdr&nt would 
liver 3800 gal. per min., or the requirement of the nnderwr 
would be met by four hydrants. At least twice that number of 
drants are available for every unit of area mentioned. If 2-in. 
zles were used, other conditions reinnining the same, the disch 
would be 4400 gal. per min. at a pressure of 86 lb. at the baae ol 
play pipe, as compared with 1 08 lb. in the former case. 




Fifi. 2 Portable Head 

]5 At present 22(> hydrants have been installed, staggerec 
opposite sides of the strwls, averaging about 170 ft. lineal spa* 
In addition to the normal locations at stn>et and alley intersect 
the fire chief placed a number of hydrants at special position) 
meet local conditions of exposure, e.vtra hazard or specially congt 
values. 

W Design of Uyilmnt. The typo of hydrant to be used 
given careful study. It was considered especially desirable in 
of the e.xperifnce gained in fighting the conflagration, to be abl 



JAHE8 B. BCOTT 189 

place a monitor or special flat nozzle directly ou the top of the 
hy<lr>nt, to form a water curtain for the protection of exposed prop- 
erty on the opposite side of the street. Street intersections form a 
specially desirable location for such a purpose, but usually the corner 
of the footway is preempted for various other structures such aa 
sewer inlets, lamp posts, trolley poles, police and fire-alarm boses, 
etc. It was soon evident that if restricted to the ordinary post type of 
hydrant, it would be impossible to secure suitable locations, and the 




"ter-curtain feature would have to be abandoned. The flush hy- 
onat with portable head seemed to meet all the coiiditions admirably. 
^J the use of this type, hydrants couhl be located almost without 
f*«tnetion6, either in the driveway or any part of the footway. The 
portable head was also admimhly adapted to tin.' uhc of the regulating 
xhfeon the hydrant, as tlic entire operating mechanism, otiier than 
Ihe nuin valve, <f0uld be kept in the firemen's tjuartci-s, instead of being 
"powd to frost or other injuries on the street. 



190 BALTIMORE HIGH-PRESSURE FIRE SERVICE 

17 The portable head as designed complete with four regola 
valves, weighs 110 lb. In order to provide against any dela) 
attaching the head to the hydrant, a special "bayonet" joint 
designed (Fig. 2). The head slips loosely into the barrel of 
hydrant, and by a twist of 22y2 deg., a series of interlocking lugi 
the head and barrel engage each other, and the full section of t 
bronze lugs is in shear to resist the water pressure. The water j 
is made by means of a square soft rubber packing ring placed i 
square groove on the outside of the lower portion of the head, 
groove is somewhat larger than the packing ring, and at very 
pressures water leaks past the ring. At higher pressures, howe 
the water presses the rubber closely against the barrel, and the ji 
is absolutely tight at all pressures between 20 and 1000 lb. 
action is entirely automatic, there being no screws nor glands of 
kind to be manipulated. When the water is shut off, the ring ( 
tracts and the head can then be lifted out of the barrel without 
slightest resistance. To illustrate the extreme simplicity of the 
vice, and the ease of handling, a recent test by the engineen 
the National Board of Fire Underwriters may be cited. The I 
and operating key were laid in the center of the street, 20 ft. a 
from the hydrant. Two firemen selected at random, picked up 
head and key, ran to the hydrant, removed the two loose coa 
placed the head in position and turned the water on, all in the s] 
of 18 seconds by a stop watch. 

18 A small cast-iron cover is laid over the top of the barre 
protect it from dirt and injury, and over this is placed a larger ( 
iron cover flush with the pavement. As practically all the hydr 
are located on the sidewalks the cover is made quite light, and 
should become frozen in, it can be broken instantly by a blow f 
the operating key. 

19 The hydrant proper is designed for a clear waterway of 21 
in. through the main valve. The main valve closes with the prea 
and an auxiliary is provided, actuated by the main valve stem. ' 
auxiliary valve opens in advance of and equalizes the pressure be 
the main valve starts to open. A drip valve is arranged so 
as the main valve opens the drip is closed and vice versa, but 
valves cannot be open at the same time. Both the main and auxiJ 
valves have conical leather faces and bronze seats. The barrel of 
hydrant is of soft grey iron, and all nuts and fittings, 8tuffing-b( 
etc., are of bronze. The main valve stem is Tobin bronze, and 



JAUE8 B. SCOTT 191 

uperatiug spindle is of forged steel. All presHure parts are deBigned 
for B working pressure of 300 lb. with a factor of safety of twelve. 
.Wler erection a field test of 600 lb. was made. 

HlOlI-PliESSDIlE PIPE LINES 

80 General Plan. The general plan of the system is a gridiron of 




FiREBOAT CONNBOTION 



l^in, mains crossing at intervals of approximately 1300 ft. in each 
'li'ection, with 10-in laterals in the intermediate streets spaecd ap- 
pfoiimately 400 ft. apart. A 10-in. branch is ])rovided ut the 
■••rbot front for connection with the fireboats (Fig. A). All hydrant 
liniiclies are 8 in. There are no dead ends on mains or lattTals in 
'"« entire system, with the exception of an extension on one street 



192 BALTIMORE HIGH-PRESSURE FIRE SERVICE 

which will be connected up at tlie next addition to the system. 
From the pumping station two 24-in. mains discharge into the inter- 
sections of the 16-in. mains. In the pumping station the 24-in^ .. 
mains are looped around the rear of the pump foundations, thereby — 
avoiding dead ends and by equalizing the stresses render umiecessarj — 
any heavy anchorages. Individual 14-in. pump discharges deliver — 

directly into the 24-in. mains through welded necks. Three 24-in 

valves and an 18-in. cross connection in the station, serve to section 

alize the large main, so that any portion may be cut out virithout^ 
putting more than one pump out of commission. A large rolled stee^H 

air chamber 30 in. in diameter by 20 ft. high is placed on each 24-in 

discharge main. 

21 Cast-iron versus Steel Pipe. For the service in view it wae=^ 
believed that cast-iron pipe, usually employed for city water-mains :^ 
was not a scientific application of material for the stresses involved — 
On the other hand, commercial rolled steel lap-welded pipe meets th^^ 
structural conditions much more satisfactorily. With this material 
the pipe system becomes an engineering structure, all tensile aniS 
bending stresses are taken up by the pipes themselves and the systen:^ 
would be entirely safe if laid on the surface of the ground. 

22 The principal objection urged against the use of steel for this 
purpose is the liability to corrosion, especially when complicated by 
electrolysis in city streets. After a careful study of the problem, it 
was decided that the advantages of this material outweighed the objec- 
tions, for the following reasons : 

a If the entire pipe system had to be renewed every ten years, 
the steel would still be more reliable and hence more 
desirable than cast iron, as the latter is liable to fail by 
breakage without previous warning. When deterioration 
of the steel pipe does occur, it makes itself known by in- 
crease of leakage, which can be detected and repairs made 
gradually, as occasion oilers. By way of a reductio ad 
absurd uni it might be argued that if absence of corrosion 
be the controlling feature in the selection of a material, 
a glass pipe would be the ideal, as it would last forever 
if not broken by shock or bending stresses. 

b The study of corrosion of steel has reached a point where 
it is possible to say that corrosion is not inevitable, but 
is due to more or less direct violation of certain well 
defined principles. If steel can be protected from the 



JAMES B. SCOTT 193 

simidtaiieous action of moisture, air and acids, the causes 
of rusting or corrosion are to a great degree removed, 
regardless of the particular chemical theory held by the 
investigator. Protecting the steel from the action of 
these three agents is mainly a mechanical proceeding. A 
permanent, impervious, elastic coating, which will adhere 
closely to the metal is the requirement. High-grade 
asphalt applied when both the steel and the coating are 
hot- and clean, seems to meet these conditions satis- 
factorily. The specifications for the chemical composi- 
tion of the asphalt used were very exacting. Among 
other conditions it was required that a cubic centimeter 
of the material should show no action when exposed for 
one year in any or all of the following solutions: 25 per 
cent hydrochloric acid, 2<5 per cent sidphuric acid, M per 
cent potassium cyanide, 25 per cent caustic soda, satur- 
ated solution of ammonia. The pipes were thoroughly 
cleaned and heated to a temperature of 300 deg. fahr. 
and while hot were dipped vertically in the bath of 
asphalt, which was maintained at a temperature of 
from 360 to 400 deg. fahr. The pipe was held in the 
bath for a sufficient length of time and was then drawn 
out slowly, at the rate of 6 to 10 ft. per min., so that a 
coating of 1/32 in. thickness was evenly distributed over 
the entire surface of tlie pipe. Any damage to the coat- 
ing during shipment or erection was repaired by the ap- 
plication of the same material dissolved in a suitable 
solvent, and applied in several coats at intervals, until 
a satisfactory thickness was obtained. All bolts and nuts 
were dipped in the same solution before being inserted 
in the flanges, 
c Electrolysis is due to an electrical difference of potential 
between the metal and the earth in contact with it, of 
sufficient magnitude to cause a current flow from the 
pipe to the earth. Since the conflagration of 1904 the 
City of Baltimore has required all electrical wires to be 
placed in the municipal conduits, and to protect the 
cables from electrolytic action the city's electrical com- 
mission made a careful study of the local situation. As 
a result the street railway was compelled to rebond a 



194 BALTIMORE HIQH-PBESSURE FIRE BERVICE 

large part of its tracks^ copper cables being carried aroun< 
all special work. In addition a supplementary coppe 
return covering the entire district was installed^ con 
sisting of three bare copper cables having an aggregat 
cross-section of 6,000,000 circular mils. An entire! 
separate copper return was also installed as a protectio: 
for the cable sheaths, nothing but lead cables bein 
bonded to this. The cross-section of this latter varie 
from 1,000,000 to 6,000,000 circular mils. As a result c 
this large amount of capper in the return circuit, tli 
difference of potential between the various undergroun 
structures has been reduced to a nominal figure. 

The special joint designed for the Baltimore steel pij 
line has a resistance equal to 6 in. of the pipe on the 1( 
in. size, and equal to 9 in. on the li6-in. pipe. The resis 
ance of a bell and spigot lead joint is often equal to 4 < 
6 ft. of the pipe. 

d Finally, the current flow from the pipe to the earth mt 
be made very small if a high resistance covering be place 
around the entire pipe system. In tlie present instan< 
the asphalt coating furnishes the necessary high resistant 
envelope. 

23 While it is still too early to offer definite evidence regardii 
the life of the pipe in question, pipes which have been in the grour 
for two years have recently been exposed by excavation for oth< 
work, and have shown absolutely no signs of deterioration, the coa 
ing being in perfect condition. 

24 Pipe. The specifications called for lap-welded pipe made ( 
soft open hearth steel having the following qualities : 

Per Cent 

Carbon, not exceeding 0. 10 

Phosphorous, not exceeding 0.04 

Sulphur, not exceeding .06 

Manganese between 0.35-0.45 

Ultimate tensile strength between 50,000 and 55,000 lb. per sq. in.; elaff 

limit at least 3^ ultimate; elongation not less than 20 per cent in 8 in.; cold ai 

quench bend 180 deg. flat. 

25 The weld in the lap was to be perfect and capable of standii 
the strains incident to the manufacture of bends and forming < 
joints, without distress or rupture. 



JAUEB B. SCOTT ! 

26 The thickneas of pipe, in iuches, was as follows : 

24 in, Outaide Diameter H 

16 in. Out^e Diameter A 

10 in. Inmde Diameter A 

8 in. Inmde Diameter A 




FiQ. 5 DmAiL OP 10-lN. Pipi Joint 

i1 Bends were generally of a standard radius of 5 diameters of 
[xpa- Length of pipe, in feet, laid was : 

Win 1,276 

'•in 17,052 

10 in 28,229 

Bin 7,137 

Total 63,693-10 2 milca 



196 BALTIMORE HIGH-PRESSURE FIRE SERVICE 

28 Joints, For the present service it was desired to avoid th 
use of rubber gaskets, which would tend to increase the electrici 
resistance of the joint. Copper gaskets or other metals disfiiTnilar i 
the metal of the pipes, in the presence of moisture and the acids c 
salts of the earth, would form a voltaic cell^ and tend to increase tl 
corrosion due to electrical action. A joint was therefore designed 1 
avoid the necessity for a gasket or joint cement of any kind. 

2*9 The Baltimore design is a form of universal joint (Fig. 5 
The end of the pipe is flanged out into a bell forming a zone of 
sphere. A soft cast-iron ring is accurately turned in the shape of 
torus^ having the same curvature on its exterior surfaces as the ii 
terior of the bell on the pipe ends. Loose flanges are plaoed on tl 
pipe back of the bell, and when bolted up, draw the pipe bells up ( 
the torus ring (Fig. 6). The pressure secured by the wedging effe 
on the spherical surfaces is enormous. If the curve of the surfac 
be too flat, the metal of the pipe may be cold rolled, and the flang 
may be pulled over the ring. By suiting the degree of the curvatu 
to the diameter of the pipe, a safe combination is secured, and wi 
the proper thickness of loose flange, a joint is secured which is abfi 
lutely water tight until pressures are reached which exceed the elc 
tic limit of the pipe or bolts. On the 10-in. size this pressure 
about 2200 lb. per sq. in. In the field testing, during the installati< 
of the pipe, the specified test pressure was 600 lb., but during t 
early stages of the work, this pressure was often largely exceeded. 

30 The joints are designed for a deflection of 10 deg., or about 
ft. 6 in. in a i20-ft. length. On the 10-in. size this amount of defl< 
tion is easily obtainable, but on the larger sizes a smaller amount w 
used, though sufficient to be of considerable value in city work. 
line of 10-in. pipe was made up of seven 20-ft. lengths, and while t 
pressure was on, one end of the line was raised 5 ft. by means of 
crane, as shown in Fig. 7. While suspended in the air, support 
only at the two ends, 140 ft. apart, there was practically no leaka 
at any of the joints. It is evident that at least that amount of tren 
might be washed out without interfering with the operation of t 
pipe system in the least degree. In laying the pipe it was possible 
deflect it to pass an obstruction and in one instance, after the coi 
pletion of the work, owing to a change of grade in the sidewalk, 
hydrant branch 50 ft. long was jacked up 5 in. at one end, simply 
loosening the bolts at one joint. Upon tightening these bolts, t 
line tested free of leaks at 600 lb. 



JAMES B. BCOTT 




FiQ. 6 View of Pipk Joint and Welded Neck 




Pw. 7 Shop Test op Pipe Joint 



BALTIMORE HiaH-FSBSBURB FIBB BEBTICS 



31 The fact that the pipe was laid !□ 20-ft. lengths means th^Mi't 
the QimibeT of jointB was reduced 10 per cent in compaiison vi^^li 
cast iron. 

38 For deflectioDB greater than could conveniently be made ^3y 
the joints, pipe bends were used. A bending table was installed ^z^xi 
the work by the contractor, and about 1500 bends were mad(^ -^yt 
150 per mile of pipe laid. Bends of 16-in. pipe and smaller were n 




on the work, the 24-in. bends were made at the factory before ship" 
ment. 

33 For make-iip pieces at intersections and in blo<^ betweel* 
valves or tees already installed, straight line welded joints wei^ 
used. A special joint was devised for this service, made up as fol- 
lows: The end of one pipe was accurately expanded sufSciently to 



JAUBS B. SCOIT 199 

iTinit of its being shrunk over the end of the pipe to which it was 
be joined. Holes were cut around the circumference of the outer 
M or bell, and after being heated it was shrunk on in place. The 
lea were then flowed up with metal by the oxy-acetylene blow-pipe, 
i the end of the hell was also welded to the enclosed pipe. With 
8 type of joint the weld is in shear and not in tension, and it la 
irely feasible to make bends in the pipe with the weld in the arc 
the curve. Approximately 1500 of these straight line welds were 
de on the work, or about 150 per mile of pipe (Fig. 8). 






Pw. 10 Cast Steel Specials 

34 Flanges. The loose ring flanges were of medium open hearth 
«el, ultimate tensile strength 60,000 to 68,000 lb. All flanges were 
Murately machined and were drilled to template. 

35 Fittings. The use of steel pipe made it possible to reduce the 
umber of fittings to a minimum. The hydrant branches were made 
7 welding necks to the mains and laterals. A special neck weld was 
iwd, made up as follows : A hole was cut in the pipe, smaller than 
be liie of the neck, and radial cuts were made forming four narrow 
"gB which were left projecting into the hole. The wider alternate 
ogB were bent back to make an opening large enough to receive the 
i«k piece. The smaller straight lugs formed a support for, and 
«!d the neck rigidly in place during the welding process. The whole 
lomt was then fiowed with metal by an oxy-acetylene blow-pipe, f orra- 
ogt joint as strong as the original pipes (Pig. 9). 

36 The only specials required were the tees and crosses at the 
itei«ction8 of the gridiron, and a valve connection piece used to 



200 



BALTIMORE HIGH-PRESSURE FIRE SERVICE 



give a straight face flange at tlio valves. By the use of the lattra 
was possible to use standard commercial valves, and the valvee nu 
be easily removed when necessary (Figs, 10, 11, 12). All fittini 
were made of low carbon open hearth cast steel. 

37 Valves All valves are double-disk parallel seat gates. Bodi 
are low carbon open hearth steel of the same specifications as f 




fv fact di 

offittng rfspanang 

insLeto a geit port 



t 


A 






D 


E 


F 





H 


J 


K 





T-jS, 


L 


M 


K.ITS 




B - 






W 


' 


A 


4 


a, 


3 


i 


)• 


zl' 


4" 


* 


\t^ 


10' 


4'U- 


i^J' 


li' 


IE 


!»• 


!»■ 


II 


uS 


e! 


30 






'f 


4- 


«• 


'!' 




,5j 


« if 


El" 


zt 


le 


''i 


.V 


"• 


J3' 


A- 


ii' 


i' 


3' 


.f 


!i' 


n' 


11 


4 r 


»■ 


3' 


24 


\i 


'i' 



Pio. 11 Detail ok Tekm . 

fittings. Boimets, disks, gearing brackets, glands and packing bo 
are of semi-steel. Stems are of Tobin brouae, not less than 53,( 
lb. tensile strengtli. Seats, wedge mechanism and glands are 
bronze. The 16-in. and 18-in. valves are geared. All street val 
are provided with a stem nut, and a forged steel key is placed in e 
valve Ijti.x. An interlocking nmingement is provided so that the 1 



JAHES B. SCOTT 



201 



Mn be removed from the nut only when the valve is wide open. 
This prevents the valves being left closed or opened only a few 
tnnu, eicept in au emergency or intentionally, as the valve box 
Offer cannot be replaced while the key is on the nut. The 24-in. 
vilra are in the pumping station and are hydraulically operated. 
All vihes were subjected to a shop test of 800 lb. when open, and 
600 lb. when closed. 



^SlV^ 




Kb-»|«-6-5J k6->k-B->| 



s 


* 


B 


C 


D 


E 


r 


6 


H 


J 


K 


R 


R, 


T 


L 


\~K 


Tt? 


— 1 


(Jl 


m 


niA 


'W 


■l' 


•1 


< 


»)■ 


!«(■ 


V 


>( 


'V 


4- 


r 


'°(fl' 


sV 


sV 


7V 


|=V 


B 




'■ 


lo' 




'i 


"t; 


3* 


V 


||' 


aV 


V 


4' 


l£(^ 


6^' 


3^' 


9|{' 


«V 


IE 




'■ 




')■ 


is' 


1' 


■ 


H' 


4' 


6' 


'f' 


loii' 


9^' 


6ii' 


16' 


ti" 


le 




'i' 




!.• !V 


A 


4' 


* 


'i- 




•r 


4- 


?r' 


■♦f 


t' 


£j' 


30* 


Z* 


iV 


-r 



Pio. 12 DiTFAiL or Valve Connbctino Piicb 



^ Valve Boxes. The street valves are treated as pieces of 
nwhanigm, subject to derangement, and lioiifc are placed in con- 
<^t« boies or manholes, 42 in, inside diameter, where they can be 
'"*P«!ted and repaired without disturbing the street paving. The 



202 



BALTIMORE HIGH-PRESSURE FIRE SERVICE 



floor was first laid of plain concrete, with suitable drainage oo 
tion ; then the section enveloping the pipe or fitting was laid up 
concrete blocks molded to the standard radius. The upper 
section was built of reinf orced-concrete rings, laid up without m 
as they are provided with interlocking projections on the toj 
bottom faces, which make the rings self-centering. The uppei 
tion is made of conical shaped rings, forming the roof, and suppc 
the cast-iron cover frame. The blocks and rings were made i 
quantities in metal molds and seasoned before being used. 

Street Levet 




■ • . . . ■ . . ■ • ■ ■ • . ■ ■ ■ .■■'.. • . ■ ■ • ■ ■ 1 . . - « . 



Fig. 13 Valve Box with Valve in Place 

were quickly and easily assembled in the trench by unskilled 
The holes were back-filled and the street repaved in a remai 
sliort time, an item of considerable importance in a business thor 
fare as there was no time required for setting of the concrete (see 
13 and 14). 

LOW-PRESSURE WATER SUPPLY 

30 Two separate 40-in. mains from two different river syi 
run direct to and from the normal supply for the high-pressure \ 



JAMES B. SCOTT 203 

ing jtttion. The normal pieesure available with the high-^ressore 
dnft included is from 30 to 50 lb., but if by-passed from the middle 
01 higb-service mains, the pressure can be carried at 70 lb. A 30-iii. 
cut-iioD branch is taken to the station where it changes to a 30-in. 
riietted Bteel pipe inside the building. 

40 An auxiliary supply of braddsh water from the harbor may 
be secured through a reinforced-concrete conduit 3 ft. sq. inside. 




Pw. 14 Concrete Vai,vk Box Made Up 



T« Goaduit is provided with a large screen chamber at the dock, 
ud has fine and coarse screens sliding in inclined frames, and both 
mdnplicate, so that. one set of each can be in service while the other 
*' it out for cleaning. The screen chamber is also provided with 
^ logs so that the chamber and conduit can be pumped dry for 
"••wng out sediment. At the station end the conduit terminates 
in i \agt suction chamber located beneath the bawmcnt floor and 
bctvNn the pump foundations. The dimensions of this chamber 



204 BALTIMORE HIGH-PRESSURE FIRE SERVICE 

are 8 ft. wide, 7 ft. deep and 70 ft. long. The gravity suction pip 
enter the suction chamber through cast-iron thimbles built into t^i 
floor of the basement, as the basement floor is 8 or 9 ft. below flo^ 
tide level. 

41 A by-pass from the high-pressure discharge main is led ii»- 
the suction chamber for flushing it, and also forms a convenient ii 
charge for the pumps during tests. 

INSTALLATION OF PIPE LINES 

42 Tunnels. A considerable amount of tunneling was don 
especially at street Intersections, where double track crossings 
the street railway were frequently encountered. On several of t' 
busiest streets it was found necessary to tunnel for many blocks 

a stretch. In a large number of instances it was thought desirak 
to tunnel for the hydrant branches, as the hydrants being staggeir 
on opposite sides of the street, it was necessary on every altems 
hydrant to cross the street, thus crossing also the railway tracJ 
pipes, sewers, electric conduits, etc. A segregation of these tumi.< 
into groups is as follows : 

Lineal Feet 

Intersections 5,122 

Straight line 4,623 

Hydrant connections 2,630 

Total tunnels 12,376 

43 Leakage. For field tests during the installation of the pipes 
the contractor furnished a portable testing set consisting of a S-Lp 
4-cycle gas engine, driving through a Morse chain a triplex plunge 
pump of a capacity of 5 gal. per min. at a pressure of 1000 lb. pe 
sq. in. Each street section between valves was tested as the worl 
was installed, and made absolutely tight, at the specified pressui 
of 600 lb : The section to be tested was filled from the ordinary fii 
hydrants, after which the test pump was connected through a 1-ii 
flexible steel hose. In the early stages of the construction, the worl 
men would frequently carry the pressure up to 800 lb. and 8om< 
time to 100 lb., to show interested spectators what the new joii 
would stand. Afterwards a relief valve set for about 610 lb. wf 
placed on the pump, and the testing became almost automatic. 

44 After the pipe lines had been completed, but before the systei 
had been put into commission, a pressure of about 300 lb. was pi 
on the pipe lines by the main pumps. There being no hydrants opei 



JAMES B. SCOTT 205 

the water was being wasted through a by-pass to reduce the pressure. 
A suggestion was made to close the pipe system off from the pumps 
to determine how long the pressure would remain. The main 24-in. 
valves were accordingly closed, while the pressure was at 126 lb. 
After a lapse of 16 hours the gage registered 95 lb., indicating that 
the leakage was practically nothing. 

45 A duplex pump of 100 gal. capacity was installed to keep 
up the pressure and take care of the leakage on the system. Since 
the equipment has been put into regular service it has been necessary 
to keep the by-pass valves open continually on this pump in order 
to permit the plunger to move. 

CHOICE OP MOTIVE POWER 

46 General Considerations, In the preliminary studies for the 

project, careful attention was given to the design of similar plants 

in other cities, notably New York and Philadelphia. In the former, 

as is well known, electric driven centrifugal pumps are used. In 

Philadelphia, gas engine driven, geared triplex plunger pumps were 

installed. In the following discussion it should be remembered that 

local conditions often exercise a controlling influence in the decision 

M to the best form of motive power for such a plant. 

47 In Baltimore the fundamental principle governing the design 
of the entire project was considered to be reliability under the most 
adverse conditions liable to be encountered. When it is considered 
that the safety of hundreds of millions of dollars worth of property 
is dependent upon the accurate functioning of each element, it is 
evident that no considerations of economy, either in first cost or 
operating expense, should be allowed to enter, if simplicity and cer- 
^inty of operation are thereby subordinated. 

48 Oas Engines, The gas engine is subject to certain limita- 
^ons, which in the case of fire service, place it at a distinct disad- 
vantage. 

a The load factor of the service is extremely low, being less 
than 5 per cent per annum, so that the opportimity to 
profit by the high fuel economy is negligible. 

h Inability to carry more than a small percentage of overload. 

c In the hands of expert operators, a well designed modem 
gas engine is perhaps subject to no more accidents or 
delays than is a steam eqnipnioii*^, but certainly it is not 
subject to any less than steam. On the contrary, how- 



206 BALTIMORE HIGH-PRESSURE FIRE SERVICE 

ever, in the hands of operators of only average intelligeJ^^ 
or experience, the number of apparently trivial catt^ 
which can result in serious delays or damage is surpr^ 
ingly large in a gas engine plant. In the case of a muni^ 
pal plant of this type it is useless to plan for ideal oper^ 
ing conditions, or to assume that only the highest gnu^ 
operating force will be employed. 

49 Electric Motors. In spite of its many known advantages, 
large electrical distributing system is essentially in unstable eqnilL 
rium, and subject to complete interruption from very slight caus^ 
either natural or malicious. Dependence for prompt renewal of tB 
service after a shutdown must be placed in duplicate lines and equi " 
ment in the stations. But even with these a considerable perid 
must elapse before large electrical machines can be started up atr 
brought into synchronism. A delay of this character during the fir" 
critical minutes of a bad fire would be fatal to the usefulness of m 
important fire fighting system. The fact that a vital feature of t1 
fire fighting system would be under the control of employes of is 
outside corporation and not subject to the discipline of the fire A. 
partment, with the possibility of a conflict of authority at a cruci 
moment, are all matters that must be considered. 

50 Like the gas engine, the electric transmission, especially tl 
underground system, requires for its commercially profitable cond 
tions a high load factor, but for a different reason. To justify th 
large investment needed, requires a uniform load as near as possibl 
to its capacity, in order that the fixed charges shall not be out oi 
proportion to the earnings. Owing to the extremely low load factor 
of a fire station, its load is a very "undesirable" one to a commercial 
electrical supply corporation, unless a "demand" charge is made suf- 
ficient to justify holding in reserve a definite proportion of the entire 
equipment from the coal pile to the cleetrir cables. Electrical plants 
require the installation of sufficient equipment all along the line to 
supply the maximum annual peaks. As a fire is no respector of 
anybody's peaks, it follows that a fire station load demands its own 
separate power plant investment, whether the equipment is located 
in a commercial central station, or in an isolated plant for its own 
use. 

51 A commercial plant is designed with a definite load factor 
in view, ranging usually from 30 to 50 per cent. For these conditions 
the most efficient equipment is jnsti fieri, with all the refinements of 



JAMES B. SCOTT 207 

modern fuel and labor saving auxiliaries in a large plant. If a load 
factor of only 5 per cent had been imposed, however, a very different 
type of equipment would have been selected, at a very much smaller 
investment. 

53 The various links in the chain of an electrical supply equip- 
ment (not considering a long distance transmission) would be as 
follows : 

a Coal handling apparatus 

b Boilers and auxiliaries (stokers, stacks, economizers, heat- 
ers, etc.) 

c Steam turbines and auxiliaries 

d High-tension generators 

e High-tension switching apparatus 

/ High-tension cables 
and at the receiving end 

g High-tension switches 

h High-tension motors 

i Centrifugal pumps 

53 If a long distance transmission were included, there would be 
added step-up transformers, aerial lines, a substation with step-down 
transformers and switching apparatus. If low-tension motors were 
used, additional transformers would be required. 

54 An isolated steam pumping station, designed for the purpose, 
eliminates at once five of the above links, namely, items d, e, f, g and 
K and concentrates the entire operation in one building, under the 
direct control of the fire fighters themselves. 

55 Finances of Steam and Electrical Operation, Expressed in 
Mars and cents the argument becomes as follows : 

Electric Pumps (New York Type) 
Invertment 

6 motor-driven pumps (rated capacity 3000 gal. per 

min.), switchboard, etc $112,500 

Building and pump foundations 84,000 



$196,600 
^ration 

Maintaining pressure continually 

8760 hr. less 100 hr. = 

8660 hr. at 100 kw 866,000 kw-hr. 

Fire service, 100 hr. per annum 

3150 kw. demand 315,000 kw-hr. 



1,181,000 kw-hr. 



208 BALTIMORE HIGH-PRESSURE FIRE SERVICE 

Service charge, maximum demand = 3150 kw. 

Central station investment, 3150 kw. at $75 $236|P00 

Underground cable (Baltimore conditions) 40,000 

Cash requirements 276,000 

Underwriting at 90 31,000 

Total investment $3< 

Fixed charges on $307,000 

Interest at 5 per cent 

Depreciation at 5 per cent 

Profit at 5 per cent 



Total 15 per cent $46,000 

Underground conduits, duct rental (Baltimore condi- 
tions) 1,300 



Total service charge $4 

Operating expenses 

Service charge $43,700 

Meter charge, 1,181,000 kw-hr. at 1 cent 11,810 

Salaries, station operating force 10,650 

Supplies, lubrication and repairs 1,000 



$e 

Fixed charges on $196,500 

Interest at 4 per cent $7,860 

Depreciation at 5 per cent 9,825 



] 

Total annual expense, electrical plant $^ 

Steam Pumps 
Investment 

Four 4000-gal. pumps and auxiliaries $86,000 

Boilers and auxiliaries 70,000 

Piping, steam and auxiliar>'^ water 30,000 



$186,000 

Building and machinery foundations 125,000 



$3] 

Operation 

Coal consumption 

Banking fires, 8760 hr. — 
100hr.=8t)6()hr.= 

360 (la3's at (3 tons per day 2160 tons 

Fire service, 100 hr. per annum at 5 tons coal per 
hour 500 tons 



Total 2660 tons 



»■ ■ 



JAMES B. SCOTT 209 

Operating expenses 

Coal, 26e0 tons at $3.30 $8,778 

Salaries, station operating force 13,350 

Supplies, lubrication and repairs 2,000 

$24,128 
Fixed charges on $311,000 

Interest at 4 per cent $12,440 

Depreciation at 5 per cent 15,550 

27,990 

$52,118 

SUMMABT 

Total annual expense, electrical plant $84,845 

^' I Total annual expense, steam plant 52,118 

< I Total annual saving $32,727 

" This saving capitalized at 9 per cent represents an investment by the city of 

*) 1363,630, considerably more than the first cost of the steam plant in the above 

11 comparison. 

STEAM PUMPING STATION 



w 



H^' 



ai!;*' 



56 Pumps, The Baltimore plant is designed for four main units 
of 4000 gal. per min. rated capacity, at a piston speed of 300 ft. per 
min. and making 60 r.p.m. Three main engines have been installed 
And are in operation at present ; the fourth unit will be added in the 
near future (Fig. W). 

57 In line with the policy of designing all parts of the system 
^th a first requisite of simplicity and reliability, the main units each 
consist of a horizontal, twin, simple, non-condensing, crank and fly- 
'^neel, plunger pumping engine. The water ends are attached directly 
*o the engine frames, at opposite ends from the steam cylinders, the 
^fankshaft being in the center (Fig. 16) . 

58 The steam cylinders are fitted with standard Corliss valve 
^^t having double eccentric long range cut-oflEs. The cut-offs of 
"^ft cylinders are under the direct control of the speed and pressure 
'platers, and are also provided with hand control. 

W Each engine was liberally designed for a continuous working 
Pf€fi8nre of 300 lb. per sq. in. on the water ends, with a test pressure 
01 600 lb. static. Injection parts were designed for a variation of 
P^«88ure from 70 lb. direct to a suction lift of 15 ft. of salt water. 
^1 steam parts were designed for maximum working pressure of 200 
^'^•»but the normal working pressure is only 125 lb. 



210 BALTIMORE HIGH-PRESSURE FIRE SERVICE 

60 p]ach engine is fitted with speed and pressure governors. The 
speed governor is driven by a noiseless chain belt, and acts directly 
on the cut-ofl^ valves of both cylinders. The pressure goyemors are 
identical in principle with the regulating valves used on the hydrants, 
and were also furnished by the Ross Valve Manufacturing Company. 

61 The net effective valve area between the openings of the valve 
seats on each suction and discharge deck is 303 sq. in. or B20 per 
cent of the cross sectional area of the plungers. The valves are 3% 
in. in diameter and are composed of rubber with brass backing plates; 
the seats are of bronze, screwed into the valve decks on a taper and 
faced off after being placed in the decks. 

62 Auxiliaries. To take care of the leakage in the pipe flyatem 
and maintain a pressure of 150 lb., as well as to provide for the first 
draft from the hydrants before the main pumps are in action, a 
1000-gal. per miii. pump was installed. This is a horizontal, duplex, 
direct-acting, compound, non-condensing, center-packed plunger 
pump, giving its rated capacity at a piston speed of 100 ft. per min. 
While the pump was designed for a normal working pressure of 160 
lb. on the water end, and for 125 lb. on the steam end, all pressure 
parts were designed to withstand a continuous pressure of 300 lb. 
on the water end and 200 lb. on the steam end, so that the pomp 
could be left in service under the maximum pressures of the main 
pumps without injury. Owing to the leakage on the system being 
so small, the pump is inconveniently large for the purpose intended, 
and it has been necessary to keep the delivery by-passed continuously 
in order to keep the plunger in motion. 

6-3 In order to maintain the air in the delivery air chambers, 
there are provided two steam driven, crank and flywheel, two-stage 
air compressors, each having a capacity of 50 cu. ft. of free air per 
min. against a pressure of 450 lb. There is also provided a wrought 
steel storage tank -SO in. in diameter by 5 ft. high. There are 
two large air chambers on the 2 L-in. discharge mains, in addition to 
those on the pumps. The former are made of lap- welded rolled ateel 
pipe, y2 in. thick, MO in. in diameter and 20 ft. high. The ends are 
bumped, riveted and welded to the pipe. Two sets of glass gagea are 
attached through bosses welded on the sides. 

64 For priming purposes, when lifting from the harbor, there is 
provided one vertical, steam driven, crank and flywheel single-stage, 
dry vacuum pump, fi in. steam, 10 in. air, and 6 in. stroke. This 
pump is ('(Hinertrd to tlie harbor suctions through a large separator 



JAMES B. SCOTT 




BALTIHOBE HIGH-PRSBBURE FIBB BERVICE 




JAMES B. SCOTT 213 

tank at the top of a 40 ft. riser, to prevent water being drawn over 
into the air cylinder. 

65 The plant is provided with a four-motor, electric traveling 
crane, main hoist 20 tons capacity, auxiliary hoist 5 tons. For light- 
ing the station and for the operation of the electrically driven auxil- 
iaries, there are provided two non-condensing steam turbo-genera- 
tors. 

66 Tests and Duty Trials, The specifications for the pumps pro- 
vided for an endurance and capacity test of 24 consecutive hours. 

67 A normal load duty trial was also specified, covering a period 
of 12 hours; steam pressure at the throttle 125 lb. The steam con- 
sumption was to be based on the feedwater supplied to a separate 
boiler blanked oflE from all other sources of supply. The measured 
consumption was to include all jacket steam, but not that required 
lor boiler feed pumps and other auxiliaries, nor separator condensa- 
tion and drips from the steam piping on the boiler side of throttle. 

68 In order to avoid the insertion of a water meter in either the 
main suction or discharge lines, a venturi meter is by-passed around 
a gate valve in the 30-in. city water supply. As the pump discharge 
can be accurately measured from the record of the pump strokes for 
a given period, when the slip is known, in this case the venturi meter 
is only used to calibrate the slip of a single pump, and therefore has 
& capacity only equal to one pump. 

69 The duty specified is 70,000,000 ft.-lb. per 1000 lb. of dry 
steam, under normal operating conditions of 300 gal. per min. dis- 
charge, against a head of 250 lb., with 30 lb. pressure on the suction, 
«md 125 lb. of steam at the throttle. 

70 Boilers. The plant is designed for four boilers, each set 
siiigly, and each provided with a separate stack carried on structural 
steel supports directly over the setting. At this time only three boil- 
ers have been installed, the fourth will be added in the near future 
(% 17). 

71 The boilers are of the horizontal, inclined, straight tube type, 
^th forged steel water legs reinforced with hollow staybolts. Each 
boiler contains 6800 sq. ft. of heating surface, and three 36-in. drums. 
All presaure parts are designed for 200 lb. working pressure. Each 
boiler is capable of a continuous evaporation of 45,000 lb. of water 
from and at 212 deg. fahr. into commercially dry steam, when bum- 
^^ semi-bituminous coal of approximately 14,500 B.t.u., with forced 



214 BALTIMORE HIGH-PRESSURE FIRE SERVICB 

draft not exceeding 3 in. of water in the ashpit, or the equivalent ol 
1 boiler h.p. from 3.77 sq. ft. of heating surface. 

72 As the actual time during which the boilers will be in active 
service will probably average only about 100 hours per annum, the 
plant was designed for carrying banked fires for a large proportioi 
of the time, with the least possible loss from radiation. The top 
sides and rear of each boiler are enclosed in an air-tight steel plati 
casing. The hotter portions of the side walls, amounting to aboui 
20 per cent of the area of these walls, are covered with 2 in. of mag 
nesia blocks inside the casing. The casing plates are supported on f 
framework of steel angles, attached to the structural steel memberj 
supporting the boilers and stacks. These angles act also as buck 
staves for the settings. Access and dusting doors are provided when 
necessary, which are hinged at the top and close tightly on inclinec 
faces. 

73 The boilers are set in the reverse direction from the usua! 
method, that is, with the low end of the tubes over the furnace. The 
front portion of the furnace is covered with a flat fire brick arch, 
made of split tiles encircling and supported by the lower row of 
tubes. When under fire, there is presented to the furnace gases an 
incandescent fire brick surface, instead of the customary cool iron 
surface of the tubes. The first pass of the gases between the tubes 
is at the extreme rear of the boiler, thus providing a furnace area 
etjual to the entire floor space occupied by the boiler inside the set- 
ting, and making it possible to force the boiler to 90 per cent over 
tlie customary rating without imperfect combustion. A special grade 
of fire brick was used for the furnace lining, which under a change oi 
temperature of 3100 deg. fahr. shows an expansion or contraction of 
less than 0.01 in. per ft. 

74r Forced Firing, The conditions of flre service require that the 
boilers shall be capable of changing from banked flres to the maximum 
capacity in the shortest possible time. The intervals specifled were 
as follows: one-half rated capacity in 5 minutes; full rated capacit; 
in 12 minutes; overload of 75 per cent in 20 minutes. 

75 Choice of Fuel, The above conditions made imperative the 
use of a gaseous fuel, or fuel oil, or forced draft with coal. The 
possibility of the use of a combination of two of these was also con- 
sidered. With gas at 90 cents per 1000 ft., this material was aban- 
doned. The use of crude oil was given careful study. Due to the fact 



JAMES B. SCOTT 215 

that economy of operating expense was not the primary considera- 
tioD, the problem was somewhat simplified. 

76 As the plant is located in a wholesale district where high val- 
ues of stock are common^ it would have been necessary to have stored 
the main supply of oil underground. Ample space for this purpose 
existed in the wide water front street about 200 ft. from the station. 
On the other hand, experience has demonstrated that oil should be 
fed to the burners only by gravity from an overhead storage of suit- 
able capacity. Experience has also shown that in spite of all pre- 
cautioDSy an oil storage tank will in all probability, sooner or later, 
take fire. It was, of course, possible to design a fireproof barrier 
which would prevent the fire doing damage to adjoining property. 
It was believed, however, that in a plant designed for fighting con- 
flagratioDSy the possibility of an oil fire, with its huge volumes of 
dense black smoke, would not tend to popularize the system, even 
if the fire proved to be entirely harmless. In spite of its recognized 
adTantages in ease of handling and quick firing, the use of fuel oil 
was therefore definitely abandoned, and coal was adopted. The 
introduction of natural gas from the West Virginia fields has been 
under consideration for some years, and if this should be accom- 
plished, it would make an admirable fuel for the purpose, either alone 
or as supplementary to the coal furnaces. 

77 Automatic Mechanical Stokers. The use of coal made neces- 
sary also the use of forced draft. In addition, it was desirable that 
during the periods of banked fires, there should be maintained a full 
Ml of ignited coal, requiring only the air blast to force the fire to the 
lughest rate of combustion. The underfeed type of stoker seemed to 
Dteet these conditions very satisfactorily. A large body of coal, ap- 
proximately 1000 lb., can be carried in each furnace, a part of tliis 
coal incandescent, a part coked and a part in the process of coking. 
This represents about 14,500,000 B.t.u. in storage ready for use on a 
few minutes* notice. As a further heat storage, the steam pressure, 
which is ordinarily carried at about 150 lb., can be raised to 200 lb., 
^Miediately upon the receipt of an alarm. As the normal operating 
pressure is only from 125 to 150 lb. at the pump throttles, by the 
™e the hose companies can reach the hydrants and attach the hose, 
•^d put a sufficient draft on the pumps to pull the steam down to 
normal, the furnace fires will be ready to respond to any demand. 

7fi Each boiler is equipped with four underfeed stokers, and each 
stoker unit is capable of burning efficiently, without smoke, 1000 lb. 



216 BALTIMORE HIGH-PRESSURE FIRE SERVICE 

of coal per hour. For the four boilers a duplicate blower equipment 
is installed^ each consisting of a full housed steel plate fan of suffi- 
cient capacity to operate the four boilers at 7*5 per cent overload. 
Each blower is driven by a direct-coupled vertical steam engine^ and 
is connected to the main air pipe line, and by means of dampers 
either blower can be used to serve any or all the boilers. 

79 To regulate the supply of both fuel and air in the proportion 
required for complete combustion under all rates of firings the stdcers 
are provided with automatic regulators actuated by the boiler pres- 
sure. Provision is also made for hand regulation, so that it is pos- 
sible to anticipate sudden demands for steam upon receipt of an alarm, 
and also for decreasing the supply of both fuel and air when the de- 
mand for forced firing has passed. 

80 Stacks, Each boiler is provided with a separate steel stack 
located directly over the boiler which it serves. Each stack is 72 in. 
diameter by 125 ft. above the boiler room floor, and is carried by 
structural steel framing from the boiler foundations. The stacks 
are unlined. 

81 Coal Handling and Storage, Semi-bituminous run of mine 
coal is used almost entirely for steaming purposes in the vicinity of 
Baltimore. In this instance the coal is delivered in carts, the total 
annual consumption being too small to justify mechanical handling 
under existing conditions. The coal is dumped on a grating over an 
opening in the sidewalk, the mesh being 4 in. sq. Large lumps are 
broken up with a maul, as with the type of stoker in use there is no 
necessity for the coal to be crushed to smaller sizes. Below the grat- 
ing there is a dumping hopper which receives the coal and delivers 
it to the lower run of a bucket elevator. The elevator is a double 
strand link belt with V-shaped buckets, 16 in. by 15 in., dumping 
by gravity. The outfit has a capacity of 25 ions per hour with uni- 
form feed. 

82 The coal is delivered into reinforced-concrete bunkers with 
inclined bottoms, located directly over the fireroom. The bunkers 
have a capacity of 150 tons without trimming, or sufficient to operate 
the entire plant at its maximum capacity for 30 hours. Goal can 
also be delivered from carts directly on to the boiler room floor, so 
that the operation of the plant is not dependent upon the coal hand- 
ling equipment nor the storage supply. 

83 Boiler Feedwater. Boiler feedwater is normally supplied 
from the city mains under 30 to 50 lb. pressure, sufficient to deliver 



JAUES B. SCOTT 




218 BALTIMORE HIGH-PRESSURE FIRE SERVICE 

to the open heaters in the gallery of the engine room, without pm 
ing. In the event of an interruption to the city supply, the fi 
water can be taken from a reserve supply stored in steel tanks in 
basement under the boilers. For lifting from the storage tanks ; 
delivering to the heaters a duplicate set of low-service duplex st^ 
pumps is provided. 

84 To avoid the loss of eflSciency in the boilers due to scale, ) 
the necessity for taking the boilers out of service for consideri 
periods while removing scale, a double unit hot process purifier \ 
heater of the Cochrane type was installed, each half of ample capa< 
to handle the consumption of the entire plant. 

85 The heaters are located in a gallery in the engine room, 
rectly over the boiler feed pumps, thereby providing a gravity h 
of 25 ft. for the hot water to the pump suction. There are tl 
duplex, outside end packed boiler feed pumps, brass fitted and v 
pot valves, designed for 300 lb. pressure. 

86 In addition to the above, each boiler is provided witl 
Metropolitan Model No. 71/^ injector, capable of supplying 
maximum evaporation of the boiler when lifting from the stoi 
tanks in the basement. 

87 Foster excess governors are provided on the feed pumps, 
Williams regulators on the boilers. 

88 Piping, A 12-in. steam header forms a closed ring aroi 
the plant, with long radius expansion bends at all changes in di 
tion (Figs. 18, 19, 20). A sufficient number of gate valves are pla 
in the header to sectionalize it, so that any portion may be cut 
without disabling more than one boiler or one pump. Pipe is 
weight, lap welded, soft open hearth steel. To provide an ii 
pendent header for the station auxiliaries, a 6-in. cross connectio] 
made across the center of the main header, which is capable of hi 
fed from either side of the main header, in case of accident to 
other. No fittings whatever are used in the main line, all branc 
being taken from interlocked welded necks. Boiler branches are ] 
vided with non-return valves at the boiler nozzles and gates at 
header end. Van Stone flanges are provided for connections to 
valves and receivers, which are located so as to avoid as far as ] 
sible the necessity for any additional joints in the line. Wron 
steel receiver type separators are installed at the low points on e 
side of the header. 

89 The exhaust system is extremely simple, a multi-port b 



JAHE8 B. SCOTT 




BALTIUOTi& HIOB-PfiESSUUS HBE BEBVICB 




JAMES B. SCOTT 221 

pressure valve on the 18-in. riser serves to turn all the exhaust into 
the heaters at light loads, and provides a direct path to the atmos- 
phere when the steam is in excess of the heater requirements. 

90 Building. The site of the pumping station is a lot 69 ft. 
front by 137 ft. deep, running back to a 16 ft. alley. The property 
immediately adjoining on the two sides is occupied by warehouses 
canying more or less inflammable stocks. On the opposite side of 
the alley the same conditions exist. All foundations for the pumping 
station and machinery were designed to rest on caissons carried to 
the gravel, so that it was necessary to underpin the walls of both the 
adjoining buildings. 

91 All structural portions of the building, including columns, 
girders, beams, floor and roof slabs, and all walls except the front, 
are of reinforced concrete. The adjoining buildings on the sides are 
from 10 to 20 ft. higher than the station roof^ so the roof girders^ 
beams and slabs were designed to withstand the shock of falling 
walls in case of flre. The side walls are not less than 8 in. thick in 
any part, and have no openings whatever. The rear wall is the same, 
except that there is one door at the level of the boiler room floor. 

9d For access to the men^s quarters an automatic push-button 
electric elevator is installed, in addition to the stairway. Standard 
brass sUding poles are also provided for quick response to an alarm. 
The quarters are located over the front of the engine room, and in- 
clu(}e a dormitory, dressing room, bath, toilet and reading rooms. 
In addition, a private bedroom, bath, parlor and oflSce are provided 
for the chief engineer. 

93 In addition to the fireproof construction of the building, 
further fire fighting equipment for the protection of the station con- 
sists of a water curtain for the exposed front and rear, and two 8-in. 
Btandpipes, to be fitted with monitor nozzles. A dangerous fire in 
the immediate vicinity of the station could thus be effectively fought 
from the roof as well as from the ground. 

94 Signaling System, In addition to the regular fire alarm cir- 
cuit, a separate telephone circuit runs to the pumping station from 
fire alarm headquarters, fire department headquarters, and the chief^s 
night quarters. This circuit connects to contacts for portable tele- 
phones in each fire-alarm box in the high-pressure district. In addi- 
tion to the regular Morse key and sounder there are contacts for a 
telephone connection in each box, over the fire alarm circuit. Finally 
tkere is available the regular public telephone service. 



222 BALTIMORE HIGH-PRESSURE FIRE SERVICE 

CONSTRUCTION COSTS 

PoBTABLB Equipment 

2 automobile hose wagons at $5000 $10,000 

8000 ft. 3 in. hose at $1 8,000 

30 portable heads and regulators at $385 11|550 



Total $20,500 

Pub System 

Material delivered Baltimore 

Hydrants, 226 at $100 $22,600 

8 in. pipe, 7137 ft. at $2.35 16,700 

10 in. pipe, 28,229 ft. at $3.10 87,700 

16 in. pipe, 17,052 ft. at $5.25 89,600 

24 in. pipe, 1275 ft. at $10 12,750 

8 in. gate valves, 6 at $100 600 

10 in. gate valves, 193 at $130 25,000 

16 in. gate valves, 90 at $210 18,900 

18 in. gate valves, 2 at $300 600 

24 in. gate valves, 3 at $1,000 3,000 

Air and relief valves 200 

Low pressure gates, 2-30 in 500 

Suction pipe, 400 ft. cast iron, 30 in., at $4 . . . 1,600 

Steel air chambers, 2-30 in., at $500 1,000 

Venturi meter 500 

Cast steel specials 17,500 



$298,750 

Installation 

Laying pipe, including placing valves, fittings, hy- 
drants, etc. 

8 in. pipe, 7,137 ft. at $0.70 $4,996 

10 in. pipe, 28,229 ft. at 0.75 21,200 

16 in. pipe, 17,052 ft. at 1.15 19,600 

24 in. pipe, 1,275 ft. at 1.75 2,230 

Piunp connections in station 6,000 

Laying 30 in c. i. suction 3,400 

Tapping 40 in. main 1,500 

Concrete valve boxes, 293 at $30 8,790 

Excavation, back filling and rubble paving 

41,318 ft. open trench, at $3.84 158,600 

12,375 ft. tunnel, at $4.08 50,400 

Improved paving, 6650 sq. yd., at $1.60 10,000 

Superintendence, use of tools, etc 50,000 

$336,716 
I 



JAMES B. SCOTT 




224 BALTIMORE HIGH-PRESSURE FIRE SERVICE 

Pumping Station 

Site and preliminary work $37,730 

Building, including machinery foundations, and men's quar- 
ters 124,800 

Harbor intake and screen chamber 10,000 

Equipment 

Four 4000 gal. pumps $82,000 

One 1000 gal. pump 3,600 

Auxiliary pumps 4,250 

Feedwat«r heaters and purifiers 4,750 

4 boilers and settings, 27,200 sq. ft. heating 

surface 33,000 

16 underfeed stokers, blowers, air piping, etc . . 18,000 

4 steel stacks and supports 8,000 

Coal handling apparatus 7,000 

Turbo-generators and switchboard 4,500 

Electric crane 4j000 

Steam and auxiliary water piping 30,000 

$199,000 

37 

Miscellaneous 

Signal system, cables, etc $1,500 

Furnishings for men's quarters 500 

Incidentals 5,000 



Engineering I 

Total cost of construction $1,01 

95 Operating Department, The Board of Fire Commi88ion< 
the executive head of the operating department, acting througl 
department chief. The operation and maintenance of the pun 
station and the maintenance of the pipe lines, hydrants and 
able heads are directly under the supervision of the depart 
superintendent of machinery, Thomas H. Meushaw. The mi 
nance work for the pipe line is in charge of a general foreman, 
Rudolph, who was chief inspector for the city during the early 
of the installation, and general foreman for the contractor di 
the latter portion of the work. 

96 The operating force at the pumping station is in charge 
resident engineer and five assistant engineers, with four stokers 
two general assistants, all organized as a fire company. Two 
tional stokers have been recommended by the superintendent oJ 



JAUEB B. SCOTT 225 

duserj, and will probably be added in the near future, making a 
total station operating force of fourteen men. Of these an engineer 
ud stoker are on active duty at all times, with a four-hour watch. 
Immediately upon the receipt of an alarm all hands report on the 
operating floor. As a pressure of 150 lb. is maintained during the 
standbj period, orders have been issued that in the event of the 
pumpe automatically speeding up without an alarm, the plant shall 
be shut down immediately. This course is taken to avoid water 
damage, should a break occur. Up to this time no occasion has arisen 
to require the execution of this order, however. 



97 Opening Demonstration. The system was formally placed i: 




Watzr Pressure duriko Underwriters' Tests 



operation on May 20, 1912, with a public demonstration on the Court 
Hoiue Plftza, At first twenty-four 1%-in. streams were used from 
"Ogle hose lines held by tripods. Later seven 2i^-in. streams were 
'^n, from monitor nozzles on the wagons. About 13,000 gal, per 
■"in. were deliyered. 

"8 Underwriters' Tests. A readiness test was made June 7, read- 
ing* being taken by a stop-watch. 



BALTIMORE HIOB-PRESBURE FIRE 8EBVICE 

4.30.00 tt.m. Fire alarm boi pulled; one engineer and o 

stoker on duty at station. 
4.31.00 a.m. Chief engineer with four additional enginM 

and three additional stokers had responded from sleep! 

quarters. 
4.31.15 a.m. Two large pumps started up, pressure increaE 

from 150 to 190 lb. 
4.33.00 a.m. Pressure 2S0 lb. Hose company turned wa.- 

on to two 3-in. hose lines siamesed into one S^-in. monil 

nozzle. 




Undbbwbitkbb ' TtBta 



4.34.00 a.m. Discharge was 1050 gal. per min. 
4,37.40 a.m. Two additional 2i^-in. nozzles in service, tol 
discharge 4000 gal. per miu. 

99 A second company was then ordered into service at anotlr 
puiiit, with three 2^-in. nozzles, bringing the total discharge lip 
7100 gal. per min. See water and steam charts from Bristol gage 
station (Figs. 21 and 22). 

100 A general performance test was made June 7, from 9.45 
10.15 a.m. (see Bristol charts). Pumps were started and stopp< 
and hydrants were opened and closed as rapidly as possible to U 



JAUEB B. SCOTT 




228 BALTIMORE HIGH-PRESSURE FIRE SERVICE 

the ability of the pumps and governors to take care of abnom 
operating conditions. 

101 Individual pump tests were made the same date, from 10. 
to 10.45 a.m., with the following results : 

Steam at throttle, lb 146 

Water pressure, discharge, lb 199 

Water pressure, injection, lb 41 

Water pressure, net, lb 168 

Revolutions per minute 65 

Discharge, gal. per min 4592 

102 A general capacity test was made 10.45 to 11.40 a.m., w 
the following results (three pumps in service) : 

Steam at throttle (average), lb 145 

Water, discharge, lb 240 

Water, injection ? 

Water, net ? 

Discharge, gal. per min 12,770 

103 During the latter test six 2i/^-in. nozzles and six 2-in. noza 
were in use, discharging into the harbor (see Fig. 23). 

RESULTS OF OPERATION 

104 The department chief is enthusiastic over the efficiency 
the entire system as a modern fire fighting equipment. He mak 
the statement that during the two months which it has been 
operation, three bad incipient fires have been literally "drown 
out*' by the system. The probable losses from these fires, und 
former conditions, would more than have equalled the entire cost 
the high-pressure service. By the time the department arrived 
the scene at one fire, the smoke was so dense that from the middle 
the street it was impossible to locate any window or door openii 
in the building. Three 2V^-in. monitor streams were blindly tun 
on the building. The water reached the fire, but not through windo 
or doors. When the smoke had cleared away, three holes were 6 
covered in the 18-in. brick walls, bored straight through the masoi 
by the high-pressure streams. 

105 The engineers of the National Board of Fire Underwrite 
after a thorough test and a special search for weak points, repor 
as follows : 

The distributing system has been installed for two years and shows no sign 
deterioration. The sHght leakage, absence of electrolytic action and total f: 
dom from breaks or other troubles appear to justify the departure from 
usual design of such systems. . The valve and hydrant distributio 



JAMES B. SCOTT 229 

excellent, and the pipe sizes and gridironing are sufficient to enable a good con- 
06Dtratk>n of flow without serious loss of pressure. . The separate hy- 

diMit head permits the use of regulator valves permanently attached, giving 
excellent control of the pressure on hose lines. The hydrant head under test 
showed sufficiently low friction loss. . The operation of the pumping 

plant is prompt and reliable. 

106 As a result of the installation of the high-pressure system, 
the underwriters have announced a rebate of 5 cents in the insurance 
rate on all property in the district covered. While no exact sum- 
mary has been made of the aggregate saving which will result from 
thifl reduction, it is roughly estimated that the amount will be ap- 
proximately $40,000 per annum, which will be increased almost in 
direct proportion with the extension of the mains. 

ORGANIZATION 

Conttruction. The executive head of the project is the Board of Fire Com- 
DUBBioDen. To act with the chief of the department the board appointed a oon- 
Bulting engineer, D. B. Banks, who in collaboration with the writer, designed the 
system. After the general plans had been drawn, but before the construction 
M been begun, the board employed two additional consulting engineers to pass 
upon the general features of the design. R. C. Carpenter and Frederick H. 
W^ner, chief engineer of Bartlett & Hayward Company, Baltimore, were 
chosen, and after a careful study these engineers approved the general plans and 
the details as far as completed. The architectural features of the station were de- 
signed by Henry Brauns, the veteran power plant architect of Baltimore. Gen- 
*»1 supervision of the construction was exercised by Wm. McCallister, Jr., 
ssnstAnt to the consulting engineer. Before the construction work was com- 
pleted, the department chief, George W. Horton, was retired, and the deputy 
^f August Emerich, was promoted to the head of the department. 

Contracts for the various elements of the system were awarded to the following 
t^uilden and contractors: 

Automobile hose wagons to the Mack Manufacturing Company. 

"Hie portable hydrant heads and regulators, and the main pump governors to 
tl» Roes Valve Manufacturing Company, of Troy, N. Y. 

"Hie hydrants and high pressure water pipe lines to the Pittsburgh Valve 
Foundry t Construction Company of Pittsburgh. Many of the working details 
^ the system were designed by J. Roy Tanner, chief engineer, and Charles 
^^^>8ffild, superintendent of construction for the contractor. A subcontract 
for the supervision of the trenching was awarded by the general pipe contractor 
to E. Saxton, of Washington, D. C, one of the most experienced contractors in 
the Tiebity on subsurface structures in city streets. 

PQi&ps to the Allia-Chalmers Company, of Milwaukee, although this concern 
^M not the lowest bidder. A subcontract for the 1000-gal. direct acting pump 
»nd the boiler feed pumps was awarded to the Epping Carpenter Company, of 
Pittsburg. 



230 BALTIMORE HIGH-PRESSURE FIRE SERVICE 

Boilers to the Edge Moor Iron Company of Wilmington, Del. A sub 
for the stokers, blowers and regulators was awarded to the Underfeed 
Company of America, Chicago. 

The steam and auxiliary water piping in the pumping station to the 
Kries Company, of Baltimore. 

The station building and harbot intake to the B. F. Bennet Building Cc 
of Baltimore. 

The signal system was installed by the department force. 



No. 1393 c 

ALLOWABLE HEIGHTS AND AREAS FOR 

FACTORY BUILDINGS 

By Ira H. Woolson, New York 
Member of the Society 

In the design of factory buildings, one of the vital features tend- 
ing to control the spread of fire is a judicious limitation of height 
and area. It is self-evident that whatever restricts a fire reduces the 
life hazard. Owing to the supreme importance of these two subjects, 
a person contemplating the erection of a building of this class should 
give careful consideration to the history of fires in such buildings, and 
the experience gained in fighting them. The question is more acute 
in this class of buildings than in any other because of the fire hazard 
which exists in them, and the economic advantages due to reduced 
«)8t8 in construction and supervision, when several large areas are 
housed under a single roof. Just where to draw the line so as to 
produce reasonable safety without prejudice to building investments 
is the problem. 

2 Factory buildings of excessive heights or areas have long been 
recognized by underwriting organizations as a grave danger to life 
*nd property, owing to the diflficulty of controlling fires in them. 
They have for years urged limitations which have been freely ignored 
^y ambitious architects and factory owners, because th^ suggested 
^trictions were considered unreasonably drastic. The evidence pro- 
^nced in this paper strongly supports the limitations which were 
^^vocated. 

3 It is logical to assume that the men best fitted to determine 
safe limits of heights and areas are the men who have made a life 
work of combating fires under all conditions of weather and hazard, 
"ith this idea in mind, the writer communicated with all the fire 
niarshals and fire chiefs in the United States representing cities of 
over 20,000 population. A set of eight questions and a letter of 
explanation were sent to each. Fire chiefs as a class are not good 
^®^cal correspondents, therefore it was not surprising that only 

^^fwented at the Spring Meeting, Baltimore 1913, of The American 8o- 
^^^ OF Mechanical Engineers. 

231 



232 HEIGHTS AND AREAS FOR FACTORY BUILDINGS 

one-third of the men addressed responded to the appeal. How 
replies were received from 117 representative cities well distrih 
as to size and geographical location. These have been summarized 
form the basis of this paper. A few of the replies indicated a 
understanding of the questions, and these were discarded. 
questions were as follows: 

1 What should be the greatest height allowed for manufacturii 

warehouse buildings without sprinkler equipment? 

Brick and joist construction Height in ft. or No. of Storiei 

Fireproof construction Height in ft. or No. of Storie 

2 Take the same question as No. 1, but assume the buUdings to be 

equipped with automatic sprinklers. What height would yoi 

prove! 

Brick and joist construction Height in ft. or No. of Storiei 

Fireproof construction. Height in ft. or No. of Storiei 

3 What should be the greatest floor area allowed in the same cla 

buildings without sprinkler equipment? 

Brick and joist construction Area in sq. ft. or Width ft Length — 

Fireproof construction Area in sq. ft. or Width ft. Length — 

4 If the same buildings were fully equipped with automatic sprit 

what area would you approve! 

Brick and joist construction Area in sq. ft. or Width ft. Length — 

Fireproof construction Area in sq. ft. or Width ft. Length — 

4 Each building was assumed as a good one of its dass, 
enclosed stairways and elevator shafts ; and the chiefs were reqtw 
to base their answers upon experience in fighting fires in the 
of buildings described, and to assume restrictions which would a 
a reasonable chance of controlling a fire on any floor. 

TABLE 1 GENERAL AVERAGE OF 99 TO HI REPLIES RECEIVED FROM 

CLASSES OF CITIES» 

Stories in Area between 

Type of Building Height Walls in Sq. 

Non-fireproof, not sprinklered 3.1 6,300 

Fireproof, not sprinklered 4.9 12,300 

Non-fireproof, sprinklered 4.6 12,800 

Fireproof, sprinklered 7.0 27,100 

Average story height was 12 to 13 ft. 

5 Naturally, and quite properly, the replies reflect the 
conditions, such as the efficiency of the fire department, the y 
pressure, the combustibility of the goods being manufactured, 

*The variation in the number of replies (averaged) resulted from son 
complete answers. 



IRA H. WOOLSON 233 

number of sprinkler equipments in service, and the degree of con- 
gestion among the buildings. However, all conditions were repre- 
sentedy and the summary of so large a number of opinions should 
indicate fairly well the average condition throughout the country. 
(See Table 1.) 

6 The answers regarding allowable heights were much more 
imifonn than those relative to area. It is significant that B3 per cent 
of the replies would limit the height of a fireproof sprinklered factory 
building to less than ten stories. The opinions in reference to height 
of the other classes of buildings were exceedingly uniform, and con- 
sistently low. 

7 Replies as to permissible areas in sprinklered buildings were 
widely divergent, but for the unsprinklered classes they were more 
nnifonn than would naturally be expected considering the great 
diversity of conditions under which they were prepared. 

8 It is evident from the figures given, that the fire chiefs have no 
settled policy among themselves as to the credit that should be given 
to an automatic sprinkler equipment as a fire extinguishing device. 
A few enthusiasts would permit unlimited area in a sprinklered 
building, while on the other hand a considerable number would give 
very little or no increase, when sprinklers are installed. Two chiefs 
stated that their unfortunate experiences with sprinklers had caused 
them to lose faith in their reliability. As a whole, however, they are 
strongly in favor of sprinklers and are inclined to permit over- 
generous areas in buildings so equipped. 

9 In order that the replies may be intelligently interpreted they 
^ve been separated into three groups. Tables 2, 3, 4, according 
to size of the city represented, and each group has been analyzed to 
show the character of the answers given to each question. 

10 In the cases referred to by an asterisk, where no limits to 
weas were given, they were not included in the averages, but were 
counted in the columns giving the number of answers above the 
sverage. In each group it will be noted that about the same number 
of men gave high answers to all questions, the proportion being one- 
<|uarter to one-half of the number in the group. The uniformity of 
height limits, and the lack of it in the area limits, is very apparent 
in all groups. It will be noted that the largest area values are given 
in Groups I and II, comprising the smaller cities. This is significant, 
ind needs explanation. 

11 Occasionally the fire chief of a small city has experience which 
would abundantly qualify him to estimate properly the merits of fire- 



HEIGHTB AND AREAS FOR FACTORY BUILDINaS 



proof construction and sprinkler equipmenta; more often, however, 
city has meager protection of this kind, and consequently he hag L 





(if Buildiiu: 


StOlifB 


.H. 


Mid. 


Avenge 


AniB in Sflumre 


F«t 


An 


Typ 


Average 


M„ 


— 


M». 


"'-■ 


Av 


NoD-Glcpn 


>of. aot tprink. 


2.8 


e 


I 


.3 


aooo 


20.000 


I.IBO 








Fireproof. 




4.4 


10 


2 


Z4 


12.600 i eo.ooo 


I.ISO 




Non-firepn 


of, enriaklewl. . 


4.1 


B 


2 


17 


12.300 1 •00.000 


3.000 




Fireproof. 


.prinkl.r«i .... 


B.3 


la 


3 


IS 


Z7.3O0 [-180,000 


5,000 





xivedinfBvorof "I 



nor. eprinklcnd 



TABLE 4 GROLPIII SUMMARY OF AKSWER.S FROM 36 CITIES WITH A POPI 
TION OK 100.000 AND OVER 




Storifs in Iloighl 


■S^" 


Are. 


D Squin Peel 


*!. 




Avr-ragt 


M.. 


Mi». 


AV.™,. 


,,.. 


Min. 


A-J 


Non-fircpcuoC. uol Bprinli-I 


3.5 


t 


1 


17 


5.400 


10.000 


000 


, 


Fireproot. Hot HprinkiensJ. ., 


S.3 


9 


a 


13 


B.800 


22,500 


£.400 


] 




SO 


10 


3 


15 


11.300 


22,600 


900 


1 




7.S 


12 


-* 


10 


1B.400 


♦80,000 


a.Boo 





opportunity to jndge of their efficiency, and it is not strange thai 
should be a bit extravagant in the credit he would give them. 



IRA H. WOOLSON 



235 



12 The most rigid restrictions on area are found in Group IIJ 
embracing the large cities. As fireproof construction and sprinkler 
equipments are common in most of our large cities, it is reasonable 
to assume that the fire chiefs of such cities would have had more ex- 
perience with such methods of protection, and be better able to decide 
what increase should be given in the size of a building when such pro- 
tection is provided, than their less experienced fellow oflScers in 
smaller towns. It is thought quite proper to assume their figures 
are more nearly correct and should be given the most weight. 

13 Significant evidence in support of this argument is found 
in the fact that four chiefs who give no limit to areas in non-fireproof 

TABLE 6 ALLOWABLE HEIGHTS AND AREAS IN FACTORY BUILDINGS 



Type of Building 

Brick and joist construction, not sprinklered . 3 

Fireproof construction, not sprinklered 5 

Brick and joist construction, sprinklered. ... 5 

Fireproof construction, sprinklered 8 



Stories in Area between Fire 
Height Walls in Sq. Ft. 

6,000 

10,000 

13,000 

20,000 



&iid fireproof sprinklered buildings are located in cities having a 
population of lees than 50,000 in which there are few fireproof 
factory buildings or sprinkler equipments. On the other hand only 
two chiefs, in cities over 100,000 population, suggest a "no limit 
*^" in a fireproof sprinklered building, and none approves such 
areas for non-fireproof buildings. 



TABLE 6 AREAS IN FACTORY BUILDINGS 

AvkRaOI or THB ESPUBS OF ftO FXRB ChXBPS 8ELECTBD rROM 117, THB TOTAL NUMBBR 
RBCBXVBD AS BBST QUAUFIED BY THAISISQ AND BXPERIBNCE TO 
PAM JUOOUBNT ON THB QUESTIONS INVOLTED 



TtPB or BUILDINO 



Htokies in Heioht 



Area between Fire 
Walls in Sq. Ft 



nek and joist construotion, not sprinklered 
^»^pit)of comitruction. not sprinklered 

ick aimI joist construction, sprinklered 
'»»proof coostruciion. sprinklered 



3.2 
6.3 
4.8 
7.6 



5.200 

9.300 

10.600 

21,000 



^•^ With these thoughts in view, Table 1 has been changed 
somewhat to be more in accord with the weight of evidence. It is 
"^^^eved, therefore, that Table 5 represents more correctly the con- 
«engu8 of opinion among the fire chiefs of the country best qualified 



236 HEIGHTS AND AREAS FOR FACTORY BUILDINGS 

to judge as to what should be the proper limits of height and area 
for factory buildings. 

15 These values might be increased somewhat under the influence 
of especially favorable local conditions, as previously explained, bul 
the writer submits that as they represent the average deliberate judg- 
ment of such a large body of men, so well qualified to estimate the 
hazard which the values involve, they should be given careful con- 
sideration, and should be increased only with the utmost caution. 

In ' selecting the above replies, attention was specifically givei 
not only to the personality of the fire chief, but also to the charactei 
and number of factory buildings in his city, and the probability oi 
his having experience with both fireproof construction and sprinklei 
equipment. 

The chiefs selected were distributed according to size of cities ai 
follows: 32 from cities with a population of over 100,000; 14 froir 
cities with a population of 50,000 to 100,000; 4 from cities with c 
population of 20,000 to 50,000. 

It will be noted that the figures in this table of actual averages 
compare very closely with those given in Table 6 which was com- 
piled by a somewhat arbitrary method in an effort to bring out the 
same facts. 

EXTRACTS FROM FIRE CHIEFS* LETTERS 

16 The following extracts from letters received from different 
fire chiefs in connection with this investigation may be of interest as 
indicating their attitude of mind in relation to the questions asked : 

* ' In my opinion, from a fire-fighting standpoint, no building should be built 
over eight stories." 

^ ' In our city there is room to grow on the ground without building high in 
the air. It is almost impossible for a public fire department to fight a fire 
from the outside above 75 ft." 

* * The figures given mean that every 66 ft. by 66 ft. should have a brick wall 
through length of building with Underwriters' doors, same to be double. Afl 
for width, in no case over 66 ft. wide; with solid waU, same to reach above 
roof at least 6 ft. Build on ground not in air.** 

* ' A building 8 or 10 stories high, out in the open where it can be attacked 
from all sides should be handled very readily by a modem equipped fire de- 
partment. ' * 

^'I think that a factory should never be more than four stories high. I 
almost feel that there is no such thing as fireproof construction from my own 
experience. I know that it is possible to store enough material in any building 
to bum it. I am very much in favor of dividing rooms in factories with fire- 
resisting walls, provided with automatic fire doors." 

"While fireproof construction is the best, it is the contents placed therein 
that is the hazard to life and property. Buildings should not be constructed 



IKA H. WOOLSON 237 

to a greater height than can be reached by fire department ladders; 85 ft. to 
upper windows. ' ' 

" In my opinion no warehouse building ought to be over one story in height. 
In regard to manufacturing buildings, I will say that I do not approve of any 
of these buildings being ovet three stories in height. If they want room, let 
them build in length and not so high; that is just what makes such bad fires. 
These buildings have all kinds of combustible material in them and they are 
sure to jump to another building if they are four or five stories in height. ' ' 

"It is my opinion that all buildings for manufacturing and warehouses 
should be sprinklered, and not built higher than what the water supply will 
furnish and cover. ' ' 

"Do not think any fire department can successfully fight a large fire over 
six stories high, and ten stories allowed only when there are two sources of wa- 
ter supply with good pressure. ' * 

"Area of sprinklered and unsprinklered buildings should be about the same^ 
on account of increase in height allowed for fireproof buildings. * ' 

"All buildings of character named should be sprinklered.'' 

"Joisted brick construction should not be allowed without sprinklers.'' 

' ' I think a good sprinkler system is one of the best fire preventions that has 
been invented in a great many years, and if kept up properly, it is pretty hard 
for fires to get away. ' ' 

"If I had my way I would not allow any manufacturing plant to do busi- 
ness until it were properly sprinklered. It does things when they should be 
done." 

"My experience with the 28 factories in this city has been that the sprinkler 
sjstems are out of order much of the time. Not looked after properly. ' * 

' ' This department has had no unfortunate experience with the sprinkler sys- 
^t but, I do not feel inclined to depend upon them. ' ' 

"The reason for not showing more favor to sprinklered risks, is because 
our experience with sprinkler systems in this city has shown them to be unsatis- 
factory, and not to be depended on. ' ' 

"Stairs should be of steel without any wood sides; if any wood in the con- 
struction then there should be sprinklers. Should be sprinklers in all elevators 
^en if they are enclosed, for an elevator is a bad air shaft. Brick factories 
cut up with wooden partitions are generally hard fires to fight. ' ' 

"I do not approve of small rooms in factories, they make it very hard for 
a fireman to fight his way through smoke trying to find a fire when a building 
of this kind is partitioned off so much. ' ' 

' ' In eonsidering the limiting of height and area of a building, the question 
of accessibility should play an important part. ' ' 



No. 1393 d 

THE PROTECTION OF MAIN BELT DRIVES 
WITH FIRE RETARDANT PARTITIONS 

BY G. H. SiOTH,^ Boston, Mass. 
Non-Member 

The importance of safeguarding stairways by placing them in 
tcwers well cut off from the remainder of the building and of pro- 
tecting the openings made by elevators through the floors has long 
been recognized. Today more than formerly, these features are taken 
care of in the design of manufacturing buildings, including also well 
arranged towers for the main belts or ropes where this method of 
driving is employed. Fig. 1 shows how these features may be taken 
care of in a textile mill. 

2 The following remarks apply more particularly to the older 
manufacturing buildings and to those of more recent construction 
where the best principles of design of stair and elevator towers and 
belt and ropeways have not been followed. Neglect to safeguard ver- 
tical openings through floors has resulted in serious loss of life among 
occupants of the building, who found themselves cut off from their 
^customed exits by the rapid spread of flre up through such unpro- 
tected openings. 

3 In mills insured with the Mutual companies stairs and elevators 
have generally been well arranged, and the fire protective devices such 
M automatic sprinkler systems, etc., have shown their value not only 
^n reducing the loss of property by fire to a minimum, but also it 
has been demonstrated that approved construction, high standards of 
general order and neatness and eflBcient fire protection works as well 
to safeguard the lives of operatives employed. 

4 At the present time there are approximately 1,500,000 people 
employed in the 2800 industrial works insured with the Mutual com- 
plies, located in 29 states of the Union and Canada. Since the 
^Qception of the system in 1835, there have been but 32 deaths caused 
<iirectly by fires in these properties and 21 were in a fire in an un- 

'Bnifineer and Special Inspector, Associated Factory Mutual Fire Insur- 
»»w Companies, 31 Milk Street. 

Presented at the Spring Meeting, Baltimore 1913, of The American So- 

^^^TY OP liXOHANICAL ENGINEERS. 

239 



240 



PHOTECnON OP MAIN BELT DRIVES 



gpriuklered mill is 1876 before sprinklers were in general use. Thu 
would indicate that under present conditions, tlie loss of life wonld 
average less than 1 per year per 1,000,000. 

6 Of the total of 33 lives lost, poorly constructed beltwaya which 
allowed the rapid spread of smoke and fiame were to a large extoit 
responsible for the deaths of 25 persons. The need of safeguarding 
the vertical openinge through doors around the main driving belts 




Belt, Stajkway and Elbvatob Towibs 



had been less fully appreciated. Conditions at these drives were ag- 
gravated moreover, because it was the general custom to enclose the 
belts with boxes of wood, which in some cases were about head high 
and in others extended to the ceiling. The boxes tended to become oil 
soaked and to accumulate lint. A fire once starting at or near them 
would rapidly make headway, being carried by the natural draft up 
through the mill. Such a fire would also be more or lees aheltered 
from the action of the sprinklers in the room. 

6 The recurrence of several large property losses from this source 
led to ponsidcratiiiii r>f this matter and measures were taken which 



C. H. SMITH 



241 



hsie to a great extent eliminated the open beltway hazard from Mutual 
riika. In the experience of tliese companies there have heen about 20 
fira occurring in the vicinity of main dtivee in which the open belt- 
ny vas an important factor in the spread of the fire. These 20 fires 
molted in a toUl loss of $2,7Sl,63d, an average of $1^,08-2 per fire. 
Some of the larger of these losses occurred in the days before sprinkler 
protection was as complete as now, but the statistics showed that even 
with complete protection the open beltway was a serious hazard. 







t 




= 


1 


,ztfz-:L, 




\ 








' 


Crdinfe ^^N^W T^ Pickers 




^'^"'"^ ^^^^1 


<ter„-| p..«r. 1 




W(a.ine**%ss,,^^^^^ ^S\ 


f''f% 


aj,™ 




Weavmg ^^'^S^ 


\as^ 


Foundrfiona *tc. 



Fis. i Bbotion showing Belts and Wooden Boxing bkpobx Fike or 

SiFTEHBEB 15, ISOT 



' The last bad fire from this source occurred September 15, 1907, 
*t & cotton manufacturing establiEhmeut in Fall Biver. This is a 
'tone mill, 339 ft. long, 74 ft. wide and five stories and basement in 
Wght with a l-story wing, 94 ft. long and 65 ft. wide, projecting 
(mm the rear at the center of the mill. The engine room was located 
11 the first story of this wing. The bolts were boxed with wood and 
most of these were cut off head high in the several stories. Fig. 2 
ihon the general arrangement of the drive. 

8 Sunday forenoon a bearing in the beltway just above the fly- 
wheel was being repaired. While the man doing the work stated that 
M hid no knowledge of anything that could cause the fire, it ie 



PROTECTION OF MAIN BELT DRIVES 




Win^Hbi 



FiRX Rbtard&kt Bii;t Enchxw 



C. H. SMITH 243 

probable that its origin was connected with his work. After com- 
pleting the job he left the locality. On returning 10 minutes later, he 
saw fire just below where he had been at work, and gave the alarm. 

9 The fire passed up through the wooden belt boxing into all 
stories as far as the fourth floor where the drive terminated. The mill 
filled with heat and smoke so rapidly that in 5 minutes no one could 
enter the rooms. This was in spite of 650 sprinklers which opened, 
but in justice to the sprinkler equipment, it should be stated that the 
water pressure at this mill was weak. A section about 50 ft. wide 
was badly burned on each side of the main drive up through the mill. 

10 After this fire plans were worked out to enclose the main 
drives with partitions of a fire retardant character, so as to approximate 
the standard belt tower with brick walls, such as are foimd in 
many mills of modem design. 

11 The limitations of cost, available space, etc., which prevail in 
many places where the belt tower is not a part of the original design, 
make necessary special construction such as was adopted in this case, 
and has been successfully used in many others of the older mills. 

12 The plan provided for inclosing the main drives with parti- 
tions of expanded metal and cement construction from 2 in. to 2V^ in. 
thick depending on the story heights. A framework is constructed 
of expanded metal wired to 1 in. or ll^ in. channel iron studs spaced 
12 in. apart, and secured to the floor and ceiling. Longitudinal 
stiffeners of the same material as the studs are used. Where necessary, 
as in the case of a continuous partition of more than 10 ft., additional 
stiffness is secured by providing 2V^ in. tee-bar uprights. On the 
frame so constructed portland cement mortar is applied by plastering 
to make a solid partition, all of the iron frame being embedded in 
the cement with the exception of the door jambs. These partitions, 
'^ing comparatively light in weight, could be set up anywhere 
on the heavy mill floors without the necessity of strengthening them, 
althoup^h where possible it was arranged to have the partitions come 
o^cr the beams. Although this form of construction for partitions 
"^ heen largely used and with satisfaction, it would be possible of 
^^ne to employ some of the special forms of studding now on the 
Market which combine the studs and lathing in one sheet of metal. 
*^tailB of the construction used are shown in Fig. 3. 



244 



PROTECTION OF UA.IN BELT DRIVES 



13 While in general the enclosures occupy only the floor spara 
necesaary for the main belts, it was endeavored to have them u 
roomy as conditions of machinery installation would permit, in order 
to facilitate inspection and repairs to the main betts. Proviaion wu 
made for taking down the lineshafting without disturbing the bod; 
of the partitions, usually by placing the fire doors which gave aocm to 
the enclosure under the lineshaft, and providing removable wood 
tin-clad panels constructed like fire doors above the latter. The main 
bearings were generally left outside the encloHures and to accomplish 
this the panels in front of the pulleys were sometimes recessed. 

14 It was also the endeavor to arrange these enclosures n that 
they would be as well lighted as possible by including in them windows 
in the side wall of the building or providing wired glaaa windom in 




metal frames to admit light to the beltway from the room. Pig. ^ 
shows diagrammatically the completed work at the Fall lUveT mill* 
and Figs. 5, C, 7 and S are photographs of belt enclosures in diffeno^ 
stories. The adaptability of the construction is evidenced in til® 
.sloping sides and offsets which it was necesaary to make in many ciao* 
on account of crowded conditions in the vicinity of the main belts. 
15 While there is jki claim that these partitious are as effiden* 



C. H. SMITH 246 

in witlistanding the action of a severe fire as a brick wall would be, 
they are imdoubtedly effective in preventing the dangerous draft up 
through an open beltway. In an actual fire in one of the mills where 
this construction was installed these enclosures were successful in 
confining the fire to narrow limits, and undoubtedly prevented a very 
serious loss. 

1$ Stairways. Where interior stairways are not properly en- 
closed in brick towers, it is possible to improve the conditions with 
enclosures of the same type of construction as employed in the bteltway 
work, although it would be much better where the appropriation can 
be secured to build a standard tower of brick or concrete, especially if 
the mill is of any considerable height. Placing the stairs and eleva- 
tors in towers projecting from the mill wall frequently results in a 
gain of valuable floor space. 

17 The type of stair tower that has been developed in the factory 
buildings at Philadelphia is deserving of more general adoption as it 
combines with its functions of a stair tower that of a fire escape in 
the best sense. It consists essentially in a tower separated from the 
niill 80 that access to it can be had from the several floors of the mill 
only from an outside platform or from a vestibule which is open to 
air. Such a tower can never become filled with smoke from a fibre in 
the mill. Many of the older mills in other sections of the country 
have stair towers that can be readily converted into towers of the 
Philadelphia type by closing the openings between the stair tower and 
the mill in the seveilal stories and arranging for an outside platform 
in each story communicating from the mill to the tower. 

18 Elevator Enclosures. We have also found the use of expanded 
D^tal and cement partitions practicable for enclosing elevator wells 
that were not properly protected in the original construction of the 
building, or where they have since been added. The necessary open- 
'"^ at such elevator shafts should be closed, preferably with wood 
tin-clad doors of the type which serve as safety gates as well. Where 
space does not permit of the installation of such doors, rolling steel 
abutters arranged to be automatically operative by the melting of a 
iQfiible link, aa well as manually, can be used providing the hazards 
of occupancy are not excessive. 

19 Other Uses. The average cost of partitions of the construc- 
^on advocated is from 30 cents to 33 cents per sq. ft. These figures 
^^c for the work in place and include a contractor's profit. These 
partitions have been used with superior results and not greatly in- 



PROTECTION OF MAIN BEI^ DRITBS 

















i^^^^^i 


ESf^ 


M 




wai^AH 



-^ 




•^*'1B S 




i 


m 


|! ; 





r BiLT Emclosubi. Bbarikos 



248 PROTECTION OF MAIN BELT DRIVES 

creased expense over ordinary forms of combustible construction U 
the purpose of separating special hazards from the remainder of 
manufacturing room. For such purposes as the constniction of bi: 
to contain inflammable stock, the segregation of waste working m 
chines^ construction of lacquer rooms, etc., uses are constantly beii 
found for this material in manufacturing Works. 



2S"o. 1393 e 

THE LIFE HAZARD IN CROWDED BUILD- 
INGS DUE TO INADEQUATE EXITS 

By H. F. J. Porter, Nbw York 
Member of the Society 

Buildings in general are either non-fireproof or fireproof. The 
former can be compared to a pile of kindling wood out in the open, 
sometimes oil soaked and always ready to be set on fire ; the latter to 
a stove full of fuel ready to be set on fire. In both cases the human 
occupants swarm around in the interstices in the pile of fuel, and as 
soon as the fire starts those caught in the fagots have to work their 
way down through the smoke and flames to the ground to safety. 

2 Factory buildings in particular are sources of great danger to 
their large number of occupants, both on account of their non-fireproof 
construction and because of the obstructions to rapid egress, due 
to haphazard placing of machinery, furniture and partitions and the 
small number, size and character of the exit facilities. 

3 Of late, the unrestricted use of fireproof construction in 
the buildings themselves has been advocated and the author 
has reconunended the development of a form of exit drill of the 
occupants of each building to determine if, in the case of danger, 
Uiey could escape readily from the building and if they could 
liot, the alteration of the exits until they could. By "readily** is 
nieant within three minutes, for from many conferences it was found 
that people do not want, nor would it be safe, to remain in a burning 
huilding longer than that time. 

4 The capacity of a stairway, if time is not a factor and a 
stream of people pours into it only at the top and out of it from 
tne bottom, is unlimited; but if time is to be considered the capacity 
^8 limited by its cross-sectional area. In a multi-storied building 
^th crowds of people on each floor trying at different points in its 
'^ogth to get on to one stairway in a limited time, the conditions are 
^^Vf different. If more people try to get on to the stairs from each 
^^r than the section between that floor and the floor below will 

Resented at the Spring Meeting, Baltimore 1913, of The American So- 
niTY Of Mechanical Engineers. 

249 



250 PROTECTION OF MAIN BELT DRIVES 

hold, a jam will occur so that the flow downward will cease, 
capacity of this section is very limited. 

5 A crowd of people does not flow like a liquid compose 
round smooth molecules. Their soft bodies are angular in 8 
more like pieces of rubber with wires in them and they ther 
interlock. Clothes present rough surfaces causing friction and i 
stairway is narrow an arch is apt to form across it which can be 
an obstruction in case of pressure from above such as actual] 
burst the stair rail or enclosing partition. 

6 The capacity of a stairway of the average height of froi 
to 12 ft. between floors and not less than 22. in. wide would be 
person to every other step or 10 and 12 per floor respectively, a: 
the width is doubled (not less than 44 in.) so that two people can 
down abreast, twice those numbers or 20 and 24. If a stairwaj 
winders in it, its capacity is reduced 50 per cent. One person 
descend a single flight of such steps 10 to 12 ft. high in 10 seo 
striking a gait which he can maintain for seven or eight fligh 
steps. After that he goes slower, making the tenth flight in i 
11 or 12 seconds. Every person added in single file adds 1 secoi 
this time. A double file takes no longer if the stairs are double >» 
Thus it will take 10 seconds for 10 or 20 people, that is, the 
capacity of a flight of steps, to come down one story. The cap 
of a stairway may be thus increased by widening it in multipl 
22 in. A crowd of people cannot be depended upon to come < 
more than ten stories. One or more of them will give out, and del 
the attention of others. Those who do get down will be severely t 
The total time required to empty a building is determined b] 
time required to empty either the floor farthest from the groui 
the floor occupied by the greatest number of people. 

POKMULA FOR EMPTYING A FLOOR BY ONE STAIRWAY 

Number of couples (number of people divided by 2) 

Time of formation in line after signal, seconds 

Time one couple takes to march to top of stairs, seconds 

Time each couple takes to pass through door at top of stairs, seconds. . . . 

Number of stair flights (one less than number of floors) 

Time of one couple to descend one flight of stairs, seconds 

Time of one couple to go from foot of stairs to street, seconds 

Total time = T = 30 + cl + /lO 
Example Time of emptying 100 people from tenth floor 
T = 30 + 50 + 90 = 170 seconds = 2 minutes, 50 seoonc 



H. F. J. PORTER 251 

Example Time of emptying a ten-story building with 20 people 
on each floor is the same as emptying 20 people from tenth floor, 
r = 30 + 10 + 90 = 130 = 2 minutes, 10 seconds 

7 Tests of the capacity of fire escapes in a limited time gave 
the following results: A straight ladder, 2 per floor; ladder set 
at 50 to 60 deg. with the horizontal requiring people to go down 
backwards 3 to 4 per floor; stairs 30 in. wide, 10 to 12 per floor; 
and the modem outside stairway with a mezzanine platform 40 in. 
wide, 20 to 24 per floor, the same as an inside stairway. Fire escapes 
are usually so exposed to flames from windows opening upon them 
that they are more often fire traps than fire escapes. They should 
be prohibited by law and safer methods of escape provided. 

8 In order to insure the safety of the occupants of a building in 
case of emergency one of two things has to be done : (a) there should 
be two stairways so that if one is cut oflE by flames or smoke the other 
can be used and the number of occupants reduced on each floor to 
meet the limited capacity of the part of the stairway between floors, 
or (6) the number of stairways increased so as to have two separate 
and independent stairways from each floor to the ground with its 
own exit from the building. People can then pour into the top of 
whichever one is not cut off by the fire and continue down and out 
at the bottom without colliding with those from any other floor. 
^ire drills installed under either of these conditions worked more 
or less satisfactorily, and the author tried unsuccessfully for years to 
have ordinances passed in New York City and legislation enacted at 
Albany, making them mandatory, but the expense of changes in the 
buildings and the idea of having employees walk out of a factory while 
manufacturing operations were under way, upon the sounding of an 
unexpected signal, did not appeal to factory proprietors as practical, 
^t required holocausts in New Jersey, Pennsylvania and New York 
finally to bring about the legislation in those states. 

9 As time passed, however, the author developed what might be 
^®nned an exit test in factories which presented the opportunity and 
found to his astonishment that almost without exception, exit facilities 
*^equate for handling the regular number of occupants under emer- 
?^cy conditions, were lacking. 

10 This situation has probably developed with the rapid growth 
01 industry where a factory building had been built to acconmiodate 
* certain number of people, and then, as the business grew, more 
P^ple were accommodated without realizing that each additional 
P^J^n became an increment of danger to all. Or, if the danger was 



252 LIFE HAZARD IN CROWDED BUILDINGS 

at all appreciated, some means of escape from windows was suppli.^ 
which might be anything from a rope to a ladder. After this conditio 
had become general it crystallized into custom, and new buildiKS 
with exit facilities inadequate for their occupancy were designee 
erected and accepted as safe. Bopes were followed by ladders^ a^ 
these in turn by fire escapes which became in time an establisb 
necessity. 

11 Engineers, when called upon to supply a mechanism, m 
expected to have it subjected to a working test, which it must j>a 
before they get paid for it; but architects and builders have n&^ 
been called upon to demonstrate by actual test that the facili'ti 
which they have supplied in their buildings for the purpose 
emptying them under emergency conditions will actually work, a£ 
this notwithstanding repeated instances of panic congestion on stair 
of people being burned to death on fire escapes, of elevators stickiiB, 
from the warping of their runways from heat, etc. 

12 When subjected to test these exit facilities in many buildings 
have been found to be entirely wanting in adequacy, and when thii 
fact was brought to the attention of those who were responsible, it htf 
been surprising to find how readily they accepted the criticism. On 
the other hand, those who possess these unemptiable buildings are 
sceptical of such statements and unwilling to be persuaded that fb 
buildings are not safe. They point to all the other buildings erected b] 
reputable architects and builders and naturally are incredulous. 

13 In order to empty these buildings, additional stairways hai 
to be built and fire drills developed to take the people out. Sucl 
changes in the building are expensive, for two stairways have to b 
installed from each floor to the ground, so that if one is cut off by 
fire, the other can be used. In many-storied buildings the number o 
stairways required becomes impractical. In addition fire drills ai 
expensive to operate, for they involve not only loss of time of operative 
and a break in the continuity of the process of manufacture, but th 
actual going down stairs and return of people, some of whom may h 
lame, others affected by a weak heart or limgs, others anaemic o 
organically weak, reduce the efficiency of the working force for a ver 
appreciable time. If the drill takes place at the end of the day thi 
criticism might be modified slightly. 

14 Such is the situation in the usual type of factory building t 
be found in the average town where ground is cheap, buildings larg 
and stairways broad. Turning now to the loft building used fo 



H. F. J. PORTER 



253 



factory purposes^ the conditions as regards emptiability are found to 
be very much worse and have to be corrected in a diflferent manner. 

16 Let us consider for the moment a one-story or ground-floor 
factory building with a doorway at each side, one of which is cut off 
by a fire. The people can march out horizontally through the other 
doorway and nothing will inpede this horizontal exit except the size 
of the doorway. If this is 2'2 in. wide, a single file of people can pass 
out in an orderly manner at the rate of one person every second. If 




fto. 1 Floor Plan op Typical IjOpt Building suowino Fire Wall with 

DpORWAYS 

it 18 44 in. wide, a line of people two abreast can pass out in the same 
"Die. One hundred people can make their exit through one 44-in. 
^^1 therefore, in 60 seconds, or say one minute. 

16 Now put another factory on top of this one with one hundred 
Pwple in ii The doorway at each side will have to open on stairways 
^hich lead down to the doorways constituting the exits from the 
Victory below. Suppose a fire occurs on the floor below, cutting off 
one of these exits, the 100 people on the lower floor immediately 



264 LIFE HAZARD IN CROWDED BUILDINGS 

proceed to make their horizontal exit, while those on the upper i 
proceed to make a vertical downward exit to reach the doorway 
of which those below are moving. The result is of course a collifl 
the stream of people from upstairs coming down upon the streao 
people on the ground floor on their way out. This collision prev< 
both the upstairs stream from coming down and the down-st 
stream from going out. There is a complete lock, and the builc 
does not empty. 

17 Not only have we put one factory on another in the cas 
our loft building, but we have piled factory on factory until we 1 
from 10 to 30 and more, one on top of the other; and each emplo; 
from 100 to 300 or more people. In cases of emergency as in 
Asch Building fire, there are only two courses for the occupa 
one is to burn to death, and the other to jump to death — "to bun 
or jump down.'^ 

18 It is impossible to reduce the number of people per i 
to the capacity of the stairs, say 24 per floor. Even if that nuB 
would be all that a business required^ in case of emergency they w< 
have to go downstairs, and it is a physical impossibility for pe 
to stand the exertion of a trip down more than ten stories wit! 
resting ; and when they stop to rest they block the stream and obst 
its exit. Under these circumstances it is necessary to develop & 
other method for people in high buildings to secure safety, 
following suggestion is offered to meet the situation: 

19 It has been seen that a horizontal escape by people on 
ground floor is readily secured. Let us see if a horizontal escap 
safety for people at any height from the ground can be develo 
Suppose a wall is built across the building from cellar to roof j 
tically bisecting it in a way so as to have a stairway and ele'i 
on each side. This wall should have at least two doorways in it 
considerable distance from each other and closed by self-clc 
fireproof doors (Fig. 1). 

20 It is improbable that a fire will occur on both sides of 
wall simultaneously. It could occur only by incendiary origin, 
that would hardly be possible in working hours. Should 
occur on either side, the people on that side would go through 
doorways in the fire wall, close the doors after them and be perf< 
safe. That half of the building in which the fire might be sh 
be emptied in less than a minute if there were no more than 
people on each floor to pass through one doorway 44 in. wide. li 
principle of the horizontal escape presented by the fire wall is inch 



H. F. J. PORTER 



255 



in the design of new buildings a most satisfactory method of securing 
safety at comparatively small expense will be oflEered. 

^1 In every way possible the horizontal escape should be developed 
in old buildings and the vertical escape subordinated. Factory build- 
ings adjoining one another may have doorways through their sides 
connecting them on various floors closed by fireproof self-closing doors, 
or may be connected by outside balconies built around the party walls ; 
or, if of different heights, doors in the sides of one may lead out on the 
roofs of the others. 

22 The fire wall bisecting the building as described makes 
practically two buildings, each provided with elevators and stairways. 




f*iQ. 2 Department Store Floor Plan Showing Present Arrangement 

OF FiBX Walls, Elevators and Stairs 

A fire on cue side of the wall would be confined to half the building, 
Mid therefore the property loss would be reduced one-half. Only 
one-half the people would be endangered and have to move, and the 
distance they would have to go would be only one-half what it would 
b€ if they were on the ground floor of a building without a fire wall. 
They could remain on the same floor till the fire was extinguished, 
or could go down to the ground by the elevators operating under 
normal conditions. 

^ The fire wall eliminates the necessity for a fire drill with its 
accompanying objections. Of course all buildings occupied by many 
Pwple should have a fire alarm signal system in them to advise the 
Pwple promptly of their danger. In buildings where there is a fire 



256 



LIFE HAZARD IN CROWDED BUILDINGS 



wall the signals should he arranged so that in case a fire shoulc 
occur on one side of the fire wall on any floor, a bell on each floo: 
on the same side of the fire wall would ring, indicating on which floo 
the fire is. Then all the people on that floor and above it should pas 
through the fire wall and close the doors. Those below need no 
disturb themselves until the fire threatens them, and then they to 
can pass through the fire wall. 

24 There are certain other safety devices which should h 
supplied in factories to protect the lives of the operatives from &n 




Fiu. 3 Suggested Arrangement of Fire Walls, Elevators and Staiki 

FOR Department Store 



One of these is metal-framed windows with wire glass. These a 
made so as to close automatically in case of fire, thus preventing t) 
latter from spreading upwards from floor to floor outside of tl 
building. 

25 Another safety device is automatic sprinklers which ser 
to extinguish fires in their incipiency. All doors should be made 
swing outward, and where they open on a hall or stair landing th< 
should be vestibuled, so as not to obstruct the passage way. Slidii 
doors should be avoided if possible, as they are apt to stick or jam 1 
pressure of people upon them. 

26 Each floor of our typical loft buildings is say 100 ft. 1 
100 ft. by 10 ft. and therefore contains 100,000 cu. ft. of air. T. 
laws of New York and many other states require 250 cu. ft. of air p 
person as a limitation of occupancy. This limits the number 



H. P. J. PORTER 257 

people per floor in a building of this size to 400 and if the stairways 
were 44 in. wide (and there are none now over 3-6 in.) at most only 
40 per floor could possibly go down them even if the other 360 would 
let them. 

27 With the flre wall only 200 of the 400 people on each floor 
would have to move, and if there were two doorways in the fire wall 
at some distance from each other, they could reach safety through 
them in oDfe minute, or if one were cut off by the fire, all could pass 
through the other easily in two minutes. More doorways can be 
introduced, and thus the time of exit could be lowered still further. 

28 An effort is being made to increase the amount of air space 
required per person from 250 to 500 cu. ft., which would reduce the 
number of people per floor to 200, of whom only 100 would have to 
move, and they could easily reach safety in one minute. 

29 The stairways and elevators should be enclosed in fireproof 
walls to prevent a fire on one floor continuing upward and setting 
the other floors on flre. The ceiling of the basement where the 
machinery is located should be fireproof, and should not be pierced 
inside of the building, so that a fire there would not reach the elevator 
shafts. 

30 Fire escapes which are simply stairs and possess dangerous 
features not only of limitations as to size, but of accessibility for 
flames and smoke, should be looked upon as evidence of the incom- 
petence or ignorance, or worse, of the architect, builder, or owner, 
wd prohibited by law under a heavy fine. They are not only danger- 
ous to life by giving a false confidence in their adequacy for escape, but 
they destroy the appearance of the building. Our cities should be 
built without such architectural blemishes. 

31 Fire escapes of the chute type are tubes with a smooth helix 
"^^tead of steps. If the only opening is at the top they have 
considerable capacity. They soon rust, however, and at best are not 
te l)e considered seriously in comparison with other means of safe 
^t. People cannot enter them at different floors while a stream of 
P^Pfe is passing down from above. 

32 The smoke-proof tower, claimed to have originated in 
PWladelphia, is the latest improvement in the line of fire escapes. 
It is simply an enclosed stairway on the outside of a building, 
M cannot be reached except by going out of doors. Its special 
d&im is that smoke and flames caimot get into it. It has, however, 
^0 more capacity than any other stairway, and as its approach is 
*l^*yB open to the weather and its interior is always more or less 



258 LIFE HAZARD IN CROWDED BUILDINGS 

dark, it is never used in ordinary service and becomes m 
These monuments to architectural incompetency can be seen 1 
there filled with the dust and accumiQated rubbish of every 
open space. When a time arrives for using them everybody 
gotten their existence. During the last year or two, notwithf 
the protests of many, a great many new buildings have be 
structed, especially in New York City, with these monstroE 
them, and have been accepted by the building departmeni 
seriousness. 

33 The fire wall should be introduced into all building 
the public congregates in large numbers. Large departmen 
which on certain days are said to accommodate several t 
people per fioor, are very dangerous places at present. A fi 
panic without a fire, might cause a fearfiQ tragedy. It is < 
for their owners to object to fire walls and offer as an excuse t 
would obstruct the vista. Certain cities require fire walls 
buildings now as a property protection, and the vista is d 
with without comment. The department stores of Phili 
are so divided; John Wanamaker^s new store there is divided 
such walls as shown in Fig. .2. The exit facilities in it, how( 
badly arranged, for the architect apparently did not think of 
hazard of its occupants, and designed the fire walls to protect ] 
only. Fig. 3 shows how the building might be redesigned so 
safer. It should be noted that the elevators are removed f 
fire wall so that people trying to go down in them would n 
the doorways of the fire wall and prevent others coining 
them. The stairways are situated as far from the fire wall as 
and should be enclosed by fireproof partitions. 

34 Churches, assembly halls and similar ground-floor b 
should have their fioor fireproof and unpierced so that ; 
occurring in the basement would not endanger the occupant 
main building. 

35 Moving picture buildings, theaters, etc., should be re< 
(Fig. 4). People come out of them by the way they go inj 
case of emergency all crowd into the narrow aisles. Thej 
should be turned across the room and lead directly to courts 
on the street in a way such that streams of people will not 
The various balconies and galleries should have foyers bel 
walls with separate stairs and street exits so that patrons 
have to mingle with those making their exit from the lower t 



H. F. J. PORTER 




260 LIFE HAZARD IN CROWDED BUILDINGS 

36 Every school building shoiQd be divided by a fiie wall 
providing a horizontal exit on each fioor^ so that the children will not 
have to be drilled to go downstairs in case of fire. 

S7 Hospitals where the inmates are bedridden, blind, lame, 
invalid, imbecile, or otherwise helpless, can be made safe by ttte 
introduction of the fire wall between wards, and in case of fire ihos^ 
who are bedridden can be wheeled on their beds through the doorway^> 
and those who are up and about can walk through thenL 

3t8 Hotels and apartment buildings can so easily have a fir'^ 
wall developed in them that it need only be referred to here I 
passing. Even the private residence where only a few pople occupy 
a floor can be made safe in this way. The back stairway should 
enclosed in a fireproof partition, and in case of a fire instead o 
everybody having to go downstairs through the smoke and flamei^^ 
or having to jump from windows, the people on each floor havi 
simply to pass through the fireproof door and go down stairs ii 
safety. In large residences where there is a servants' quarters ii 
connection with the back stairs, the building would be bisected 
the people on either side of the wall would be able to carry theii 
clothing and perhaps much household and personal property 
safety. 

^9 Two years ago the National Fire Protection Assodatioi^^ 
appointed a committee of which the author was a member to draf^M 
suggestions for the organization and execution of fire drills. This 
mittee made its report to the annual meeting of the association hdi 
in Chicago last May, and it was adopted with slight modificatioiu — 
A prefatory note to this report is as follows: 



Many so-called fire driUs, outside fire escapes, and similar praetices and 
vices are generaUy insufficient, often dangerous, and therefore mUlaft^iTig 
stitutes for rational exit facilities, and are a manifestation of improper 
and construction of our buildings. A stairway connecting many stories will- 
accommodate only a limited number of people. Stairways are, therefore^ daa" 
gerous means of exit for crowds. Congestion is bound to occur in them when 
used under stress of excitement owing to their limitations. 

The primary object of the exit drill is to determine if the building is 
properly designed so that in the emergency of a fire its occupants would be able 
to effect their escape readily without the probability of injury from etairwaj 
or other congestion which inevitably causes panic. This test should be oeea- 
sionaUy repeated to insure the continuous maintenance of safe conditions. 

40 The author advocates legislation, requiring three things: 
(a) Architects and builders should be prohibited from designing 
buildings which cannot be emptied within 3 minutes after a given 



H. P. J. PORTER 261 

signal, (b) The municipal authorities should be required to institute 
an exit test in each building to determine, before it is accepted, if it 
can be emptied of its occupants in 3 minutes. If it cannot pass this 
test it will not be accepted and must be altered until it can pass the 
test (c) Afterwards the proper authorities will be required to repeat 
the exit test from time to time, to see that the safe conditions 
originally established are maintained. 



No. 1393/ 

DISCUSSION ON FIRE PROTECTION 

W. H. Kenekson referred to the statement of Mr. Porter that 
people do not want^ nor is it safe for them to remain in a burning 
building more than three minutes. He said that he was present at 
the start of a very quick fire where the people in the building were 
reluctant to stay at all. They got out of the building by jumping 
almost as quickly as they could nm to the side walls. Even with ade- 
quate exits it was plainly evident that danger could not be eliminated. 
In buildings where operatives were working under crowded condi- 
tions some people would be burned or crushed before they could get 
out in case of a severe fire, even if the walls were open all the way 
around, owing to the furniture, machines, etc., being closely grouped. 
The panic following an incipient fire was often worse than the fire 
itself and did more damage. In some of our large cities, the streets 
in the neighborhood of oflBce buildings and factories are so narrow 
and so hemmed in by the crowds rushing toward the building in case 
of a fire that there would not be room enough in the street to accom- 
modate the operatives who were leaving. This was certainly true of 
some loft buildings in New York City. 

Begarding the use of the fire wall, while it is of great value 

• 

m certain cases and places, it is not altogether dependable. Was 
it not conceivable that fires could not start on both sides of a par- 
tition at once ? There were many conditions under which a fire would 
rapidly spread to both sides of a partition even if it did not start on 
hoth sides, as for example in a flash fire. 

The author very properly said that sliding doors inside of par- 
titions were dangerous; but what of swing doors? These should 
^l^ays open outward, but what was "outward^^ in a partition that 
niwst be used in both directions ? Where communication was estab- 
lished between adjacent buildings even, it was inevitable that one of 
"le doors would open the wrong way. 

There was only one paragraph in the paper about preventive 
Diethods through the use of automatic apparatus in conjunction with 
other things for preventing fire at the start. It was unfortunate 
^hat this was not included in a paper of the general scope of the one 
^te discussion. 

^^'^^ented at the Spring Meeting, Baltimore 1913, of The Amsrican 
^^^^^OTY OP Mechanical Engineers. 

263 



264 DISCUSSION ON FIRE PROTECTION 

He believed that it would be impossible to enforce the legislatic 
recommended in the last paragraph of the paper to prevent arcli 
tects from designing buildings which could be emptied in 3 mi] 
utes. Before construction such a matter was a question of opinic 
rather than fact. Moreover, operatives could not be prevented fro: 
crowding or becoming panic stricken in the event of a fire and it wi 
doubtful under such circumstances whether many a properly designc 
building could be emptied in 3 minutes even if it were possible 1 
enforce the first recommendation. 

Henry Hess. I am neither an insurance nor a sprinkler man. 
have had some experience putting up factory buildings and nmnin( 
the establishment afterwards. One of my most interesting ezperi 
ences of that character was in building a large tool works in Oermany 
The first thing I ran afoul of was the law. I bring this up particn 
larly because Professor Kenerson has indicated bis belief that ade 
quate legislation was absolutely impossible, if not as to securing it ii 
the first place, then as to its later enforcement. Now that is a ques 
tion of the will of the community. If the community really desire 
enforcement of law it will see to such enforcement. Fire wall parti 
tions such as Mr. Porter advocates are very useful. In the case of th 
Oerman factory partitions were installed in certain cases and wer 
not insisted upon in others ; but there was an insistence upon one othe 
thing of possibly far greater importance. The authorities determine 
a central point for each floor area, considered the number of peopl 
at work in that area, and then insisted that there must be an ade 
quate fireproof staircase within a certain distance of that centra 
point. The size of the stairway was made to increase with the in 
crease of that distance, which latter was not permitted to exceed 
certain limit. Moreover, a stairway had to be provided not merely a 
one end, but at two ends at diagonal comers so that there was a possi 
bility of reaching a stairway in two directions from a central poini 
The law does not permit overcrowding. Such conditions as obtai: 
in New York City loft buildings would not be tolerated in the conn 
tries from which the people who nm the industries in these lofts hav 
come to us. Why should our communities grant them such permis 
sion here? Panic cannot be altogether guarded against in the con 
struction of a building. Sprinklers do not constitute a full saf^oarc 
In fact if you were to send down a douche of water upon an ezcitabl 
woman when she smells smoke or sees fire you would most certainl 
not cool her down. Provide what safeguards you will, always kee 



DISCUSSION 265 

the crowds down to a point where even panic stricken people cannot 
seriously jam. 

Oeo. I. RooKWOOD. As one interested in the general subject of 
file protection^ I have followed closely the fire statistics of the last 
seyen or eight years as given out by the National Fire Protection 
Asaociation and the Factory Mutual Fire Insurance Companies. I 
have also had experience with the manner in which automatic sprink- 
lers operate to save human lif e^ having been responsible for the in- 
stallation of many hundreds of thousands of sprinkler heads ; so that 
with that experience back of me I want to say that no one so far as I 
know has really done more than has Mr. Porter to convert the rather 
obstinate architectural profession^ as well as the equally obstinate 
members of the profession of fire protection engineering, to the use 
of this very obvious device for getting operatives and others out of a 
burning room and into a place of safety. 

The way of the reformer is proverbially difficult, but it seems to 
me that those responsible for the design of loft buildings have been 
particularly slow in appreciating Mr. Porter's work. Very likely the 
rewon for this will be found in Mr. Porter's scarcely concealed con- 
^pt for the automatic sprinkler as a life-saving device, but neither 
Mr. Porter nor anyone else has yet made any proper inquiry into the 
history of automatic sprinklers, considered solely from the point of 
view of their use as life savers. They have been regarded altogether 
as property savers, and are installed in buildings for that purpose. 
It is perfectly clear that every time a sprinkler operates successfully 
m a building containing human beings it is potentially a life saver. 
The question narrows down, therefore, to the effect of sprinklers in 
preventing panic conditions in buildings. Do they prevent panics or 
cw they be made to prevent them ? We need a little further light on 
™ subject before we can dogmatize to advantage either way, but 
I feel confident that the solution of the problem of saving human life 
w a function equally of the use of Mr. Porter's centrally located in- 
combustible partitions and the proper use of automatic sprinklers. 

In the average case of a fire extinguished by automatic sprink- 
lers three or four heafi are all that open to effect the result. In 
"^ case of quick flash fires an entire roomful of sprinklers may 
^Pen, seemingly at once, without any appreciable interval of time 
'^tween the setting of the fire and the operation of the sprinklers, 
l^e question naturally arises, would such instant out-pouring of 
^ter be an advantage or a disadvantage to a room more or less 



266 DISCUSSION ON FIRE PROTECTION 

crowded with operatives No sane man would take the ground t 
he would rather be in such a room, under those conditions, with 
sprinklers. In a recent case where a flash fire occurred in the i 
floor of a three-story factory filled with people on every floor, a 
of material in which gasolene was an ingredient took fire, v 
the curious result that, although the room was not a pari;iculj 
large one, and there were many men at work in it, not a man 
out of the room without getting wet. They said afterwards that tl 
seemed to be no interval of time between the instant when the 
flashed up and the subsequent out-pouring of water from all of 
sprinkler heads in the room. 

It might be thought that where a factory has a good deal 
material out of which, say, straw hats, or lingerie, are made, 
rapidity with which the fire, once started, would propagate wc 
insure the injury of everybody in the room. Such a view wc 
fail entirely to take into account the fact that when the fire st 
the heated gases almost instantly rise to the ceiling where they ] 
ceed to mushroom out and open the sprinkler heads one after anol 
much faster than the fire can propagate itself in the material on 
floor. This is not a matter of speculation; it is an observed fact. 

There are classes of buildings in which there are so many c 
cealed spaces in the wooden walls, wooden partitions and woo 
floors, that a heavy fire may conceivably get strong headway in » 
concealed space before it shows itself. Under such circumstances 
sprinklers operate at a disadvantage and merely act as a checl 
the spread of the flames until the arrival of the flre department, 
even then they often make it possible for the flremen to carry t 
hose to the very center of the fire, and thus are the primary cans 
its final extinguishment. 

Mr. Porter would do well to add to his crusade in favor < 
central figure resistant partition, with separate means of egress 
opposite sides of it, a further demand for the installation of a 
matic sprinklers, and he will be surprised to see how much n 
quickly his original effort at reform will succeed. 

Habbington Emerson. In making comparative investigation 
American and foreign cities what strikes one most is the much Ic 
fire loss in German cities than in American cities. The reason is 
different ideals have been pursued. Our ideal is to get there im 
diately. In an international test of different fire companies at '. 
lin about 20 years ago it took the Americans 20 seconds to come 



DISCUSSION 267 

couple up the hose and begin to play the water wliile it took the Oer- 

manfi over 8 minutes to prepare to fight the fire. Nevertheless the 

fact remains that the fire loss in Germany is small compared with what 

it is in this country. It is not because they have buildings that cannot 

be burned^ because recently in Hamburg a number of incendiary fires 

occurred with severe losses. But the principle of the Germans is to 

prevent fire, not to fight it after it is started; while we have gone 

the limit in fighting fire after it is started. We are away behind 

the rest of the world in preventing fires before they start. Switzerland 

is a country of wooden houses yet the per capita fire loss there last year 

was only 2 per cent of the American per capita loss. 

F. B. OiLBBBTH. There is no doubt that standardization more 
than any other one thing will reduce the number of fires; but let 
it be standardization for the prevention of fires rather than for extin- 
guishing them after they are started. Fires are the product of ignor- 
^ce. A very small proportion of architects^ and a still smaller num- 
ber of engineers^ know how to construct a building that will not bum 
up. 

In a paper on the Waste of Natural Resources by Fire,* Charles 
Whiting Baker gave a striking illustration of the annual loss not only 
of property but of human life. He said : 

The buildings consumed, if placed on lots of 65 ft. frontage, 
would line both sides of a street extending from New York to Chicago. 
A person journeying along this street of desolation would pass in 
every thousand feet a ruin from which an injured person was taken. 
^^ every three-quarters of a mile in this journey he would encounter 
^e charred remains of a human being who had been burned to death. 

I have seen many of the big conflagrations in this country : Toronto, 
Rochester, Baltimore, San Francisco and Sioux City. A careful ex- 
^niination of all these ruins shows that if we tried to construct build- 
^ that would bum up we really could not do a much better job. 
Sports of experiments carried on by Professor Woolson in New York 
^*ty during the last ten years contain much valuable information 
wpon this subject 

We face an entirely new situation today with the advent of con- 
^®^ which when made with the proper aggregates, such as trap rock 
^Q the right kind of sand, is of tremendous assistance in resisting 
^ spread of fires. In fact, we are not depending on any of the old 

Joint meeting of the Engineering Societies on the Conservation of Natural 
Purees, Now York, March 24, 1909. 



268 DISCUSSION ON FIRE PROTECTION 

types of construction and fireproofing schemes for preventing the 
spread of fires. Let us haye buildings^ to begin with^ that will not aid 
the spread of fire. 

I suggest for the consideration of the Society an exhibit room 
to which engineers, architects and insurance companies may come 
and satisfy themselves that there is not a single thing in construc- 
tion today that cannot be made better and quite as cheaply out of ab- 
solutely incombustible material. 

James B. Scott. Education, it has been said, should properly 
begin with one's grandparents, and undoubtedly the time to b^n 
fighting a fire is before it begins. But granting that the ^'eugenics" 
of fire fighting have been properly observed, there will always remain 
the possibility of accident or incendiarism, giving rise to a hand-to- 
hand conflict with man's ancient enemy. The ships that can deliver 
more shells and heavier shells, in a given time and within a given 
area, and can begin delivery a few minutes earlier than the enemy, are 
usually awarded the victory in a modem naval engagement. The 
fire-fighting system which can deliver enough water, at a suitable 
pressure, just where it is needed, and can begin delivery in the fewest 
possible minutes after the discovery of a dangerous fire, is approach- 
ing the coveted 100 per cent efficiency in its limited field, as distin- 
guished from the wider province of fire prevention. 



No. 1394 

STANDARD SIZES OF CATALOGUES 

BEPORT OF COMMITTEE ON STANDAEDIZATION OF CATALOGUES 

The Committee has made an extensive investigation of the various 
sizes of catalogues in common use, and has had correspondence with 
TXiBxxj paper manufacturers, printers, advertising agents and makers 
of filing boxes and cabinets, as well as with manufacturers of ma- 
chinery and supplies. The general conclusions it has reached may be 
summarized as follows: 

a There is a universal opinion that catalogue sizes should be 
standardized. It is not necessary to give any reasons here 
for this opinion, as it is all on one side. 
h The standard of 6 in. by 9 in. has for so many years met 
with such wide acceptance, probably two-thirds of all the 
catalogues that are now made being either that size, 
trimmed as closely to exact size as possible, or within % 
in. of it in one or both dimensions, that it may be con- 
sidered as too well established ever to be abolished. 
c The 6-in. by 9-in. size is too small for many purposes, and 
it is necessary to have for some purposes a size which is 
about 8 in. by 10^^ in. or 8^ in. by 11 in. 

There are objections to having both considered as 
standard sizes, and as there is an increasing tendency to 
the use of the larger size the Committee recommends that 
8% ill. by 11 in. be the standard. Electrotypes 4 in. by 
7 in., which are commonly used for 6-in. by 9-in. pages, 
may conveniently be used, two on a page, on an 814-in. 
by 11-in. page, but they are too large for the 8-in. by 
10-1^ in. page. 

The 814-in. by 11-in. page folded twice makes 3% in. 
by Syo in., which is a convenient size for a long folder. 
d The 9-in. by 12-in. size has been adopted by a few for very 
large catalogues. While it is generally acceptable for 
technical and trade journals, it is rather too large for a 
catalogue, unless it is to be a large cloth-bound book, to be 
placed on a shelf and not filed in a cabinet. It should, 



Pr«0ented at the Spring Meeting, Baltimore 1913, of Thx AKIcmQAN 80- 
cncTT 07 Mechanical Engineers, and later revised. 

269 



270 REPORT ON STANDARD SIZES OP CATALOGUES 

therefore, not be recommended as a standard for eommox 
use. 
The following extracts from some of the letters received show tti.c 
variety of opinions that exists as regards the sizes that should be 

adopted : 

Maiihews-Northrup Works, Buffalo, N, T. Paper stock is made in aihee^ 
sizes 25 in. by 38 in. Since cuts bave been made and tabular pages set for 
years to fit 6 in. by 9 in. it should prove very expensive for many firms to 
change. An opportunity is afforded by the 9 in. by 12 in. size to nm the text 
descriptive matter or tabular panel of sizes and prices immediately under th6 
illustrations on the same page. The 8% in. by 11 in. size works out in good 
proportions. These three sizes seem to be the only ones that need be planned 
for. 

Bohert L. Stillman, New York, I suppose there are more catalogues made 
6% in. by 9^ in. or 9% in. by 12^ in. than any other size, because they both 
cut from 25 in. by 38 in. paper which is of standard size, allowing % in. for 
trim. 

The 33 in. by 46 in. size would make S% in. by 11^ in. It might be re- 
duced to 11 in. to get it within the standard letter size. 

Ticonderoga Pulp 4" Paper Company, New York, It would be much to the 
advantage of every one if all catalogues could be standardized to a certain 
size. It would be a great assistance not only to the paper manufacturer but 
also to the dealer and printer, as in that case the dealer could carry in stock 
standard sizes and could supply paper promptly, and printers would not then 
have to wait for paper to be made especiaUy. 

Frank Preabrey Company, New York, Sent samples 6% in. by 9% in,, and 
recommended it as the size used in all standard magazines. In reference to 
letter size, 8% in. by 11 in., if a movement be inaugurated which will result in 
making up to this size all catalogues and monthly bulletins a great deal wiH 
be accomplished. 

Collin Armstrong Advertising Company, New York, As far as our experi- 
ence goes 5^ in. by 8 in. is the most convenient size. Anything near 8)^ in. 
by 11 in. would in our opinion be too large to be handled easily, would be i^t 
to go to pieces quickly and probably not be kept carefully by the recipient, as 
would be the case with a smaller book. 

F, F, Coleman, Publicity Manager, Lidgerwood Manufacturing Company, 
New York, All publications except catalogues intended for filing should be 
eliminated from consideration. The best size for catalogues is 9 in. by 12 in. 
upright. Personally, I would abolish the 6 in. by 9 in. size. 

J, Horace MoFarland, Marriaburg, Pa, In the nursery trade the 6 in. by 
9 in. size does not permit such attractive illustrations in an economical manner 
as the growing vigor of selling campaigns requires, and there is a great dis- 
position to get away from anything of a standard size and to make the cata- 
logue different. 

Hammacher, Schlemmer 4" Company, New York, are working on a new 
edition of their catalogue which will be 9 in. by 12 in. For a number of years 
they used 5% in. by 7% in., but it is too small for a book of say 1200 pages. 
For pamphlets and smaller sizes will use 6 in. by 9 in. 



REPORT ON STANDARD SIZES OF CATALOGUES 271 

Manning, Maxwell 4^^Moor€, New York, Books for general mechanical 
goods, both small and large should be 6 in. by 9 in. wherever it is practicable. 
In many cases a larger sheet is necessary to take the proper size cut to show 
important small details. 

General Electric Company, Schenectady, N, ¥, We use and recommend 8 
in. by 10^ in. catalogues as standard. The width of page is valuable for 
displaying illustrations and tabular matter. Our standard letter paper is 8 in. 
by 10% in. Our standard photographic plate is 8 in. by 10 in. 

The Tale 4' Towne Manufacturing Company, New YorJe, C. L, Bedfield, 
Advertising Manager. Printed matter may well be any of the following sizes 
for reasons given: 6 in. by 3% in. for folders, because this size just fits the 
small Government envelope which is still very largely in use among business 
people; 8 in. by 3% in. for folders and small booklets, because it just fits the 
No. 9 Government 2-cent envelope and makes it very easy to use such printed 
natter to accompany correspondence; 6 in. by 9 in. for small catalogues, as we 
have been led to believe that this is more acceptable to the machinery and 
other trades; 8 in. by 10^ in. for sheets which accompany correspondence, as 
this is the size of our letter head ; 9 in. by 12 in. for our more important cata- 
logues, this being the accepted size with the paper makers and is carried in 
stock. 

From a Circular of Advice issued by the American Institute of 
Architects, April 1913, manufacturers are earnestly urged to adopt 
a standard size of 8% iii- by 11 in. for all catalogue matter which 
they desire an architect to keep for reference, tliis being the size which 
can be most readily filed in the standard letter files of the day. For 
convenience in indexing, it is essential that all catalogue matter should 
be divided into sections, so that the sections of different manufacturers 
treating on the same subject may be grouped together. This means 
that only one article should be treated on a single leaf, and that no 
leaves should be bound together except where they refer to a single 
article or variations of that article. 

A list of 927 catalogues measured for the Technical Publicity As- 
sociation showed that there were no less than 147 different sizes. 
Dividing the 147 sizes into eight groups there are the following : 
^ to 3% by 5 to 9, sixty, of which 34 at 3% by 6. 
* to 45i by 5% to 9%, one hundred and twenty, 21 of which are 4 by 6 and 26 

are 4 by 7%. 
5 to 5% by 6% to 9^, one hundred and eighteen, 15 of which are 6 by 7 and 

17 are 5 by 7%. 
^ to «% by 7 to 10%, four hundred and forty-three, 325 of which are 6 by 9 

•ad 28 are 6% by 9%. 

7 to 75i by 7 to 11, eighty-three, 20 of which are 7 by 9 and 17 are 7 by 10. 

8 to 85i by 9% to 12, sixty-four, 15 of which are 8 by 10% to 11, and 16 are 

8% by 10% to 11%. 
^ to 9% 1^ 10% to 12%, thirty-three, 17 of which are 9 by 12. 
10 to 11 by 11 to 14%. six. 



272 REPORT ON STANDARD SIZES OF CATALOGUES 

The first four groups contain 80 per cent, and the last four grou.T^ 
only 20 per cent of the whole number of catalogues. 

RECOMMENDED SIZES 

IiigXs.4 

Index card, standard 3 ^ 

Index card, larger sizes 4x6 and 5 ^ik: 

Folders : 

Small 3% :^ 

Large 3% x 

Catalogues, standard size 6 

Bulletins and large catalogues, standard S^ m 



In addition to the recommendation as to sizes the Commil 
would also recommend the following: 

a For paper-covered catalogues intended to be permaneii.tlj 
filed, the edges, including the cover, should be trimmed 't^^ 
exact size. No fancy deckled-edge or dark-tinted pap^^ 
should be used. 

6 Overlapping edges of the cover are permitted when the cata.^ — 
logue is bound in covers stiflE enough to support its weigh 
in boards or heavy card paper. 

c The title should always be printed on the exposed back ol 
the catalogue whenever possible, for the purposes of identi-^ 
fication. When the book or catalogue stands on its lower^ 
edge the title should be read from the top downwards, aft 
in Pig. 1. 

d Every catalogue should have a date on its title page. 

e A standard size index card 3 in. by 5 in. should be enclosed 
in each catalogue, with the title of the book and a brief 
statement of the character of its contents printed on ii 

Catalogues, extra large, and technical press 9x12 

Transactions of societies, pamphlets, etc 6x9 

PAPER BOXES, DRAWEES AND VERTICAL FILING 0ABINET8 

(Inside Measurements) 

For 6-in. by 9-in. catalogues, pamphlets and 9-in. by 12-in. 

papers folded once 6%x 9%, 

Paper boxes and drawers for larger sizes 9^x12^ 

Vertical files for large sizes 10x12^ 

Fig. 2, which gives a clear idea of the relation of these several 
sizes to each other is drawn to scale, showing them superposed. 



I 



BTANDABD SIZES 07 CATALOQUE8 273 

PIUKG BOXES AND CABINETS 

.'esse Jones Paper Box Company, Philadelphia, Pa. A box that 
ifill bold a sheet 8\^ in. by 11 in. is by far the most in demand 

Various makers of filing cabinets give the following sizes, in 
inches, of drawers (inside measurements) : 




Ccitespondence files, 9% by lift, 10 by 12, IO14 by 12Vi, lOA by 12. 
Ug»l cap files, 9% by 14%, 9V, by 15, 10% by 1514. 
IwoiM fllee, 7^6 by fl^, 7\ by 9%, 8 by 10, 8^ by 10^- 

Tlie 9% in. by 11 V,s in. is too short to take a 9-in. by la-iii. 
I'BpCT. There seems to be no reason for making the height more 
^«n 10 in. as no letter paper is over sy^ in. wide. A size of 10 in. 
li'gh by 12^ in. wide would seem to be the best for all large-size 
'■^talngupB. Tt would hold two G in. by 9 in. side by side, although the 
filing of 6-in. by 9-in. and 9-in. by 12-in. papers together in the same 



274 



BEFOBT ON STANDARD SIZES OF CATALOQUES 



drawer is objectionable, as the smaller aized papers have a tend 
to lap over on each other and thus to occupy more space than 
should. The extra inch in height gives ample room for division c 
and tabs. The legal cap and the invoice files are not suitable for 
of the standard sizes of catalogues. 











1 
t 




1 




' 
















1 

1 














1 1 


■Sh-nHa 




C-rsI ^ 




1 














1 


l^^wH'C 


m^'S 






j 
























1 














! 
1 

1 


niaerJ 


f..^ 




















1 
1 








J 

* 






















5 














7 


CtoA^. 


y,^ 


l^„Sf- 


..' 




--■ 










* 


eaMoa 


™ St^Sor^SiJ's-3- . 




i 






















teWw 


kM^^ 


-— 


















Butlcti 


J. tMOeriiir S- 


./-., 














*^' 






S*:/ft« 








iS 


'^^ 


zt'rl'JT 


„. 




£:^ 


1 


51 si 



Fio. 2 Bblation or Catalogue E 



A size suitable for the 6-in. by 9-in. catalogue does not ap 
to be in the market. If one were made with drawers about 6\i 
by 9% in. it should have a ready sale. The drawer would be i 
easily handled than the 10 in. by 1S% in. size. 
Respectfully submitted, 
Wm. Kent, Chairman 

J. R. BiBBINS 

M. L. Cooke 
W. B. Snow 



Committes 

on StandardiK 

of Cataloffn 



No. 1395 

THE GERMAN MEETING 

In June and July 1913, the oflBcial party of The American Society 
of Mechanical Engineers attended the Annual Meeting of the Verein 
dentscher Ingenieure at Leipzig, Germany, and participated in a re- 
markable tour of industrial Germany at the invitation of the Verein. 
The inception of this trip was at the time of a visit to this country of 
a study commission of the German Museum, headed by Dr. Oskar 
von Miller. Dr. von Miller as President of the Verein deutscher 
Ingenieure extended the invitation in person, and on June 8, 1912, 
the oflScial invitation was confirmed by the governing body of the 
Verein deutscher Ingenieure. Subsequently, Prof. Conrad Matschoss, 
Dozent of the Royal Technical High School, Berlin, visited this coun- 
try, officially accredited to arrange the details of the meeting, and 
after a conference with the members of the Council and the Committee 
of Arrangements, preliminary plans were made. Professor Matschoss 
also visited the several cities in Germany that were to be included in 
the trip and completed arrangements, and a wonderfully diversified 
program was laid out which included the itinerary published here- 
^th, following which is the report of the meeting presented to the 
Council by the Chairman of the Committee of Arrangements. The 
Verein further provided for the comfort of every one by assigning 
Professor Matschoss to conduct the party through Germany. 

ITINERARY 

PLYMOUTH 

^preaentatives of the Verein deutscher Ingenieure boarded the steamer to 
welcome the visitors. 

HAMBUHQ 

Thursday f June 19 
^▼al in Hamburg. 

Friday, June 20 

^•30 a. m. Breakfast in the LandunirsbrUcken-Restaurant. 
^^•vOa.m. Lecture on the harbor of Hamburg and the Elbe Tunnel, fol- 
®^ "y an excursion about the harbor. 

•^^ p. m. Visit to the Town Hall and reception by the Senate. Evening 
«ption of welcome in the Ratsweinkeller by the Hamburc: Section of the 

276 



276 THE GEBMAN MEETING 

Saturday, June 21 

Excursions to the Elbe Tunnel, the shipyards of Blohm ft Yobs, and on 
Hamburg Elevated Bailway to the Power Station, Barmbeck. 

In the afternoon, excursion by elevated railway and tram to Hagenbc 
zoological garden. 

Sunday, June 22 

Departure for Leipzig. 

LEIPZIG 
8.00 p. m. Evening reception of welcome at the Krystallpalast. 

Monday, June 23 

9.15 a. m. Opening session of the General Meeting in the Central The 
During the morning the ladies visited the Town Hall, the Imperial C 
of Appeals, the University Library, and attended a short concert in the 
chants' Union Concert Hall. Luncheon in the Central Theater. 

4.30 p. m. Concert in the Gtewandhaus tendered by the Senate of the 
6.30 p. m. Banquet in the large Festival Hall of the Central Theater. 

Tuesday, June 24 

9.15 a. m. Scientific lectures in the congress room of the Arehiteei 
Exhibition. 

During the morning the ladies visited the Museum of Fine Arts and 
Festival Hall of the University, followed by an automobile trip through 
city. 

1.00 p. m. Dinner in the exhibition restaurant, followed by an inapee 
of the exhibition. 

4.30 p. m. Visit to the Monument of the Battle of the Nations. Add 
by Kanmierrat Thieme, President of the Patriotic Union. Also teehn 
excursions to the Machine Works of Karl Krause, the Leipzig Machine 1 
Factory Company, Oscar Brandstetter, printers, and J. J. Weber, IQastr 
Zeitung. 

8.00 p.m. Festival in the Palm Gardens. 

Wednesday, June 25 
9.20 a. m. Departure for Dresden. 

DRESDEN 

2.00 p.m. Rendezvous at the Belvedere, automobile excursion to 8a 
Switzerland (Bastei), walk to Bathen, steamboat trip to Pima and reton 
Dresden in automobiles. 

8.30 p. m. Reception in the Bokokosaal of the Exhibition Palace^ gives 
the City of Dresden. 

Thursday, June 26 

9.30 a. m. Excursions to the following points : Mechanical engineei 
laboratory of the Technical High School; sewing machine and bieyde faci 
of Seidel & Naumann; Picture Gallery and the Green Vault. 

12.30 p. m. Luncheon at the Central Station, given by the Dresden Sec 
of the Verein. 

2.15 p. m. Departure for Berlin. 



THE GERMAN MEETING 277 

BEBLIN 
8.00 p.m. Reception in the Kaisersaal of the Rheingold. 

Friday, June 27 

9.30a.m. Excursions to the following points: General Electric Company; 
Oberspree Gable Works; Siemens & Halske Company's Wemerwerk and the 
djnamo factory of the Siemens-Schuckert Works, Ltd.; Bergmann Electrical 
Works Company; Ludwig Loewe & Company; A. Borsig Works. 

8.00 p.m. Banquet in the Marmorsaal of the Zoological Garden. 

Saturday, June 28 

2.00 p.m. Rendezvous at the Konigsplatz. Automobile drive along the 
Heentraase to Wannsee and steamer trip on the Havel lakes. 
7.00 p.m. Closing ceremony with supper in Wannsee. 

Sunday, June 29 
8.00 a.m. Departure for Dttsseldorf. 

• • 

DUSSELDORF 

8.00 p.m. Reception in the St&dtische Tonhalle, given by the City of 
^^^^Kldorf. Lecture on the Importance of the Rheinsh-Westphalian Lidustry. 

Monday, June 30 

9.00a.m. Excursions to the following points: German Machine Works 
^pany; Priedrich- Alfred Steel Plant of the Fried. Krupp Company; ma- 
^^ factory of the Corporation of Thyssen & Company; Gutehoffnung steel 
plant; Bheoish steel works. Visit by the ladies to the public welfare works of 
"riedrich Krupp Company. 

2.00 p.m. Visit to the Duisburg-Buhrort Harbor. 

8.00 p.m. Banquet in the St&dtische Tonhalle of Dttsseldorf, given by 
the Rhenish Westphalian Committee. 

Tuesday, July 1 

9.00a.m. Excursions to the following points: Haniel & Lueg; Ernst 
°«^e88 Company; (German Machine Works Company, Benrath works; steel 
^orka of the Becker Company; the Bergische Land. Automobile ride through 
^ city for the ladies. 

130 p. m. Departure for Cologne. 

COLOGNE 

8.00 p.m. Rendexvous in the Zoological Garden. Entertainment given by 
^ ^enish Westphalian Conmiittee. 

Wednesday, July 2 

^•00 a. m. Excursions to the following points: Dye Works of Friedrich 
y^7^ k Company; Deutz Gas Engine Works; Humboldt Mechanical Engineer- 
"^ Works. Visit by the ladies to the Cathedral and city in automobiles. 

8.00 p. m. Reception in the Gilrzenzich, given by the City of Cologne. 



278 THE GERMAN MEETING 

Thursday, Judy 3 

8.45 a. m. Departure for Coblenz. From there, trip by steamboat on the 
Hhine to HUdesheim, and by rail to Frankfort-on-the-Main. 

FEANKPORT-ON-THE-MAIN 

8.00 p.m. Bendezvous with the members of the Frankfort Section of the 
Verein deutscher Ingenieure in the Palm Gardens. 

Friday, July 4 

11.30 a. m. Reception of welcome by the Municipality in the BOmer, fol- 
lowed by luncheon in the Halls of the ROmer, given by the city and the 
Frankfort . Section of the Verein. 

3.00p.m. Excursions: the East harbor and the gas works; alaughter 
house and the high reservoir; refuse destroyer plant and filters; visit to the 
old town and the Goethe House; Adler Works; Frankfort Mechanical Engi- 
neering Company; Simon, BUhler & Baumann; Voigt & Haeifner Company; 
visit to the Saalburg. 

In the evening Independence Day celebration of the American colony in 
Honiburg, v.d.h. 

Saturday, July 5 

10.15 a. m. Departure for Mannheim. 

MANNHEIM 
12.30 p. m. Luncheon in the Freidrichs Park, given by tiie firms visitecL 
2.30 p.m. Excursions: Machine Factory, Heinrich Lanz; Machine F!ae- 
tory, Sulzer Brothers; Brown, Boveri & Company; Portland Cement Worka^ 
Heidelberg & Mannheim Company; Benz & Company, Rhenish Automobile and 
Motor Company; the harbor and the Ludwigshafen Grist Mill Company; Car- 
riage drive for the ladies through the city; visit to the Mnseom of Art^ 
followed by tea. 

8.00 p. ni. Reception of welcome in the Nibelungen Saal of the Stftdt 
Rosengarten, given by the City of Mannheim. 

Sunday, July 6 
11.00 a. ni. Excursion to Heidelberg. 

HEIDELBERG 

12.00 ni. Luncheon in the City Gardens, given by the Mannheim and the 
Pfalz-SaarbrUck Section of the Verein. 

2.00 p. m. Visit to the castle. 

4.00 p. m. Concert and tea in the Castle Restaurant. 

6.30 p. m. Supper at the ^ ' Molkenkur, ' ' given by the Mannheim and the 
Pfalz-Saarbrttck Section of the Verein. 

9.15 p. m. Excursion on the Neckar to view the illumination of the castle 
with fireworks, given by the City of Heidelberg. 

• 

11.30 p.m. Return to Mannheim. 



THE GERMAN MEETING 279 

MANNHEIM 
Monday, Jvly 7 
10.00 a. m. Departure for Munich. 

MUNICH 

8.00 p.m. Reception of welcome by the Bavarian Section of the Verein 
in the Hofbrftuhaus. 

Tuesday f July 8 

9.30 a. m. Visit to the German Museum and the New Museum Building. 
12.00 m. Luncheon in the New Museum Building, given by the German 
Moseum. 

3.00 p.m. Excursion to the Lake of Stamberg. 

8.30 p.m. Closing ceremony. Banquet, given by the City of Munich in 
the Old Town HalL 



REPORT OF GERIVIAN MEETING COMMITTEE^ 

The Committee began its activities with the general circular of 

August 27, 1912, followed by twelve other circulars and eleven postal 

cards giving full particulars of the program and itinerary. After 

careful search among available steamers, the great steam yacht 

Victoria Luise, 17,000 tons, of the Hamburg- American Line, was 

selected, and the travel bureau of this same line chosen to make all 

arrangements for the land trip of twenty days. As the steamer could 

carry about 600 passengers our right of choice of rooms was limited to 

March 1, 1913, but later extended a short period. By February 19, 

209 had registered in the official party for the land tour in Germany, 

and we were informed that our final limit was fixed at 200 engineers 

and 100 ladies, as neither the special trains nor the hotels in Germany 

could take more than 300 in all. From the official lists there were 

261 scheduled to sail on the steamer and 42 to join the party at Ham- 

^^% making a total of 303. Owing to my long and repeated absences 

from New York most of the preliminary work was done by the other 

members of the Committee under the able and untiring leadership of 

Mr- J. W. Lieb, Jr., the Vice-Chairman. 

We sailed from Hoboken at 10 :10 a.m. on Wednesday, June 10, 
1913. Secretary Rice and I were the only members of the original 
l^mmittee on board. Under authority given me by the Council I 
^creased the committee to 17, making, with the Secretary and the 
^tor, 19 in all, as follows : 

'Presented at the Council meeting, October 1913. 



280 THE GERMAN MEETING 

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 

E. D. Meiee, Chairman W. R. Warnkb, ViceCho 

J. R. Freeman, V ice-Chairman James Habtnbss 

Jesse M. Smith 



COMMITTEE ON EXCURSIONS 

J. G. Brill, Chairman L. P. Breckknbidge 

A. M. Greene, Vice-Chairman H. M. Leland 

E. E. Keller 



committee on RESOLUTIONS 

Sen. Newell Sanders, Chairman H. M. Leland 

F. B. Low, Vice-Chairman F. G. Kretschmsr 

Wm. a. Dobls 



COMMITTEE ON SPEAKERS 

H. L. Gantt, Chairman Jesse M. Smith 

H. G. Beist, Vice-Chairman L. W. Nelson 

E. E. Keller 



The Committees on Entertainment, Acquaintanceship and I 
of July Celebration had been appointed some time before anc 
already at work. The Entertainment Committee led by Pro: 
Mrs. A. M. Greene, Jr., had provided 19 principal events. 

But the steamer was steady and the sea smooth so that t. 
tire program was enjoyable. The other passengers were invi 
join in our exercises, by individual invitations sent to their < 
They entered into the spirit of the occasion with alacrity and 
close of the trip thanked us in a poem posted on the bulletin 
signed by all individually. On June 15 the captain gave a i 
dinner in honor of the 25th anniversary of the accession to the 
of Emperor William II at which our congratulatory address wai 
To this a German orator responded with much feeling. The ] 
tions were sent to Berlin by aerogram next morning. 

On our arrival at Plymouth at 5 o'clock in the morning ol 
18, Professor Matschoss, representing the Verein deutscher Ingei 
and Engineer Kroebel, president, and Director Molsen and Pr< 
Frasch, members, of the Hamburg branch of the V. D. I., came i 
to welcome us to Europe, and three officials of the Hamburg- Ana 
Travel Bureau opened an office on board to issue all the ne< 



THE GERMAN MEETING 281 

circulars and tickets to the entire party. After breakfast President 
Kroebel delivered his address of welcome in such fervent and ardent 
German that its spirit was fully understood by all in our party and 
a cordial friendship created which thenceforth grew with every new 
committee we met, and they were many. These were: (1) The 
council of the V. D. I., of members; (Z) the honorary reception com- 
mittee, 52 members; (3) eight local reception and entertainment 
committees, 3<29 members. 

While naturally many of these were members of several com- 
mittees, they included not less than 300 men prominent in govern- 
ment, manufacturing, railways and various branches of engineering, 
and as such they bore to our visiting party the welcome of the Verein 
of more than 1^,000 engineers, of the vast and varied industries of 
Oennany, of ten municipalities, of six sovereign states, and of the 
great German Empire. 

It appears that when the V. D. I. had received our acceptance of 
its invitation a large number of its forty-eight branch societies applied 
for the privilege of receiving and entertaining us. With just regard 
to the time and strength of our party, the Council finally selected 
eight local branches; no sooner was this done than the ten cities 
covered by these branches demanded their right to participate in the 
welcome. Forty-six excursions to prominent engineering works and 
industrial concerns were arranged, explanatory lectures prepared, the 
tainsportation and commissariat arranged, and all with that German 
thoroughness and forethought that made it possible to enjoy every- 
^g with the greatest benefit and least fatigue. 

The principal events were of course the two official joint meetings 
with the V. D. I. at Leipzig. The first, on June 23, after the official 
welcome, was devoted to two papers: one by Privy Councillor 
^precht, on The Technic and Culture of the Present Day; the 
second, by Dr. W. F. M. Goss, President Am. Soc. M. E., on Pounda- 
^ons of American Engineering. Both treated their subjects in a 
broad and thorough manner, and it was instructive and gratifying to 
hear how the conclusions reached testified to the solidarity of engi- 
neering thought in the two great nations. 

The King of Saxony with a brilliant court was an attentive listener 
'or a full hour and was duly promoted to Doctor of Engineering, 
^ur honored past-president, George Westinghouse, was unanimously 
^oted the gold Grashof medal for his contributions to engineering 
^^^Dce. A certificate accompanied this which contained the following 



282 THE GERMAN MEETING 

inscription : "Presented to Mr. George Westinghouse, who opened up 
new fields by his invention of the automatic railway brake, successfully 
fought for the introduction of the alternating current in the United 
States, and did useful work in the designing of high-speed machinery" 
President von Miller then presented an artistic plaque to one So- 
ciety commemorative of the occasion, which now hangs in the tootds 
of the Society and reads as follows: '^e salute the members of 
The American Society of Mechanical Engineers in the most cordial 
manner as the guests of our fifty-fourth general assembly in Leipzig. 
With a high respect for the scientific achievements and the good works 
of the American engineers we combine the warm and friendly feeling 
which arises from the common work devoted to the good of humanity 
in tlie field of engineering embracing all the civilized nations.^ 

'I'he second meeting, on June ^4, was devoted to industrial 
effii'iency. The subject was introduced by a comprehensive paper bj 
James M. Dodge, Past-President, followed by an equally thoughtful 
one by Professor Schlesinger of the Technical University of Chax- 
lottenburg. An interesting and warm discussion followed in which 
the original, scientific and humanitarian work of our Past-Prerid-ent 
Taylor was duly acknowledged as fundamental and leading. The 
itinerary of our trip has been fully published. Having our spe^5X» 
train always at our disposal and the professional promptness of o'*^ 
party harmonizing with the perfect arrangements of the tr*^'^ 
bureau, we were able to carry out the program as published in advac»-*5*» 
although it included in addition to the study of the plans fr^^*? 
opened for our inspection, our grateful acceptance of many -'^-'^^^^ 



functions artistically arranged and gracefully tendered, number 

no less than fifteen formal banquets and receptions, fourteen lunche^^ _ 

and collations, twelve concerts, lectures and special performam 



and ten excursions by rail and boat. In all of these there ir^^^ 
present some 200 or more of our German hosts. In several we r^^*^ 
occasion to admire the democratic attitude of German officialdom^ ^ 
social functions. Thus, the welcome to Berlin in a carefully prepa 
speech by a high official of the imperial ministry of the interior, 
polite comradeship of Prince William of Saxe- Weimar at Heidelb^ 
the visit of the aged Prince Eegent Ludwig of Bavaria to our 
cursion steamer on Lake Starnberg in the pouring rain, with an ho 
friendly chat on canals, and the uniform urbanity of the lord may 

The social functions had their own distinctive features in 
city. There was manifest an amicable rivalry in giving us the l^ 



THE GERMAN MEETING 283 

Jd devise, especially as suggested by some local or historical 
i worked out with the aid of good home talent in the arts 
1. To mention any of these without a full description in this 
port would savor of want of appreciation of the beauty and 
of the performances. Full details are available in the letters, 
records, and photographs in the hands of the Secretary. 

my pleasant duty to record the conscientious and telling labors 
irious committees which so thoroughly co5rdinated the events 
re was not the slightest hitch anywhere. The value of this 
ght home to me by the Consul (Jeneral of the United States 
I, when I called on him some weeks later. He said that during 
twelve months, two large American parties visiting (Jermany 
vertently given serious offense by some omission, but that he 
ived from various cities and oflBcials such gratifying reports 
irty that these incidents were now forgotten and the American 
3 accepted as the true representatives of our people, 
le is due also to a group of graduates and undergraduates of 
f our technical colleges for their untiring work as messengers 
ains and in hotels in distributing papers and packages, calling 
\ and giving information. 

ere all deeply impressed by these facts concerning our German 
That they believe laws are made to be obeyed, and though 
not blessed with such myriads of laws as we, those they have 
)ect; that the discipline learned in school and away has built 
dustrial prowess capable of even greater conquests than those 
resent; that the builders of the great empire desire peace to 
lem to continue the beneficent battle compelling all natural 
the service of man; that nowhere has the engineer won a 
ocial standing than as accorded him in Germany; and that 
al sense and ideals are the same in all countries and on fully 
\ level as those of the older professions. 

Eespectfully submitted, 

E. D. Meier, Chairman 



No. 1396 

MEETINGS JULY-DECEMBER 

MEETINGS IN LOCAL CENTERS 

ATLANTA, JULY 12 

Organization meeting, under the auspices of the .Society, attended 
by representatives of the American Institute of Architects, the Ameri- 
can Society of Civil Engineers, the American Institute of Electrical 
Engineers, the American Chemical Society, and the Engineering As- 
sociation of the South, with a number of addresses. A full account is 
published in The Journal, September 1913. 

MILWAUKEE, OCTOBER 8 

Address: The Uses of Pitot Tubes for Measuring Air, A. 6. 
Christie. Based on the paper on Pitot Tubes for Gas Measurement, 
by W. C. Bowse, published in this issue of Transactions. 

NEW YOBK, OCTOBER 14 

Paper: Stability in Flying Machines, A. A. Merrill, lecturer 
on Aeronautics at Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Published 
in The Journal, October 1913. 

ST. LOUIS, OCTOBER 15 

Paper: The New Turbine Pumps at the Chain-of-Eocks, L. A. 
Day, mechanical engineer, St. Louis Water Department. Discussion 
by E. H. Ohle, John Hunter, E. H. Tenney, 6. M. Peek, and others. 

CINCINNATI, OCTOBER 16 

Paper: Stresses in Machine Frames, A. L. Jenkins. 

WORCESTER, OCTOBER 17 

Group meeting under the auspices of the Boston local committee, 
including technical excursions, a lecture and demonstration of Aero- 
plane Propeller Experiments at the Worcester Polytechnic Institute, 
by David L. Oallup, an inspection of the works of the Norton Com- 
pany, with three short talks — Artificial Abrasives, by Aldus C. Hig- 

286 



286 SOCIETY AFFAIRS 

gins, the Manufacture of Modem Grinding Wheels, by Carl F. 
and the Use of Grinding Wheels, by Charles H. Norton — ^and a diriTiei 
at the New Bancroft Hotel, with speeches by James Logan, ex-M!ayoi 
of Worcester, and Charles D. Washburn of Washburn & Moen. -An 
account of the meeting is given in The Journal for November 1913. 

ST. PAUL — MINNEAPOLIS, NOVEMBEK 5 

Organization meeting, with election of officers. 

NEW YORK, NOVEMBER 11 

Paper : A New Centrifugal Pump with Helicoidal Impeller^ O. "V. 
Kerr. Published in The Journal, October 1913. Discussed by W. T. 
M. Goss, C. G. DeLaval, H. S. Hillman, Frederick Ray, Selby Haar, 
W. A. Shoudy, J. H. Lawrence. 

SAN FRANCISCO, NOVEMBER 17 

Election of committee for 1913-1914. 

BOSTON, NOVEMBER 19 

Under the auspices of the Boston Society of Civil EngineerB- 
Paper : Engineering Lessons from the Ohio Floods, John W. Alvord 
of Chicago. A more complete account appears in The Journal, De- 
cember 1913. 

CHICAGO, NOVEMBER 19 

Dinner meeting. Informal talk on Iron and Steel Industry of 
Chicago, Wm. A. Field, general superintendent, Illinois Sted Com- 
pany. Eemarks by R. W. Hunt, E. M. Hagar, president. Universal 
Portland Cement Company, 11. J. K. Freyn. A more complete ac- 
count appears in The Journal, December 1913. 

PHILADELPHIA, NOVEMBER 19 

Joint meeting witli Franklin Institute. Paper: Producer Gas 
from Ijow-Grade Fuel, R. H. Fernald, describing investigations made 
by the U. S. Bureau of Mines. A more complete account ia published 
in The Journal, December 1913. 

CINCINNATI, NOVEMBER 20 

Joint meeting with Engineers Club of Cincinnati. Address: 



SOCIETY AFFAIRS 287 

Stellite, Elwood Haynes of Kokomo, Ind. An account is given in The 
Journal, December 1913. 

NEW HAVEN, NOVEMBER 21 

Quarterly meeting with afternoon and evening sessions. Papers : 
Cooperative Industrial Research at the Sheffield Scientific School with 
Connecticut Manufacturers, L. P. Breckenridge ; Besearch Work of 
the Bureau of Mines, 0. P. Hood; Cooperation of State and University 
for Industrial Research, A. N. Talbot; Oxy- Acetylene Welding applied 
to Boiler Seams, Henry Cave, Autogenous Welding Equipment Com- 
pany, Springfield, Mass.; Safety Devices used in connection with 
(grinding Wheels, R. 6. Williams; Accident Prevention in Europe 
and the United States, A. D. Risteen ; History of the Manufacture of 
Brass, W. B. Edwards ; Experiments with Residence Heating Boilers 
at the Mason Laboratory, D. B. Prentice; Motor Car Testing, E. H. 
Lockwood. A more complete account appears in The Journal, De- 
cember 1913. 

PHILADELPHIA, DECEMBER 10 

Topic: How far shall judgment be exercised in the interpretation 
0^ engineering specifications ? Papers by L. H. Kenney, Morris L. 
^'ooke, J. B. Lichtenberger, lawyer and lecturer on Business Law, 
University of Pennsylvania. Discussed by Calvin W. Rice, Henry 
Hess, J. p. Jackson, H. H. Quimby, T. C. McBride, and others. 

ST. LOUIS, DECBMBEB 13 

Annual meeting. Addresses by R. H. Tait, John Hunter, Mr. 
'justafson, superintendent of the Rankin School of Mechanical Trades, 
describing his investigations of important trade schools abroad, and 
". Wade Hibbard. A more complete account appears in The Journal, 
January 1914. 

BOSTON, DECEMBEB 18 

Joint meeting under the auspices of the American Institute of 
Electrical Engineers. Illustrated Lecture: A Great Engineering 
disaster and the Lessons learned therefrom, B. A. Behrend. 

THE ANN UALf MEETING 

The thirty-fourth Annual Meeting, held December 2 to 5, was one 
^^ the largest in the history of the Society, with a total registration of 
1^71, of which 778 were members. Following the plan of the last 



288 SOCIETY AFFAIRS 

two yedi's, the proXessioual sessions were to a coiisiderable exteut , 
charge of sub-committees appointed by the Committee on Meetinj 
with the result that there were several symposiimM on widely diven 
fied subjects which gave a very broad scope to the meeting. The chi 
social event was the German Dinner on Thursday evening, planned 
give those who were not of the party visiting Germany last summ 
an idea of the hospitality and unusual privileges shown the visitoi 
as well as to make an enjoyable reunion for those who spent the tii 
together during the trip. Of very imusual interest, also, was t 
lecture by John W. Lieb, Jr., on the life and accomplishments 
Leonardo da Vinci, one of the most remarkable lectures ever listen 
to by those in attendance at an annual meeting. 

Another pleasant social feature of the meeting was the tea a 
musicale given in the Society rooms on Wednesday afternoon unc 
the auspices of the Ladies' Reception Committee. 

The program follows: 

PBOGBAM 

Tuesday Evening, December 2 

Opening session. President's address: Efficiency in Technical Edaeat 
a Factor in the Development of Professional Ideals, W. F. M. Q088. Beg 
of tellers of election of officers and introduction to the President-eleet. 

Beception by the Society to the President, President-eleet, ladies, meml 
and guests. 

Wednesday Morning, December 3 
Business Msbtino 
Reports of the Council and Standing Committees. AmendmentB to 
Constitution. Beports of Special Conmiittees on Flangee, Standards fm E 
Couplings, and Pipe Thread Gages. New business. 

Pbufxssional^Session 

Notes on the Further Operation of Larob Boilbbs of thb Dm 
Edison Company, J. W. Parker. 

Discussed by R. H. Danforth, Alex. Dow, A. A. Gary, I. £. Moultrop, G. B. Prartos 
D. DeWoIf, Wm. Kent, U. P. Bolton, D. S. Jucobus, D. M. Myers, Harrington Eknenon, A.A.Str 

Task Setting for Firemen and Maintaining High EmoEiXNCT nr Boc 
Plants, Walter N. Polakov. 

Discussed by William Kent, D. S. Jacobus, H. G. Stott, A. A. Gary, R. J. a PIfoM. £ 
Uehling, C. A. Austrom, Harrington Emerson, F. B. Gilbreth, R. D. DeWolf. 

Thb Properties of Steam, B. C. H. Heck. 

Beport of Sub-Committee on Hoisting and Convbting. 

Discussed by Spencer Miller, William Kent, D. M. Myers. 

Dynamic Braking for Coal and Ore-Handung Maohinebt, CSark 
Henderson. 



SOCIETY AFFAIRS 289 

Wednesday Afternoon 
Excursions to various points of interest. 

Simultaneous Sessions 
railroad 

Papers contributed by the Sub-Committee on Railroads. 

Stekl Undirframe Box Cars, George W. Rink. 
Stkl Upper Frame Box Cars, R. W. Burnett. 

Diwuiiwd by U. U. Vaughan, B. D. Lockwood. U. W. Uibbard, W. F. KienI, Jr., E. Q. 
Chenowith. C. A. Seley, O. C. Cromwell, W. 8. Atwood, F. M. Whyte. 

CEMENT 
Informal discussion on various topics. 

TEXTILES 
Papers contributed by the Sub-Committee on Textiles. 

Cotton Conveying Systems; their Safeguards Against Fire, H. A. 
Burnham. 

Diucuwed by A. W. Thompson, C. J. H. Woodbury, J. A. Stevens, E. V. French, C. H. Bigelow. 

Spicihcations for Factory Timbebw, F. J. Hoxie. 

Dttcuased by E. M. Bates. A. M. Ernst. C. H. Bigelow, C. J. H. Woodbury, E. V. French, 
C. T. Plunkett, Hermann von Schrenk. 

TuTiu Cost Accounting, C. B. Annett and C. F. Cunningham. 

Reception 
Musicale and tea given to the members and their guests by the Ladies' 
Committee in the rooms of the Society. 

Wednesday Evening 

Presentation of the Grashof Medal by the Verein deutscher Ingenieure to 
^fge Westinghouse, Past-President and Honorary Member of the Society. 

Address, illustrated by lantern views, on Leonardo da Vinoi, Enginker 
AND Artist, by John W. Lieb, Jr., Past Vice-President of the Society. 

Thursday Morning, December 4 
Kxcursiona to various points of interest. 

Simultaneous Sessions 

GENERAL 

EmciENCY or Rope Driving as a Means op Power Transmission, E. H. 

Ahara. 

^uand by H. G. Stott, G. N. VanDerhoef, W. H. Kenerson, Selby Haar. 

^mparative Tests of Three Types op Lineshaft Bearings, Carl C. 
'^^^mu, E. B. Maurer and L. E. A. Kelso, 
^uaied by E. H. Ahara, William Kent, Selby Haar. 

J*iTOT Tubes for Gas Measurement, W. C. Rowse. 

Dimjuagod by D. S. Jftoobtis, W. II. Carrier, C. C. Thouiiui. Leo rx)eb, F. R. Still, G. F. Geb- 
'^^ C. P. Cri««y, A. a. Chriatie. 

Tr8T8 of Vacuum Cleaning Systems, J. R. McCoU. 

^UMod by U. M. QroMman. C. H. Thurman. 

Thi Art of Enameling, or the Coating op Steel and Iron with Glass, 
^ymond P. NaUler. 



290 SOCIETY AFFAIRS 

MACHINE SHOP PRACTICB 
Papers contributed by the Sub-Committee on Machine Shop Practice. 

Gears for Machine-Tool Drives, John Parker. 

Discussed by John Riddell. F.V. MoMullin, A. L. DeLeeuw, H. F. L. Orcutt, A. W. ThompMn 
E. H. Neff, F. DeR. Furman. C. R. Gabriel. 

Cast-Iron for Machine-Tool Parts, Henry M. Wood. 

Discussed by W. W. McKaig, A. L. Jenkins, T. D. West. F. R. Jones. E. H. Mumford, A E 
DeLeeuw, D. J. Riggs. 

A Record of Pressed Fits, C. F. MacGill. 

Discussed by J. E. Sweet, S. A. Moss, H. M. Lane, John Riddell, A. B. Cailiart. 

Standardizing Machinery, Fred H. Colvin. 

Discussed by L..D. Burlingame, F. DcR. Furman. A. B. Carhart, F. J. Miller, Jamas Ontm 

G. S. Walker. 

GAS POWER SECTION 

Papers contributed by the Gas Power Section. 

A New Process of Gleaning Producer Gas, H. F. Smith. 

Discussed by F. R. Hutton, W.lT. Magruder. R. H. Femald. 

Present Status of the Largs Gas Engine in Europe, Prof. P. Lango: 

Discussed by H. J. K. Freyn, F. Z. Nedden, R. H. Femald, F. S. Ciller. 

Thursday Afternoon 
Excursions to various points of interest. 
Informal tea served by the Ladies' Committee in the rooms of the Soeiet^ 

Thursday Evening 

Annual Reunion and Reception, Hotel Astor. 

German Dinner in the grand ball room, followed by iUustrated lecture d4 
scriptive of the chief events of the German trip during the summer of 191* 
by Worcester R. Warner. Dancing. 

Friday Morning, December 5 
fire protection session 

Papwre contributed by the Sub-Committee on Fire Protection. 

The Fire Hazard in Turbo-Generators, G. S. Lawler. 

Discussed by B. G. Lamme. I. E. Moultrop, P. M. Lincoln. F. E. Cardullo. H. G. Reift 
Selby Haar. Albert Blauvelt. R D. DeWolf. 

Extinguishing of Fires in Oils and Volatile Liquids, Edw. A. Barrier. 

Discussed by A. E. Cluett. J. S. Thomson, H. W. Appleton. L. H. Kunhardt, Albert Blauvelt. 
Gorham Dana, F. E. Cardullo. 

A System for the Control of Automatic Sprinkler Valves, Fred J« 

MUler. 

Discussed by G. I. Rockwood. J. P. Tolman, Gorham Dana, W. H. Kenerwm, C. H. Bifilov* 
P. W. Power. L. H. Kunhardt, F. J. Bryant. , 

The Need op Moke Care in the Design and Oonstruotion of Elevatb' 
Tanks, W. O. Teague. 

Discuiwcd by .1. W. Keller, B. A. Frecmau, Bryan Blackburn, A. H. Hayaa, Albert BlanT^ 
G. A. Smith, C. S. Pillsbury. 

Fire Pumps, Ezra E. Clark. 

Disj'ussotl by A. B. Carhart, Albert Bliiuvelt. 

Friday Afternoon 
Kxciirsious to varioiLS points of interest. 



No. 1397 

EFFICIENCY IN TECHNICAL EDUCATION 
A FACTOR IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF 
PROFESSIONAL IDEALS 

By W. F. M. Ooss, Chicago, III. 
President of. the Society 

Fifty-one years ago, the Congress of the United States passed an 
act providing for the establishment of colleges in each of the several 
states of the Union.^ The passage of this so-called Land Grant Act, 
more than any other single event, constitutes the foundation of 
technical education in the United States. It aided in the establish- 
ment of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, of Cornell 
University, and in due time of colleges or universities offering 
engineering courses in every state. Many states were slow in proceed- 
ing under this act and, some, which today have flourishing 
universities, had not then been admitted into the Union. As a 
consequence, technical education, as a national movement, did not 
have its beginning until the early seventies, or approximately forty 
years ago.* 

The coming of the technical school, whether as a department of 
the state university or otherwise, was not in any large sense the result 
0^ active interest on the part of engineers. It came as the unfolding 
0^ an educational movement inspired and sustained by scientists and 

'This * ' Land Gra&t Act, ' ' sometimes referred to as the * * Morrill Bill, ' ' in 
honor of Representative, and afterwards, Senator Justin S. Morrill, of Ver- 
i^oiit, who labored through several sessions of Congress to secure its passage, 
^^ signed by Abraham Lincoln, July 2, 1862. It granted to each state in the 
Union 30,000 acres of land for each senator and representative to which it was 
•oUtled in the Federal Congress, for the purpose of promoting * * the liberal 
SQ(i practical education of the industrial classes in the several pursuits and 
profeBsions in life.*' It has recently been referred to by a distinguished edu- 
^^f as "the greatest endowment of higher education ever made at one time 
^•y the act of any legislature. ' ' 

This statement does not disregard the fact that engineering education 
'>ader private auspices began earlier than indicated. The Rensselaer Poly- 
**^ic Institute was founded in 1824, incorporated in 1826, and reorganized 
^^«r its present name in 1849. 

I^reiented at the AQuual Meeting 1913, of The American Society of 

MtCHANiCAL EnOINEBRS. 

291 



292 EFFICIENCY IN TECHNICAL EDUCATION 

educators/ It came as an expression of a nation's desire to emp 
size the importance of science in its relation to the every day w 
of mankind. It came when our countr/s engineering industries ^ 
young, when engineering practice was guided by precedent rather t 
by mathematical analyses, and when those who were skiUed 
leadership were also skilled in the manipulative processes of ti 
art. It came when the industries offered few inducements to a ya 
man whose chief claim to their attention was the fact that he 
studied books, and when the limitations of the employer often n 
it difl&cult for him to appreciate the qualifications of such an ap 
cant. The practical men, therefore, expected the new school to ti 
its students in practice rather than in theory, to do things rather t 
to know facts ; they looked to the school for a preparation which she 
be kinetic rather than potential. 

The technical school was not unsympathetic to this expectat 
It gave early evidence of a desire to meet the reasonable demand 
those to whom its graduates must go. It gave generous attentioi 
courses in shop practice, in field work, in drawing and in design 
It introduced certain text-book courses, largely descriptive, and 
many other ways it emphasized the more practical aspects of 
engineer's work. By so doing, the school met an immediate n 
gained for technical education the good will of the leaders of indufl 
and laid the foundations for a degree of popular support, which 
process of time, transformed the simpler beginnings of nearly ha 
century ago into one of the worUrs greatest undertakings in hi^ 
education. 

But, in giving their response to the immediate needs of 
industries, the early leaders in technical education rarely lost si 
of the possibilities of science as a means to the development of cor 
theory. Under the guidance of such men as Rogers, Hunkle 
Thurston, the art of the teacher was so combined with proce 
common to practice, that even training in practical things became 
important educational influence. Shop courses and drawing cou 
became new expressions of an educational function. The stud] 

^In connection with this statement it wiU be of interest to note that F 
dent Edmund J. James of the University of lUinois, in a paper entitled '' 
Origin of the Land Grant Act of 1862," has shown that Jonathan B^ Tn 
at one time professor in Illinois College at Jacksonville, 111., deeeryes the e: 
of having been the first to formulate clearly and definitely the plans of 8 
tional grant of land to each state in tlie Union, for the promotion of agi 
ture and the mechanical arts, and of having organized and continued 
successful issue, the agitation that made possible the passage of the bilL 



W. F. M. GOSS 293 

things practical was put upon so high a plane that the attention of 
the student was secured, his power of observation increased, his view 
broadened and all his conceptions stimulated. Moreover, while 
admitting courses of a practical nature, the early leaders in technical 
education did not limit their scheme of instruction to such courses. 
They construed the federal law literally. They utilized the popular 
interest in more simple applications of science as an argument for the 
encouragement of work in more complex fields, and, as the usefulness 
of the men trained under these leaders became more and more 
apparent, an extension of their plan of work became possible. Courses 
of instruction were extended. Descriptive work gradually gave way 
to work which was more mathematical. Great laboratories for 
instruction and research were established, until the American student 
finds at home educational facilities for which he formerly went 
abroad. 

Meanwhile the every-day citizen, who is the normal supporter 
of the great state university, is coming to understand something of 
the breadth of the educational problem which is presented by the 
activities of the technical school. He has seen the number of its 
students multiply, and its graduates become leaders in the work of 
great industries. Questions affecting the support of the technical 
school have sometimes appeared as political questions, and in his 
discussions of these the normal citizen has not been found lacking in 
Ws appreciation of the technical school. Engineering education now 
wggests something more to him than a class-room. He understands 
that eflBcient instruction must find expression in the applications of 
wience and in the promotion of scientific research. These are 

• 

important conceptions, and the fact that they are entertained by the 
public suggests the groat influence already exerted by the technical 
school. 

The American technical school stands today on the threshold of 
gfeat achievements. Its pioneer days are nearly over. The fruitage 
«f two generations of educational effort is now in evidence. Captains 
of industry no longer look in doubt upon the technical graduate ; 
^f^ey give him work. Public confidence in the new education has been 
^on and its permanent support is assured. What of the future ? To 
vhat new attributes must the technical school give expression and 
^batnew responsibilities should it assume? These are questions which 
Way (x)nfront the school, and they are questions also in which the 
niembership of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers may 



294 EFFICIENCY IN TECHNICAL EDUCATION 

well be iuterested^ for- the technical school and the profession, 
society are partners in a common cause. 

An attempt to outline the problems of the technical school mm 
recognize the fact that great advances in any art or profession awe 
the coming of great men. The modem need in the field of engineeris 
is for men who can perform the exceptional task; for men who & 
safe keepers of their brothers' interests; for men whose qualities 
character are so sound and strong that they instinctively percei' 
the way of truth and follow it ; for men whose activity and understand 
ing detect the defects in established practice and find a way ' 
improve that practice; for men who so well understand the fundi 
mental principles of science as to be able to predict the effect of ti 
next step before it has been taken; for men, in fine, who can ran 
with the world's great leaders in science and industry. I conceiv 
it to be the prime purpose of the technical school to make its contribu 
tion toward the development of such men. 

It would seem unnecessary to remind an audience of professions 
engineers that the achievements of the technical school center in th 
quality and strength of its instructional staff. The present-day nee 
is for increased strength of staff. All honor is due the fine coterie ( 
men who, undertaking the work of the technical school a quarter ( 
a century or more ago, have adhered to their task in the face ( 
discouragement at great personal sacrifice and with a spirit that hf 
been fine and even heroic. But retrospect, however satisfactory i 
itself, will not solve our future problems. Great leaders in the woi 
of the technical school are few, and the unfortunate fact is thi 
throughout the years that are past few men have been in trainii 
where the service now demands many. There are many reasons fi 
this. An important one is to be found in the limitations which ha^ 
1)0011 put upon the salary budget. The man who builds great bridg 
or who directs the activities of a great industry, is none too gifti 
to <j:ui(lo the efforts of ambitious youth, and hold before the studei 
lar^^o idi^als of life. And yet, in the industries a man may receive : 
a month an amount equivalent to the annual salary of many coUej 
l)rofossors. It is clear to all who know the field that while the Bcho 
must suffer some years to come, through its deficiencies in the pai 
a new policy should be entered upon as speedily as possible. It shou 
1)0 expressed in such terms as will convince the exceptional ma 
looking for a career, that it will be worth his while to prepare himsc 
by study, by professional practice, by travel, by activities as a scie 
tific investigator, by every process which can develop and broade 



W. F. M. GOSS 295 

for a life-work as a member of a college faculty. Few among Ameri- 
can technical schools can today offer professorships which in themselves 
are sufficiently attractive to justify a young man in securing for him- 
self 60 elaborate a preparation. The remedy cannot ordinarily be 
applied by the college itself ; it must come as the result of interest 
shown at the sources of financial supply. In the great state universities 
it must be the result of public appreciation of the need ; you, I know, 
will realize that public appreciation, though a plant of slow growth, 
may be cultivated by many different agencies. 

Not only is it required in the interest of higher eflBciency that 
the American technical school have an instructional staff of the highest 
possible quality, but it is also required that such a staff be not over- 
burdened with routine duties. The American youth is greatly 
influenced by the personality of his instructor. While the exceptional 
student will view his problems broadly, will add his own personality 
to that which the professor gives and thus work out large and vigorous 
conceptions, the normal student is as a disciple following a master; 
he admires the master^s skill, he thinks in terms of the master's 
thoughts and is very likely to be influenced by the master's limitations. 
H the engineering graduate sometimes degenerates into an animated 
slide rule, may it not be possible that he has been instinctively led 
to such a career through ill-conceived tread-mill processes in the 
classroom? If so, the remedy is to be found in reforming the work 
of the classroom, and one sure road to such a reform is that which 
opens the way whereby men of large caliber may have time in which 
to impress themselves upon their students. The technical school is 
Peatly in need of simple living and high thinking. Simple living 
is easily attained unto, but high thinking, in its essence, involves a 
certain element of leisure, or perhaps freedom in the choice of one's 
occupation, which after all, is but another term for leisure, and no 
atmosphere surcharged with high thinking can prevail on a campus 
vhere every individual student and professor is perpetually keyed 
^P to concert pitch in an endeavor to accomplish an assigned task. 
TWb is a matter in which our English and German neighbors can, 
^ the trend of their procedure, disclose much which will be service- 
*Me to the American technical school. 

The importance of superior leadership in the school is emphasized 
^7 the fact that the attitude of the American student reflects rather 
faithfully the changing spirit of the times. His parents in their homo, 
though perhaps living unpretentiously, no longer pursue the quiet 
*Dd simple ways of former days. They have their part in the 



296 EFFICIENCY IN TECHNICAL EDUCATION 

complexity of the modern business and social life. It is not surpris 
that their son, the student of today, finds some diflBculty in aettl 
down to the quiet routine of the cloister. He is more likely to comh 
with study the social and athletic activities of the college. '. 
encouragement of fellowship with men, as well os of study, is in i 
recognized by the school authorities as a legitimate function of 
university. The danger appears in a disposition on the part 
students to segregate tlieir activities, to regard their study as w 
and their athletics as play. Comparisons growing out of 8 
distinctions are to the disadvantage of the student's occupation. ' 
habit of placing the emphasis continually on the joy of the p 
prevents him from feeling the joy of the more intellectual pursr 
and it encourages half-hearted study. It is here that masterful leai 
ship in the classroom will assert itself. The joy of scholastic achi< 
ment is best made plain by the introduction and maintenance 
inspiring views depicting the meaning of a life of service coupled ^ 
the conception that student days are part of such a life ; that stud 
days are not merely a preparation for life, but that they are life. 

Masterful leadership eliminates entirely the feeling o 
entertained by the students, that the instructor is a taskmaker, i 
that to be obedient to him, the student must perform the task. ' 
great teacher, freed from the burden of excessive routine, may ea 
recognize differences in ability and will encourage the student ' 
must plod and inspire to unusual performance the brilliant stui 
who knows no limit to his achievement save his physical strength 

Assuming the technical school to be in possession of an i( 
instructional staff, the way will open for progress through m 
channels of secondary importance. It is altogether possible tha 
our present-day routine too much time is given to things which 
simple. Much that is now studied may perhaps be read. The h 
of studying intensely a few books to the entire exclusion of the g 
mass of historical and biographical engineering literature affords 
student but little opportunity of acquiring a habit of rapid 
intelligent reading, which in itself is an accomplishment w< 
striving for. The practice of the shop laboratory, the drawing-rc 
the surveying field and the study of descriptive texts, rightly 
terpreted, are important adjuncts in the training of the engineer, 
the time has ceased to be when such activities constitute the c 
characteristics of the technical school. Year by year the techi 
school has increased the emphasis given to processes which are ma 
matical. The progress of the next decade will be seen in 



W. F. M. GOBS 297 

thoroughness with which high standards in such work are accepted 
and advanced. The intensive work of the course must be based upon 
fundamental theory, and the fields to which such theory is applied 
mugt be broadened. The engineering graduate is no longer required 
to be prepared to operate machines, but he must have a well-trained 
mind and he must possess power to perfect his qualifications along 
any specialized lines in the shortest possible time. To this end, the 
years in college must be spent in acquiring an understanding of 
principles and in the development of those aspects of theory which 
are difficult to acquire after one^s college days are over. 

The aspirations of many students will not be satisfied by the 
possibilities of a four years' course, and for these graduate work must 
follow. In making this assertion I do not forget that in this country 
graduate work in engineering has thus far received but little attention, 
but this is due rather to our immaturity than to the fact that we 
do not recognize its need. The time is at hand when the services 
of the scholarly engineer, the man who through his perfect command 
of fundamental theory can visualize a cause from its effects, will be in 
great demand. The manufacturing industries, the great commercial 
laboratories of our country and the colleges themselves are in need 
of men who have done more work than any one can accomplish in 
the normal four years of a college course. The problem of graduate 
work in engineering is therefore a national one, and it is worthy of 
ttote that a number of universities and technical schools are now 
holding before the public visions of its value. 

The American technical school has already accomplished much in 
the development of laboratories. While it has used them thus far 
chiefly as facilities for instruction, it has always recognized the fact 
tkat there are other and equally important functions to be performed 
by them. The laboratories of a considerable number of schools have 
niade important contributions to the sum of human knowledge. This 
fact is suggestive of future possibilities. The practice of men must 
^ guided by facts. The technical school cannot content itself with 
routine service. It must enshroud its classroom and its laboratories 
with an atmosphere of scientific achievement ; its professors should be 
leaders not only as classroom instructors, but nation-wide leaders, 
even world-wide leaders in the complex and highly diversified fields 
of the science which they represent. The laboratories available for 
the use of such men should multiply. Every technical school should 
wd, as individual schools have already aided, in setting forth new 
interpretations of physical phonomena. The laboratory must be more 



298 EFFICIENCY IN TECHNICAL EDUCATION 

than a shop^ more than an engine room, more than a colled 
testing machines. No great laboratory can be ordered ready 
It cannot be produced in response to a decree. Whatever its < 
sions or its cost, it can be great only in so far as it reflects a p 
which is scientifically sound, and employs means which are sclent 
correct. Its significance is necessarily limited to the qualities 
men who create and operate it. A laboratory which has been c 
through the activities and desires of a master is not only pricel 
the school that possesses it, but necessary as a source of informal 
the highest value, to the field of practice which it is designed tc 
The chief engineer of a great railway system, in writing of th( 
of a certain college laboratory, has recently certified in terms 
are clear and emphatic, to the value of principles affecting the 
of certain structures which had been developed by the laborato 
extensively used by the corporation which he served. Illust 
of similar import will occur to all readers of technical lite 
Assuming that the country has need of research laboratories f( 
poses quite apart from the work of instruction, it can, I thi 
shown that the technical school constitutes the most promising 
in our national economy upon which to place the responsi 
incident to their creation and maintenance. 

In concluding this phase of my discussion, I must not 
recognize the contributions of members of tliis Society 
upbuilding of the American technical school. I do not forg 
some of our members are university, college or technical scho 
fessors; that others are presidents, and still others are offi< 
members of administrative boards. They will readily unde 
however imperfect my language, the significance of the matterfi 
I am endeavoring to emphasize. To those of you who hav€ 
interest only in technical education, let me suggest that you 
always time your visits to your Alma Mater to make connectio 
a great football game or a great baseball game, but that yoi 
some visits at a time when you can show interest in the acac 
progress of the student body; not because the game is unwortl 
that you may secure some understanding of the students' achiev 
in severely scholarly efforts, which after all is the measure by 
the success of the school must ultimately be judged. 

The relation existing between the standard of instructi 
schools which prepare for a profession and the ideals of tl 
fession has already been suggested and in its general asp 
obvious. The fact that educational institutions of high stand: 



W. F. M. GOSS 299 

sending out each year into the engineering pursuits of our country 
more than 2500 graduates, nearly 1000 of whom enter the field of 
mechanical engineering, suggests the basis for this relationship. The 
technical school is, in fact, recruiting and otherwise stimulating the 
engineering work of the country. Its more important contributions 
may be summarized as follows : 

First, the work of the school tends to emphasize the dignity of the 
calling. Professionalism as distinguished from the art or practice 
of engineering is after all a question of quality. Professionalism is 
breadth! In our ambition to have a large part in the world^s afEairs 
we sometimes forget the fundamental source of power. We sometimes 
think too much of. honors and too little of service ; we desire the 
position before we are qualified to discharge the responsibilities it 
imposes. Our strivings must be for fitness. Progress in advancing 
the ideals of our profession will depend upon the character of the 
service rendered by the members of the profession. If every practi- 
tioner in the field of Mechanical Engineering possessed character and 
ability responding to our highest ideals, no one would question the 
right of mechanical engineers to regard themselves members of a 
profession. The technical school makes its contribution to the up- 
building of professional ideals by sending trained men into the 
profession. 

Second, a service which the technical school is rendering the 
profession of engineering is that of contributing to the sum of its 
scientific data. Engineering as a science has made progress by leaps 
and bounds; rule of the thumb has given way to the rule of the 
mathematician. But notwithstanding all that has been accomplished 
in this direction, there are as yet but few departments in the field of 
mechanical engineering in which the basis of design is actually per- 
fwited. Further progress awaits the establishment of facts concerning 
such matters as the behavior of constructive materials, of lubricating 
"Ims, of combustible mixtures, and of liquids and gases employed in 
thermo-dynamic processes as vehicles for the transmission of heat. 
The American engineer who has hitherto been occupied with the so- 
^lled practical aspects of his profession has concerned himself 
less than have the engineers of the great empire across the sea, with 
the work of the scientist. We, as engineers, need to train ourselves 
^0 a condition of mind which will make studious processes less difii- 
^ult than at present. Along this line of endeavor the researches of 
the technical school will aid the profession by establishing new 



300 EFFICIENCY IN TECHNICAL EDUCATION 

standards of proficiency, and by making new contributions to tl* 
existing fabric of facts. 

Thirds an important contribution which the school is renderin. 
the profession of engineering is that of emphasizing the profession" 
unity of purpose. The college graduate has had at least four years 
training in teamwork. A majority of the student organizations wi1= 
which he has been associated has maintained extra-mural affliation^ 
The college fraternity, the college Y.M.C.A., the college athleti 
activities would lose much of their significance if their whole though 
and action were restricted to the home campus. In interoollegiat 
contests the desire is not in any large sense to win over a neighba: 
but to win as an achievement. A graduate of Wisconsin finds 
friend when he meets for the first time a graduate of IllinoiB, and 
member of the faculty of one institution, upon a trip of visitation t 
a neighboring institution, is sure to find himself among those wb 
cheer and stimulate him. This intercollegiate spirit of fellowship ha 
become a national asset — it persists when the day of graduation hm 
passed. It represents a spirit which, in the business and professional 
world, conserves and upbuilds. It is working out the world's greal 
problems of mutual respect, of mutual help and of concentration oi 
purpose. In the development of our future ideals and practices^ tra- 
dition and prejudice are likely to play a steadily diminishing part, 
and the spirit of fellowship, inherited from college days, a part oi 
steadily increasing importance. 

Whatever may be the nature of the contribution of the technica 
school to the ideals of the profession, the extent of the contribution ii 
a fimction of the quality of the school. Better instruction in tb 
school must supply better recruits for the profession, greater activitiQ 
in scientific researches on the part of the school must operate to in 
crease the facility with which the problems of the engineer are solved 
and infiuences in the school which tend to extend the student's horizoi 
and broaden his sympathies, w^ill in due time make their impress upoi 
the professional life outside of the school. That is, efficiency u 
technical education is a factor in the development of professiona 
ideals, and hence a matter of prime importance to this society, as wel 
as to all other organizations of engineers. I have presented this difi 
cussion because I believe that the problems of the technical schoc 
should not be left to the school master, for, broadly interpreted, the 
are not the problems of the school but the problems of the professioi 
As such they should, I believe, receive painstaking and persisten 
attention from this and other engineering societies. 



No. 1398 

STANDARD THREADS FOR HOSE 

COUPLINGS 

REPORT OF SUB-COMMITTEE ON FIRE PROTECTION 

In considering the problem of the adoption of a hose coupling 
thread, it became a question whether to advise specifications which 
would show the extreme of mechanical strength without reference to 
the preponderance of designs of a less theoretical value in general use, 
or to seek for the introduction of a threaded coupling, the character- 
istics of which would most closely accord with the majority class, and 
at the same time prove to be an intermediary of such capacity as to 
accommodate itself to interchange with a large proportion of couplings 
not exactly conforming to its dimensions. 

Accepting the latter method of procedure as promising the widest 
measure of success, a conmiittee of the National Fire Protection As- 
sociation undertook a special investigation of existing conditions, 
using the report of a special committee under C. A. Landy, chairman, 
in 1891, as a basis. After securing additional data they became con- 
vinced of the practical value of the specifications named in that report, 
^d submitted as a standard coupling for 2%-in. hose, one showing a 
diameter of 3 Vie i^- over male end thread with 7% threads to the 
inch, by the use of which it was practically demonstrated that 
couplings ranging in outside diameter from 3 Vg, in. to 3 Ve* i^v 
^th either 7, 7^ or 8 threads to the inch, could be so modified as to 
couple-up in service with this suggested standard, and thus render 
over 70 per cent of the 2*Vi-in. couplings known to be in use, con- 
formable to the proposed standard at small expense as to time, money 
or labor. 

In elucidation of the essential features of this standard it was 
deemed wise to formulate specifications covering 2%, 3, 3^4 *^d 
^%''\Ti. hose couplings, the inside diameters of which were to be in 
conformity with the sizes named, specific details relating to each of 
the standard sizes being shown in the printed specifications las 
follows: 

l*re8t»nt<Ml at the Annual Mcctin^r 10 111, of Tiik Amkkican Socikty of Mk 
CHANiOAL Engineers. 

301 



302 STANDARD THREADS FOR HOSE COUPLINGS 

SPECIFICATIONS FOR HOSE COUPLINGS 

Inside diameter of hose, inches 2^ 3 3^ 

Number of threads per inch 7% 6 6 

Male Couplings 

Outside diameter of thread finished, inches 3 1/16 3% 4% 

Diameter at root of thread, inches 2.8715 3.3763 4.0013 

Clearance between male and female 

threads, inch 0.03 0.03 0.03 

Total length of threaded male end, inches 1 1% 1% 



• 



The above are to be of the 60-deg. V-thread pattern with 0.01 ii 
off the top of thread and 0.01 in. left in the bottom of the vail 
2%-in., 3-in. and 3%-in. couplings, and 0.02 in. in like mannc 
the 4%-in. couplings and with y^-in. blank end on male pa 
coupling in each case. Female ends are to be cut % in. shortc 
endwise clearance, and they should also be bored out 0.03 in. 1 
in the 2^^-in., 3-in. and 3i^-in. sizes, and 0.05 in. larger u 
41^-in. size in order to make up easily and without jammii 
sticking. 

CONVERTING NON-STANDARD COUPLINGS 

The fact that the National Standard has received the unqns 
approval of all the leading organizations concerned with water su] 
and fire departments, forms a strong argument for its early ado 
in all localities. In order to demonstrate that the question of ex 
in changing over to the standard is less serious than is often imaj 
the following suggestions, contemplating a gradual change from 
standard to full standard equipment, are submitted in the beliej 
the comparatively light cost of surh a procedure should not del 
important and beneficial an improvement in any town or city. ' 
suggestions are intended to apply to the period of transition ^ 
must of necessity precede complete standardization. 

Considering first the 21'2-in- bose couplings and hydrant o 
in general use, we suggest that: 

a Contracts for new hydrants should specify that the ni 
be equipped with the National Standard Hose threac 
b Existing hydrant nipples should be replaced by sta] 
nipples. This may readily be accomplished at conn 
tively small expense through the use of a special dev 
tool now on the market ; or as a loss satisfactory m< 
the nipples may be ecjuipped with adapters having stai 



STANDARD THREADS FOR BOBB COUPLINGS 



thread od the outboard end. These adapters should be 
fastened in position so as not to be readily removable. 

c Fire engine nipples should be provided with adapters 
having standard tliread on the outboard end. These should 
be secured in place so as not to be readily removable. 

d In many cities and towns where the 3^-in. hose couplings, 
as well as the nipples on hydrants and fire engine outlets, 



NATIONAL STAHOAWHOSE CMftUNC 




2i4"3IZE (63500 On) 
Tia. 1 Deta[i,s of 2Vj-In. Couplujo 

show 7, T/a 0' 8 threads to the inch, wide variations occur 
in outside diameter over the thread of the male end of 
the couplings. If such varintion does not exceed '/i» in- 
below 3 V,g in. (equaling '-i'/,, in.), or if the variation 
does not excped '/g, In. In excess of 3 '/,, in. (equaling 
S'/m in.), it becomes feasible to render both male and 
female couplings adaptable for interchange with the 
Standard 2y2-in. hose couplings (measuring 3 Vi« in- 
outside diameter on tlie male end and TVa threads to the 
inch) by the use of an adjustalile ta]i for the female end 



STANDARD TUKEADS FOR HOSE COUPLINGS 

of tlie coupling, or an adjustable die for the male 
the coupling, either tap or die liaviog the same i 
of threads to the inch as the coupling oi nipple 
treated. 

Any deviation within the limits named may read: 
cheaply be overcome vithout the removal of coupling 
the hose or of the nipples from the hydrant or engi 

HATIONALSTAHMMHCMCaMMJNC 




3"SIZE (7.6200Cm.) 
2 Details op 3-Ih. Coupling 



may be well to emphasize the fact that in adapting 
and 8-thread coupling to interchange with the N 
Standard of 7^^ threads, it is thus intended to proi 
interim measure to serve until the standard has bee 
installed, the reduced coupling being discarded as tl 
wears out, and all new hose pureliaeed to be fitted w 



STANDARD THREADS FOR ROBB COUPLINOB 



305 



Standard couplinge, thus eecuring a gradual and inex- 
pensive method of standardizing the whole equipment of 
the city. 
e Couplings of new hose, whenever purchased, should be the 
National Standard, and specifieationa under which new 




3J^'SIZE (8.8900 Cm) 
Pifl. 3 Details or S^-Ih. Coupuno 



hose is purchased slioiili) always include a rlause to this 
effect. 
/ Until all liose on liand has been provided with stnndard 
couplings or has been converted as BUf,'gcstcd on the pre- 
ceding page, a snflicieiit luiitiber of adapters should be 
carried on each Iiosp wngmi, sn that the unconverted hose 
can be coupled up with (he standard outlets of hydrants 
or fire engines. 



STANDARD THBBADB FOR HOSE COUPLINOS 

g In view of the fact that 3-iii, hoee is coming into mon 
eral use, it is deemed advisable that such hoee shoi 
fitted with 2^-in. couplings having threada vhiti 
form to those on S^-in hose already in use. 




4;4"5IZE (11.4300 Cm) 

Fio. 4 Details qv 4Vj-In. Coupling 

It ie believed that the total expense involved In a complete < 
from existing to standard (-oinUtioiis will not exceed the cost 
(iperuiions ilf«Tibed in h. n and /, and that nn further steps ' 



STANDARD THREADS FOR HOSE COUPLINGS 307 

iieecie4 in any city save to order all new equipment of every description 
to be supplied with National Standard threads. 

It is of course clear that a similar line of action, as noted in a, b, 

c, e and f, should be followed in the case of the couplings and hydrant 

outlets pertaining to the suction hose of the engines. While the cost 

will be greater per outlet, the outlets to be thus equipped will be much 

less in number than for the 2%-in. connections. 

While the extremes of diameter in couplings as herein indicated 
appeal to this committee as being conservatively reliable for the treat- 
ment recommended, many instances of adaption have been recorded 
wherein the deviations treated range as low as 3 in. and as high 
as 3 Vjj in. with satisfactory results in service, thus strongly empha- 
sizing the value of the ^'National Standard" as an intermediary or 
a(xx)nunodation thread coupling of wide adaptability. 

It is recommended that the Higbee style of cutting the thread be 
adopted hereafter in order to facilitate speed in coupling up and in 
avoiding crossing. 

These specifications, covering the essential features for hose 
<'oupling8 and hydrant fittings for public fire service, have been agreed 
upon in joint conference with accredited representatives of a number of 
organizations and associations interested in or controlling this class 
"f work. They will be known as the National Standard, and to date 
have been adopted by the following associations : 

American Public Works Association, American Society of Munici- 
pal Improvements, American Waterworks Association, International 
Association of Fire Engineers, League of American Municipalities, 
Minnesota States Firemen's Association, National Board of Fire Un- 
•Iprwriters, National Fire Protection Association, National Firemen's 
Association, New England Waterworks Association, North Carolina 
State Firemen's Association, Pennsylvania Waterworks Association, 
Virginia State Firemen's Association. 

Respectfully submitted, 

John R. Freeman, Chairman '\ 

E. V. French, Vice-chairman 

Albert Blauvelt „ ^ r^ .^^ 

„ ,, ^ Suh-Commxttee on 

F. M. Griswold \ _. ri ^ ^- 
H. F. J. POETER ^''' Protectxon 

T. W. Ransom 

I. H. WOOLSON 



No. 1399 

STANDARDIZATION OF PIPE THREAD 

GAGES 

The purpose of the Committee on Standardization of Pipe 
riTTeads has been to fix manufacturing limits for the use of 
clie Briggs standard pipe thread gages when tapping fittings or 
flanges, so that pipe cut to the Briggs standard might always 
enter a definite number of turns. Although the Briggs standard 
is used almost universally for pipe threads in the United 
States, the method of its use for female threads has not been estab- 
lished, in that no determinations have ever been made of the standard 
depths to which hand plug gages should enter. This has resulted in 
much confusion in the past, inasmuch as pipe threaded to the Briggs 
standard is liable to vary in the number of threads it would screw 
into fittings tapped at difl!erent shops. This tendency is so marked 
that pipe fitting is handled in practically all cases by sending the 
flanges to the shop where tlie pipe is being cut, in order to be sure of 
satisfactory results. 

This matter is conceded to be a simple one in that all it requires 
»?* an agreement among the manufacturers of fittings as to the point 
at which a ring should be attached to the gage, to establish, when the 
gage is inserted by hand, the proper depth of the thread. To this 
end the committee has met in conference with representatives of the 
numufacturers and also of the committee of the Society on Inter- 
national Standards for Pipe Threads. C. A. Olson, Chairman of the 
Manufacturers^ sub-committee on Pipe Thread Gages, stated at this 
meeting that his committee had made a study of present practice 
among the various manufacturers and had adopted tentative defini- 
tions of the gages to be used, of the proposed thickness of ring gages 
'Acceptable to the manufacturers, and of the tolerances to be allowed, 
^hese he submitted as follows : 

'^0 gages shall consist of one plug and one ring gage of each size. 

"Hie plug gage shall be the Briggs standard pipe thread as adopted by the 
""^ufacturers of pipe fittings and valves, and recommended by The American 
y^^ of Mechanical Engineers in 1886. The plug is to have a flat or notch 
"^^icating the distance that the plug shall enter the ring by hand. 

'^'eBentod at the Annual Meeting 1913, of The American Society op Me- 
^^McAL Enginbkes. 

309 



310 



STANDARDIZATION OF PIPE THREAD GAGES 



The ring gage is to be known as the American Briggs standard adopted 
the Manufacturers' Standardization Committee in 1913, and recommended 
The American Society of Mechanical Engineers, the Committee on Inteniatk 
Standard for Pipe Threads, and the Pratt & Whitney Company, mannfaetm 
of gages. The thickness of the ring is given in the f oUowing table. It el 
be flush with the small end of the plug. This will locate the flat notch on 
plug flush with the large side of the ring. 



r^ 



Rincf 6aqe A ■ 



\^M 



\^ 




Flat on- 



Fig. 1 View op Plug and Ring Gage 



Adoptbd TmcK 
PiPB SiEB OF RnvQ Gaoi 

]4 0.1801 

M 0.200 

H 0.240 

H 0.320 

H 0.3» 

1 0.400 

IM 0.420 

IH , 0.420 

2 0.486 

2H 0.682 

3 0.766 

3H 0.821 

4 0.844 

4H 0.875 

5 0.937 

6 0.958 

7 1.000 

8 1.063 

9 1.130 

10 1 . 210 

12 1.360 

14 1.562 

15 1.687 

16 1 . 812 

18 2.000 

20 2. 125 

22 2.250 

24 2.375 



STANDARDlt*?:; 



use of the plug ;ii> tai'"^ i ^ - 
UM of the ring g&^. tlu^ -jz™* ^ 



r consideration ■>: — •; =ar 
at the table of =ii« u.i t 
y the joint comEi.7>^ iz. 
A Standards at Wlj' 'r^:: 
American Briggs S'-iz-Llt; 
lufafturo of the=^ ri^ - 

the Manufacti::-^! 

Pratt & Whitney '--'--^^ 

E. D. Mizo. :i 
Geobge 1L Btir:. 
A. M. Hvr» 
J. 0. Uc^ci 




ad 

hen 

The 

was it 

.as any 

,om four 

the three 

it 89 hours 

to Friday. 

slokcre anil 

■ ] lo 1)0 100 



lake hollers 

■ ■, lire lioinK 

■ rt trmilile: 



.1 



No. 140() 

NOTES ON THE FURTHER OPERATION OF 
LARGE BOILERS OF THE DETROIT 

EDISON COMPANY 

By J. W. Parker, Detroit, Mich. 
Junior Member of the Society 

At the December 1911 meeting of the .Society, Dr. D. S. Jacobus 
presented a paper^ giving the results of the first performance tests on 
the 2365-h.p. Stirling boilers at the Delray generating plant of the De- 
troit Edison Company. At the time of his tests three of these boilers 
were in service, one having been run about 18 months and the others 
nine montlis. Since that time six more of the type have been installed 
at the rate of two a year, the last two in the autumn of 1913. It is 
the object of this paper to present some report of the everyday ex- 
perience in operating all these boilers. 

"^ Reliability. That a boiler unit can be made so reliable that it 
"lay in this respect be classed witli the turbo-generator, has been the 
experience with the nine boilers installed at Detroit. Table 1 shows 
the performance of six of these units during October, November and 
December of 1912. This period was selected as being the time when 
reliability was essential on account of the plant load conditions. The 
load curve of the plant shown in Fig. 2 is typical. At no time was it 
^"ompulBory to put a boiler out of commission; at no time was any 
"^iler out of commission during the peak load of the day, from four 
^ clock to six o'clock in the afternoon. Of the 215 hours the three 
lay lor stoker-fired boilers were taken out of commission, but 89 hours 
^^ecurred during the five peak days of the week, Monday to Friday, 
^"ifi time was employed in cleaning furnaces, repairing stokers and 
^^specting tubes externally. The boilers themselves proved to be 100 
per cent reliable. 

3 Possible Cause of Trouble. The causes which might take boilers 
^^t of commission at times when they are needed for service, are being 
eliminated. There are three sources from which to expect trouble: 

^Trails. Am.Soc.M.E., vol. 33, p. 665. 

J^resented at the Annual Meeting 1913, of The American Society of 
^'^AmcAL Engineers. 



314 



OPERATION OF LARGE BOILERS 



(a) the boiler proper, (6) the furnace brickwork, and (c) the gtolceT. 
4 (a) The boiler itself need be no hazard. Fittings and flan^^ed 
joints, if properly watched and followed up, do not cause 8hutdo^rzi6. 
The same is true of the tubes, which are seamless. From October 1£, 
1912, to November 1, 1913, there have been but two tubes replaced in 
seven boilers whose average age is two years. One front tube '^a* 
taken out after the discovery of a small bag next to the fire, whicli 
was found during a periodical external inspection of the front tu1>efl 
during furnace repairs. The other tube was in the back row and 



TABLE 1 SHOWING TIME BOILER ITNITS WERE OUT OF COMMISSION 



Total Number of Boiler-Hours (3 months) 

Number of Boiler-Hours out of Service (cleaning) . 

Total Number of Boiler-Hours available for Ser- 
vice 



Total Steaminc Hours . . 
Total Banking Hours . . 
Out of Service at Night. 



Out of Service at Week End 

Out of Service for Work-day Repairs. 



ToUl, 



Boilen Nos. 25. 27 

and 33 

Taylor Stoker 



Hours 



6160 
298 

4882 

3178 

1469 

26 

100 
•89 



4862 



Percent 



66.4 

30.2 

0.6 

2.1 
1.8 



100.0 



Boilen Nol S6, 
audio 
RonqrStokar 



Honia 



6801 

86M 
1764 



210 
1724 



6801 



FtorOHit' 



67.0 
28.0 

• • ■ • 

8.5 
11.5 



100.0 



* Cleaning Furnace, In8i)ecting Tubes and Repairing Stoker, 89 hours. 

Hours 

t Repairing Stoker 537 

Repairing Furuuce Wull 173 

Packing Blowoff Valves 14 

Total 724 



spoiled by a mishaiidliMl turbine tube cleaner. Its condition was dis- 
covered while the soot was being blown from the heating surfaces by 
hand blowers, irowever, the leak was very slight and the boiler was 
not cut out of service until night. 

5 The plant is using about 8 per cent of make-up water, and al- 
though Detroit Eiver water at Delray is not considered bad for boilers, 
nevertheless, a sulphate scale about 1/16 in. thick forms in the hot 
front tubes. Those front surfaces are worked exceedingly hard and 
scale of even l/JO in. thickness may make trouble. A soft piece of 
mud, lodging (ui t<»p of tlu^ hard scale is likely to cause a small bag. 



J. W. PABKSIt 315 

Ib trouble can occur only in the lower b^nds of the first row tubes, 
ere loose dirt sometimes lodges. 

6 Tube trouble will be practically eliminated by the use of pure 
Am. The make-up water is now river water, treated with enough 
rinm hydrat« to neutralize the sulphate content. The percentage 
mke-up can be reduced to between 2 and 3 per cent by avoiding 




be DGceeeity of blowing down boilers. It is seriously contemplated 
oae distilled water for make-up. There seems to be a lack of evi- 
kma that distilled water is of itself corrosive. The cost of distilling 
nmld be almost n^ligible, since the heat required to evaporate the 
w witer would be kept in the system by using main turbine con- 
iouate for cooling water in the di.«lillation process. To safeguard 
tgiinit any possible boiler corrosion, enough soft scale forming ma- 



31t) 



OPERATION OF LAROB BOILERS 



teriai would be introduced into the feedwater to cover the he&tii 
eurfaces with a thin protecting scale. 

7 (6) Furnace brickwork is with the underfeed stoker reduc 
to a minimum as evidenced by Fig. 3. It consists of the font fonu 
walla and nothing mote. Much work has been done to make thi 























1 1 


















i 1 J 


















1 1 ftating | 




















■ss-x 


%?%. 


lUers 


— 


He 

L 


rmge 

•aei Fb 


■cior 


t/ 7i 




*« 












a SIS 






























.1 




\ 














\^ 


y 


f 






\ 












1 
























l/v 
























it 








































\ 
























\ 












°i-t 


Boh 


ri S. 


«™ 


f- 










V. 




/I 














r 


''^' 


— 











-.".'. 


!"£. 


\oilt 


S_SI 


'amh 


^— - 










/ 


















■^- 







i LOAU CuB' 



, Ueceubbk 6, 1912 



walls stand up. It lias hepn necessitated on the ground of maintena 
cost onlj, however, since if certain sections of the furnace are reh 
once a year, there is no chance for sudden trouble which would ca 
a shutdown. There has been no such sudden trouble. 

8 (r) Tlio Kiokrr i-fmaiiis t.) lie considered. The fallibility of 



J. W. PARKBB 



317 



' stoker is uot great. Repairs ordinarily made are the replacement ot 
tuyeres, dump plates ami the likp whii^h have burned out. The work, 
mraitioned in later paragraplie of this paper, which has been done to 
decrease stoker maintenance costs has, as in the case of brickwork, 
made it unlikely that the boiler need ever be taken out of commission 
for this cause, except when the plant load conditions permit it, 

9 There have been cases of sudden stol^er breakdown, sometimea 




Fio. 3 iNaiBE Vutvv 



Qccaaioned by the introduction of chunks of iron or wood into the 
!:U>k«r rams, along with the coal. Also, there have occurred once or 
twice, serious burn-outs of tuyeres and other grate surfaces extending 
over an area of 5 or G sq. ft. In these instances, the fire can be, and 
has been, banked on the one side of the furnace where the trouble ex- 
ists and the other half of the furnace operated to get half capacity 
from the boiler. This one-side firing is entirely practicable. 



318 



OPERATION OF LARGE BOILeRS 



10 To anm up, the experience has been thia : The boilers were » 
for service 95 per cent of the time considered; they were ready 
pesr cent of Uie five full load days of the week; and ready for ser 
100 per cent of the time during the peak load perioda. It ie tc 
assumed that the boilers must he down for ten days or two week 
nine or ten month intervals for boiler cleaning and a general o 
hauling of stokei^ and brickwork, 

11 Recent Design. On the above considerationH, the Detroit 1 
son Company is now building a power plant to contain six 20,000- 
turbines served by 12 of these 2365-h.p. boilers, which la two boi 
to one turbine, with no spares, or 10,000 kw. per boiler. Altbo 
the chances of losing the capacity of any boiler by a forced ahutd 
are remote, they have neverthelese been considered. At nonnal 









































i: 


= 


^ 


^ 




_ 




,^ 


_, 


_, 






_ 


_ 








_ 


_ 




- 




- 


- 




- 


— 


~^ 




^ 


~ 


- 


" 






- 


- 


i " 










































, 

































nHCENTontt.TiNG 



load on a given turbine unit, the two boilers will op»«te at appi 
mately 191 per cent of the builder's rating based on 10 sq. f( 
heating surface per Iwiler horsepower. If, with six boilerg nmi 
at this rating, one boiler should go completely out of commiasion, 
other five would have to carry the entire load of 60,000 kw. and 
operate at S35 per cent of rating, which is perfectly possible, i 
matter of fact, the settings and auxiliaries are being designed to a 
of continuous operation at 255 per cent of rating, which would en 
three boilers to take the full load of four, i. e. 40,000 kw. ^ 
recently, one of the Delray boilers was isolated from the rest of 
plant with a 15,000-kw., seven-stage thirtis vertical turbine, and 
11,000 kw. was carried for an hour without difficulty. 

12 Flexibiliti/. The over-all boiler and furnace efSciency of 
Taylor stoker-fired unit tested by Dr. Jacobus is shown by 
4. The curve ia a straight line throughout the range tested, h« 
a gradual slope from SO per cent efficiency at 93 per cent of ral 
to 76 per cent eflicipTicy at 'i^ 1 per cent of rating. It is econom 



J. W. PARKER 319 

Ikrefoie, to run as many boilers as possible at about 90 per cent of 
nling when the plant load is light, and then carrj the peak of the 
load by increasing the rating on the boilers. This is our present 
pactice. In this way, from morning till night there need be no fires 
bulled 01 broken out of bank, and the firemen can bend their energies 
instud to manipulating their fires to the best advantage. 

13 This flexibility is at no time more convenient than in summer 
when pTovision must be made for a sudden peak load due to a thunder- 




BoiLEK Unit 



Btona. At Delray, in the summer of 1914 the average day load will 
^ ibout 63, 000 kw., while provision must be made for a storm load 
oi about 88,000 kw., a 30 per cent increase. Boilers ordinarily run- 
"iog »t 100 per cent or 125 per cent of rating (a very economical 
P^int) will take a 30 per cent increase in load with very little effort. 
''(•banked fires will be carried during tlie daytime. 

1* Control Methods. A boiler of such output assumes enough of 
'""portance and individuality, so to speak, in a 120,000-kw. plant to 



320 OPERATION OF LARGE BOILERS 

gain for itself unusual attention from the man who is firing it. One 
fireman fires two units. The control of each unit is brought diiecUy 
under his hand in every way possible^ so that a minimum of time will 
be wasted in mechanical manipulation. Fig. 5 is a view of the gige 
board and control point for one boiler. A water tender stationed on a 
gallery at the top drum level feeds the boiler but the fireman doa 
everything else in the way of operating. The boiler dampers aK 
shifted at the control point, and the throttles of the blower turbina 
are extended through the floor, the valve stand being seen in tht 
view, near the gage board. The stokers are motor driven and one o 
the controllers is located on a steel column 6 ft. away from the gag 
board; the other could have been brought aroimd also, but it WB 
thought unnecessary, since a man must walk around to the stoker o 
the distant side to watch it and to study his fire. The control poii 
of the opposite boiler is located just across the aisle from the first. 

15 The plan is for one man to operate two stokers, and in additio: 
to have a head fireman in charge of from six to eight units, whose da 
it is to oversee all the fires, and go to the assistance of any fireman wl 
needs help. On the gage board are mounted steam gages showix 
pressure at the superheater inlet and superlieater outlet and dra 
gages showing air pressure under the fire, draft at the damper, ax 
draft at the top of the combustion chamber. There is also on tb 
board the record dial of a COj meter. The meter itself is mount* 
on a gallery 15 ft. above the boiler room fioor in a position central 
four boilers. Four samples of gas are drawn from one furnace, aut 
matically mixed, and the resulting analysis is recorded where ti 
fireman can watch it. 

1(1 Fireroom Personnel. The whole idea is to employ the mc 
expert firemen it is possible to develop, and give each man control 
the burning of a very large amount of coal. It is economical to er 
|)!(>y a fiiR' typo of man an<l ^iv(» him an expert's pay. The prese 
first-class fireman's pay is 10 cents an liour and he is well treated 
to vacation and sick leave. I'hesc; men are given the benefit of wha 
ever boiler testing is done, and a force of firemen is being built x 
that can obtain remarkable results with tlieir fires. They are acquirii 
an intelligent working understanding of the combustion of coi 
At tho same time \ho unit cost of tiring will be unusually to 
Table 2 is a schedule of the labor nec-essarv to handle 12 boilers of 

ft 

six-turbine plant with no ('(^onomizers installed. 

17 The numlxT of men allowed for such a plant is ample aa shoi 



J. W. PARKER 321 

by long experience at Delray. The cost per day is 55 per cent, as 
much as the firing cost in a neighboring manufacturer's plant equipped 
with twenty-four 278-h.p. Babcock & Wilcox boilers fired by overfeed 
stokers and equipped with economizers. In this plant it was found that 
maximum boiler and furnace efSciency was obtained while running 
the boilers at 95 per cent of ratings and^ with a load factor of nearly 
100 per cent, it was considered economical to operate at that rating. 
In order to make a comparison of the cost of firing large units and 

TABLE 2 LABOR COST OF FIRING A TWELVE BOILER PLANT 

Uazimttm load 120,000 kw. 12 boilers at 191 per cent 

Minimum load 20,000 kw. 4 boilers at 96 per cent 

Monthly load factor (November) 46 per cent 

Operators employed — 

Morning shift 6.30- 2.30 2 head firemen at 45 cents $7.20 

6 firemen at 40 cents 19.20 

2 watertenders at 35 cents 5.60 

Afternoon shift 2.30-10-30 2 head firemen 7.20 

6 firemen 19.20 

2 watertenders 5.60 

Night shift 10.30- 6.30 6 firemen , 19.20 

1 watertender 2.80 



$86.00 
Boiler room foremen 15.00 



Total cost per day $101.00 

Ooit of firing boilers — cents per kw.-hr 0.0076 

^^^ cost in a neighboring manufacturing plant's boiler room to gen- 
Viite an equal amount of energy but at 100 per cent load factor . . . $169.00 

''^i^ted cost in neighboring manufacturing plant's boiler room if 
^&d factor is 46 per cent (allowing 191 per cent maximum boiler 
siting) $182.00 

Scale of pay — ^watch foreman 31% cents per hour 

firemen 25 cents per hour 



units^ it has been assumed that the small boilers could be oper- 
ated over the same range as the large ones. At the same time it has 
^ assumed that both plants operate with the same load factor. 
The comparison is greatly in favor of the large imit, notwithstanding 
»^ fact that the scale of pay on these boilers is much higher than 
that on the 278-h.p. boilers. It is to be noted that the load factors 
We for monthly periods. 

18 PUot Steam Oage and Indicators. At the end of each firing 
aisle is mounted a large pilot steam gage. The dial is graduated in 
divisions of 1% in. on its circumference but with no figures, and each 



322 OPERATION OF LARGE BOILERS 

scale division registers 1 lb. per sq. in. It is found and marked at 
just what point on this sensitive gage the boiler safety valves will 
lift and the steam pressure is carried accordingly. On the same gige 
board with the pilot gage are a clock and the dial of a load indicttor, 
operated from the switchboard gallery, indicating the load on the 
entire plant in kilowatts. In handling his fires, the fireman is guided 
in the first place, of course, by steam requirements as shown by the 
pilot gage and a steam fiow meter. The air pressure under the fire 
and the stoker speed are controlled by hand. 

19 Variable Stoker Speed. As before mentioned, the stokers are 
driven by motors. These are direct-current interpole machinea with 
a speed control by field resistance of four to one, and with 18 ranniDg 
points on the controllers. Indicating dial tachometers are being in' 
stalled on the stoker shafts, so that the stoker speed for a given load 
may be watched carefully. An immense advantage is gained by being 
able to run the stoker at any given constant speed. The amount of 
power required to drive the stokers is extremely variable, and it ia 
difficult to make a steam stoker engine govern under these conditiona 
with a controlled range of speed variation of four to one. 

20 As to furnace conditions, the firemen must judge by the CO, 
recorder, by the amount of air pressure necessary for any given boilw 
load, and by no means least of all by the color of the gases as they 
tumble over the first baffle and enter the top of the superheater passi 
Fig. 6. A reflecting observation device for this is at present being 
tried out, which allows the fireman to look into this boiler pass from 
a position near his gage board, instead of, as now, being dependent for 
this valuable indication on the water tender^s or foreman's observation- 

21 Possibilities of Automatic Control, It is a question not yet 
entirely settled whether it would or would not be better to forsake 
hand control of these boilers for automatic control. It has been sug- 
gested that feedwater regulators be used and that some automatic 
steam pressure governed apparatus control the air pressure under the 
fire and the stoker speed. That is not necessitated by labor cost; 
neither by the need of steam pressure regulation, as is evinced by 
the reproduction of the steam pressure chart in Kg. 7; this chart 
covers January 7, 1913, a day with wide variation of load. Our preju- 
dice, if not our final judgment, is against automatic control. 

22 As for feeding the boiler, a skilful water tender learns not to 
touch his feed valve except at rare intervals and when the load on the 
plant becomes steady, the steam fiow is continuous also. One auto- 



J. W. PARKER 323 

raatic feedwater regulator was experimented with. It was not a 
success, due in most part to a peculiarity of this type of boiler. On 
account of the rapid circulation, the water in the top middle drum 
stands at times as much as 2 ft., or more, higher than in the two 
outside drums, although the three are connected with water circulating 
tubes as well as by steam circulators and the main boiler tubes. The 
water columns are piped to the center drum, there being often no 
indication of water whatever in the outside drums. 

23 The water level as shown in the glass under the above condi- 
tions, naturally, is variable, being a function of the rate of steaming. 
This being the case, it is easy for a feedwater regulator, automatically 
attempting to hold a constant level in the center drum, to get into 
difficulties whenever the demand for steam varies sharply, as it will, 
when the plant load is changing at noon or during the peak load of 
the day. When the steam demand decreases slightly, the water level 
may fall possibly an inch, being very sensitive. If the regulator im- 
mediately opens and starts feeding more heavily, the circulation will 
be still further decreased, and then the water level will fall lower and 
the regulator feed still more heavily. The steam output of the boiler 
will decrease rapidly with this, until the regulator begins to close 
Again. The steam output will now begin to increase and the water 
level rise also and presently close the reguliator entirely; a typical 
'^hunting" action is thus set up. Some type of regulator can undoubt- 
edly be worked out so as to handle these boilers ; but it is questionable 
whether it would be worth while, when one water tender can tend 
water for a 60,000 kw. load. 

24 Automatic Control of Fuel and Air. There remains the matter 
of handling coal and air feeds. In a small plant owned by the Detroit 
Edison Company, eight stokers are controlled automatically, both air 
wd coal feed being independent of the fireman. The latter is not 
allowed to touch the stoker adjustments except to change the steam 
pressure one way or the other. This is going to the extreme, but it is 
iiot an uncommon method of firing underfeed stokers. It certainly 
does not tend to develop intelligent firemen nor obtain very satis- 
factory furnace efficiencies. 

25 IL is not desirable to substitute an automatic air and stoker 
wntrol if a better CO, chart cannot be shown thereby. The danger is 
that the fireman will rely on the automatic device, rather than study 
conditions and control his fire intelligently. With the present hand 
^iitrol, excellent furnace conditions are being obtained and held. 



OPERATION OF LABOE BOILERS 




Fig. 8 End Section ov Boiler showing Ariuhqsubht or Gab 1 



J. W. PARKER 



325 



Obsenatioit of the furuace gases, as they enter the superheater pass 
from the top of tlie combuBtion chamber, shows that the combustioo 
d Tolatile gases is entirely complete and that the operation is coDse- 
ijaentlf EtnokelesB. At the same time, the CO, charts show remark- 
tbl; good results, 15 per cent of CO, being very common, the average 
being about 13.5 to 14 per cent. Repeated analyses made with an 
Orsat apparatus check these recording machines and at the same time 
diecoTer no more than from a trace to 2/10 of a per cent of carbon 




Fra 7 Steam Press re Chart Jani arv 7 1&13 



^ Good conditions are most often disturbed by the periodic 
dumping of the ash and refuse from the stokers. A continuous durap- 
fig device, a revolving grate, is now being tried out, which promises 
tobe very successful. It will undoubtedly go far toward enabling the 
^Koan to produce service results as good as those shown during tests, 

W Maintenance Costs. A careful study was made for four months 
'01911 and 1912 of the maintenance coats of the boiler units fired by 
"ndttfeed stokers and the figures are presented in Table 3. Since the 
P*tiod selected includes one job of general overhauling of a stoker 



OPERATION OF LARGE BOILERS 




^"^ "V-i;* 



J. W. PARKER 327 

and setting, it is conservative to estimate the maintenance cost for a 
whole year from these four months. This allows for the overhauling 
of boilers at intervals of eight months on the average, which is the 
present practice in the Delray plant. In this way the annual cost 
per kw-hr. generated has been estimated, which includes maintenance 
of stokers, settings and boilers. 

28 This maintenance has, as a matter of fact, decreased since the 
time referred to, because of improvements worked out on the stoker 
dumps. The dumping plates have now been made with removable 
tops, so that only the part burned need be removed and the web of the 
casting may be left in place. By a redesign of the shape of these 
dumping sections only one pattern is made use of, and the labor cost 
of replacing burned parts has been greatly reduced at the same time. 

TABLE 3 MAINTENANCE COSTS OF TWO 2365 H. P. BOILER UNITS WITH 

TAYLOR STOKERS 

INCLX7DIN0 REPAIRS TO BOILERS, STOKERS AND BRICKWORK 

Boiler No. 25 Boiler No. 27 

December 1911 — Hours steaming 442 447 

Cost of material and labor $116.00 $112.60 

January 1912— Hours steaming 483 490 

Cost of material and labor $84.86 $2.88 

February 1912— Hours steaming 464 462 

Cost of material and labor $63.35 $77.74 

March 1912— Hours steaming 424 182 

Co8t of material and labor $1.71 $253.02» 

Cost per kw.-hr. in 12 boiler installation, with two boilers for one 

20,000-kw. turbine (yearly load factor 36 per cent) 0.0034 cents 

*Cover8 general overhauling of stoker and setting. 

*D 1912, one stoker was completely rebuilt in order to experiment 
^th various changes of design, especially of dumps, which have re- 
?^red most frequent renewal. 

29 Setting Repairs, The settings of these boilers consist, as was 
stated before, simply of four walls without arches or bridge walls 
(Bee Pig. 3). The only brick repairs necessary thus far with this 
setting have been the annual rebuilding of part of both front walls 
(wea 150 to 175 sq. ft.) extending from the stoker to the mud drum 
^^ the boilers. The end walls give no trouble when carefully bonded 
^ the facebrick of the setting. As an experiment, the front walls of 
^^e unit are to be built of firebrick sliapes, supported by a cast-iron 
^^ steel supporting frame. This construction will involve a sheet steel 
^^g to make the setting air-tight, and will be less like a wall, and 



328 OPERATION OF LARGE BOILERS 

more like a st«cl casing protected from the fire hy firebrick wh 
are not self-supporting. In the last two units installed this autni 
the walls are built with the surfaces slightly concaved on the i 
side. The plan section is an arch, as shown by the detail drawi 
reproduced in Fig. 8, 

30 Since each individual firebrick in a wall exposed to the ; 
on one aide tends to expand permanently on the hot end, the tendo 
also is for each brick to pull in towards the fire. Bonding and and 
bolts ordinarily prevent this, but at some points, the influence of boi 
and local anchoring is not enough to prevent large areas of the i 
from falling toward the fire. The object of the "vertical arch" dea 
referred to above is to wedge each individual brick into the wall 




Arch tor Honbt Stokes 



an arch construction and thus prevent the walls from bulgi 
The results, of course, remain to be seen. 

-31 Ronay StoJrer Sellings. Tlie most educative experience v 
brickwork has been had with the Honey stoker settings and tl 
furnace arches. Starting witli two sprung arches under each n 
drum with a central wall intersecting the bridge wall at right anj 
the design ended up with a single continuous "flat arch," so cal 
under the mud drum, built of fire brick shapes hung from cast-i 
rail beams (see Figs. 9, 10 and 11). For these shapes a special b 
had to be made of an exceedingly loose texture obtained by mis 
sawdust with the clay before molding. Upon bumillg in the t 
this sawdust burned out, leaving the brick very porous. It vaa fo' 
that a harder, closer grained brick invariably spawled under the 
peated heating and cooling to which it was subjected. 



J. W. PARKER 329 

32 Limitations of Boilers as at Present Installed — Furnace Height. 
\& at present installed, these boilers present certain limitations to 
being driven at any considerably higher per cent of rating than that 
already obtained. First, in burning West Virginia, long-flaming bi- 
tuminous coal, it is probable that at, say, 275 per cent of rating and 
perhaps somewhat lower than that, the flames will reach the top of 
the combustion chamber, which is twenty-eight feet high. As soon as 
uncombined combustible gases get over into the superheater pass, the 
over-all efiiciency of the imit will drop, for although secondary com- 
bustion will take place, nevertheless some unbumed volatile matter 
must escape. Smoking will begin immediately after the secondary 
combustion becomes very considerable. 

33 If the boiler in future installations is set much higher another 
difficulty will arise, although this is not so serious. Either more stack 
draft must be provided, or a pressure will be developed at the top of 
the combustion chamber, and the brick setting at this point must be 
built gas-tight. This phenomenon is readily explainable. Inside the 
combustion chamber is a colunm of gas like the colunm of gas in a 
stack. This stack is only 2-6 ft. high between draft gages in the 
present settings, but the gas colunm is at an average temperature of 
about 2300 d^. fahr. Figured statically this would crea,te a draft 
of 0.3 in. of water at its base, providing the pressure at its top is 
atmospheric. However, if the maximum stack draft obtainable is 
reached at 250 per cent of rating with tlie present breeching and stack 
arrangement, the draft over the fire might become at 275 per cent of 
rating, only 0.1 in. As figured, tliis gas pressure over the fire must 
be less than at the top of the chamber by 0.3 in., neglecting friction. 
The pressure at the top would, therefore, become 0.2 in. above at- 
mospheric. Pressure at this point is frequently developed in practice 
^th the present settings. 

34 Internal Losses of Pressure, Another limitation is the drop 
^ pressure tlirough the superheater, the automatic check valves and 
stop valve of the boiler. At 210 per cent of rating on one boiler, the 
drop in pressure through the superheater is 21 lb. which includes the 
pressure drop through the automatic check valves, but not that through 
'he main stop valve. At 255 per cent of rating it would be considera- 
bly more. Since the pressure on the steam mains must remain 
constant, a pressure must be carried on the saturated steam drums 

"le boiler of 21 lb. more than at the superheater outlet, when run- 
"ing at 210 per cent of rating. 



OPERATION OF LABOE BOILEBS 




J. W. PARKBB 




OPERATION OF LABQK BOILBRB 




J. W. PARKBB 




332 OPERATION OF LARGE BOILERS 

35 The drop through the stop valve is preventable. There we 
at first installed on several of these boilers, however, Hopkinson-Fc 
ranti valves with throats reduced to 5 in. from a full pipe diameter 
10 in. At 210 per cent of rating the figured steam velocity throii| 
this 5 in. throat was 47,000 ft. per minute. The valve dischaig 
into a Y-fitting in the main steam line and consequently, the stea 
passing through the valve at lowered pressure and a very high velodl 
did not regain all of the pressure lost as it should in a venturi to 
of correct form. The net loss in pressure after passing the valve n 
at times as much as 12 lb. Straight-opening Hopkinson-Ferra] 
valves have since been substituted for the venturi type. 

36 The experience at Delray with very high steam velocities, ho 
ever, has proved that in mains designed especially for high velociti 
such practice is very good, the difficulties being more than compensal 
for by the reliability, reduced cost and ease of maintenance of 1 
smaller diameters of mains and fittings. It is a subject worth a gn 
deal of study. 

37 Effect on Tubes. As for the effect on the front tubes of 1 
type W boiler, of running at very high rates of evaporation, it 1 
been found that the tubes have shown no evidence of injury due 
the hard driving. One thing is certain, however, and that is th 
tubes must be kept clean. As stated in an earlier paragraph, sc 
whicli ordinarily would give no trouble, has possibilities for miscb 
under the conditions of harder driving. 

33 The general conclusions arrived at from the experience had 
operating these boilers, is that large units present possibilitieB 
economy of operation and simplicity of power plant design, which 
greatly in advance of present steam generating practice. 

39 In the preparation of the data for this paper, credit is due 
the boiler room operating engineer and his force, as well as to 
experimental engineers of the Delray plant, whose work during 
last two years has included so much fuel and combustion investi 
tion that they are now known throughout the service by the nickna 
of "The Gas Department.'^ 

DISCUSSION 

R. H. Danfortii (written). The results of operation of this 
of boilers, as reported by Mr. Parker, are no less startling than w 



DISCUSSION BY II. H. DANFORTH 



333 



the tests of the first three of these gigantic units, described by Dr. 
Jacobus in his unique paper.' 

It is evident from Fig. 12, which shows a graphic comparison of the 
overall boiler efficiencies at different steaming rates, aa obtained by 
Dr. JacobuB, with those shown in Fig. i of the present paper, that the 
extraordinary efficiencies obtained under test conditions have been 
not only maintained in service, but even improved by more than 
1 percent. 

Of course this does not mean that boilers, like wine, improve with 
age. It can mean but one of two things in the present case, or per- 





'r 


=l.n. 


£.»«. 


-U^ 


Pbi," 


.ri 




.n 


i<t' 


fi" 


»S> 


rt.ei 


7 


■"■ 






















' 








































































^ 


-^ 


^ 


























t^'" 




-•n 


^ 


























fe 


■~~ 


^^^Zf-3^< 




^ 


















Pt^'^. 


.^itk^ 


■- ■ 






















t/- 










1 










: 


i ' 1 ' ~ 


>- 









^ 










1 


1 




T~- 




I& 
















" 


" 


" 




'^ 


" 



CoMFAJiATrrE Curves Showing Relation Between Results Rbpoktbd 
Bt Mb. Pabkek and Those Obtained in Db. Jacobus' Tests on 

THF. Saue Boilers 



Iwp8 a combination of the two; namely, a reduction in the tempera- 
^^ of the flue gasee, or an improvement in the furnace efficiency. 

Mr. Parker gives no data in his paper as to the losses in the fiue 
WW, but if we refer to test No. 8, Table 16 of Dr. Jacobus' paper 
(the beet test there reported, showing an overall boiler efficiency of 
^^■28 per cent at 108 per cent rating), we find that the flue gas tem- 
P*™tiire is 493 deg. fahr. and that of the steam at 200 lb. gage is 
^ '^SR. fahr., a difference of only 105 deg. fahr. This means that 
even if wg could so improve this boiler as to discharge the gases to 
^^ rtack at the same temperature as the boiler steam (assuming 
that the chimney draft thus provided would be sufficient to take 
**'*y the gases), we could increase the overall efficiency of the unit 
^y iiut slightly over 2 per cent. 

Goin({ again to Dr. Jacobus' paper, in the absence of sufficient 
'«Mi of Large Boilers at the Iletriiit Eiiison Company, Trana. Am. Soc 

■• E.. »Bl ^1 r. KAK 



334 OPERATION OF LARGE BOILERS 

information in Mr. Parker's, we find but 1.8 per cent of the availabl 
carbon lost in the ash, a very satisfactory showing for mechanica 
stoker operation, and one which we believe can hardly be bettered 

In Table 5 of Dr. Jacobus' paper, for test No. 8 the CO in th 
flue gases was 0.02 per cent at the bottom of the last pass, 0.01 pe 
cent at the top of the last pass, and 0.10 per cent in the flue. Thee 
discrepancies were discussed in connection with the presentation c 
the original paper, so we need not attempt to discover their cause 
If, however, we assume even the highest of these values, 0.10 as th 
correct one, a completeness of combustion is indicated, which yi 
can hardly hope to materially improve. 

This test No. 8 of Dr. Jacobus' also shows a flue gas analysis whic 
indicates a very moderate excess of air above that theoretically n 
quired to bum the coal, amounting to from 25 per cent to 40 p( 
cent, depending upon the assumptions made as to the hydrogen i 
the coal and the steam-gas in the flue gases. It seems hard! 
credible that Mr. Parker has succeeded, with any form of stoker^ i 
so improving the mixture of air and combustible gases in his fumac 
as to reduce this item of loss to any great extent. 

I am unable to discover, from this analysis of the original tests o 
these boilers, any probable source of the improvement in their efl 
ciency which he indicates, especially under operating conditions i 
against test conditions, even though the operating conditions ai 
such ideal ones as Mr. Parker describes. I would like, therefore, 1 
have Mr. Parker give us any data which are available, of flue ten 
peratures, gas analyses, etc., which will indicate in what direction 1: 
has succeeded in making his gains, and obtained the marveloi 
operating efliciency which he reports. In so unusual a record i 
operation, Mr. Parker has set a mark quite as high, if not highe 
than did Dr. Jacobus in their design. 

Alex Dow said that the theory of the Detroit Edison managi 
ment had been not merely to reduce floor space, to reduce the un 
investment, and to secure a very high operating efficiency of tl 
mechanism, but to demonstrate that in the boiler room, as in oth 
departments, it was possible to pay larger daily or hourly rates 1 
employees, and to get results that would warrant these rates. 

Looking broadly at the proposition, the vital point had been tl 
reduction of the number of firemen, and the education of those few 
firemen until they developed and demonstrated such interest in the 
work, as was evidenced by their insistence on checking their runnii 



DISCUSSION 335 

instruments. A very much higher class of men could be obtained 
if the equipment were given them to show the interesting processes 
which they were carrying on. The firemen at the Detroit Edison 
plant ^rere beginning to comprehend that they were carrying on 
exact chemical processes; that they had to watch not only the draft 
and. the appearance of the fire, but also the CO2 recorder. These 
firemen often went to the engineering department and asked for an 
Oreat apparatus to check up thfeir recorders. 

Ideals were not always realized and human nature had continually 
to be taken into account, but Mr. Dow felt that the approximation 
of daily practice to theoretically perfect working was much closer in 
the Detroit Edison Company's boiler plant, for the present year, 
than in any other plant in the country. 

Albert A. Gary was interested to know what the experience 
had been, as far as checking was concerned, with the flow meters 
used in the Detroit Edison Company's plant. His experience had 
not been very satisfactory in that direction, and he wanted to know 
if the firemen had any other apparatus to fall back on in case the flow 
meters failed to give the proper records or not. 

I. E. MouLTROP said that in times past, managers of plants took an 
interest in their engine rooms, and let the firemen run the fireroom. 
But in the fireroom were to be found the greatest possibilities of 
economy in the operation of the power plant, and it should be in 
charge of the most intelligent men in the operating department. It 
was gratifying to see that the Detroit Edison Company was working 
along that line. 

In answer to Mr. Cary, he said that he had had considerable 
experience with steam flow meters in Boston, and thought that they 
were quite accurate. As to the matter of checking, there was no 
"ifitrument in the plant that was good for much if it was not periodi- 
^y and systematically checked. 

He had come to the conclusion that the CO2 recorder was not so 
valuable an instrument as it had been assumed to be in the past. 
With feedwater regulators and steam flow meters, and with the in- 
^lligent help in the firerooms of today, the CO2 recorder was one of 
t-he least valuable instruments on the control board. Mr. Moultrop 
^d not mean, however, to condemn the instrument as a piece of 
"^iler room apparatus. He believed it was a more delicate instru- 
^^t than others and required more attention to keep it in satis- 
factory working condition. It had one disadvantage; the other in- 



336 OPERATION OF LARGE BOILERS 

struments mentioned showed what was taking place in the ope 
ating of the boiler, whereas the CO2 recorder told what had happem 
sometime previous, the lag being somewhere between 5 and I 
minutes* duration. The fireman was not especially interested 
post mortems; moreover, an intelligent fireman would find ways 
getting satisfactory CO2 readings on his recorder without necessari 
getting ideal conditions in his furnaces. 

George B. Preston had found that one of the principal diflSculti 
in starting up large boilers was in connection with the firebri 
lining and the combustible arches, and he wished to ask wb 
material Mr. Parker found to be the best, and if he had any iUust 
tions showing the failure of these brick arches. 

Roger DeWolf asked what connection there was, if any, 1 
tween the blower supplying the air to the stoker and the drive : 
supplying the coal. He also wished to know if Mr. Parker woi 
consider a semi-automatic control for the blower, at least as beini 
desirable proposition. A new equipment of 875-h.p. boilers v 
being installed in Rochester using a semi-automatic control on 1 
blower and a motor-driven feed for the coal, which was entirely^ 
the hands of the firemen for operating. 

Mr. DeWolf agreed with Mr. Moultrop regarding the use of C 
recording meters, but would like to have further details. In ' 
above installation it was being arranged to measure the feedwa 
continuously in order to get continuous records of the feedwater e 
of the amount of coal burned, and it was expected to rely on th^ 
together with steam flow meters on the boilers, rather than on c 
CO2 determinations. 

William Kent (written). The CO2 recorder is a necessary e" 
it must be used if the best economy is to be maintained. Thcr< 
no record of tests that I know of (where several tests in success 
gave high efficiency) published cither in this country or in Engia: 
where the CO2 meter, or the Orsat, or the Hempel apparatus for 
termining theC02 was not used. I have in mind an apparatus us 
oxygen instead of carbonic acid gas. The maximum efficiency 
coincident with 3 to 7 per cent of oxygen in the chimney gases, B 
if there is 5 per cent of oxygen in the chimney gases it is as nea 
right as it can be. With the CO2 meter on the other hand, if th 
is 15 per cent of CO2 the economy might be high or it might not, 
cause 15 per cent CO2 means the possibility of a good deal of ^ 
in the gas. 



DISCUSSION 337 

The control of the boilers, as described in the paper, so as to obtain 
the maximuin eflSciency, is effected by two things acting together: 
First, the disappearance of the flame at the top of the combustion 
chamber, which shows that the combustion of available gas is en- 
tirely complete (wherever there is a visible flame there is imperfect 
corabustion; that is, the flame must extinguish itself by burning out 
so that the combustion is entirely complete to insure that the opera- 
tion is smokeless). Second, the CO2 should be about 13.5 to 14. 
The two things are necessarily taken together: If there is smoke- 
less combustion there may be maximum economy, but on the other 
hand there may be poor economy on account of a possible great excess 
of air. In order to avoid the error of a great excess of air, therefore, 
the COj apparatus must be used. 

Reginald P. Bolton said that these boilers were a wonderful 
exhibition of what might be expected in the future construction of 
boilers intelligently designed to give the gases a chance to bum them- 
selves out, giving complete combustion before the gases got out of 
the boiler. Another lesson to be learned from these boilers was the 
effect which such large power uses had in improving the morale and 
the conditions of the working forces. 

As to the ineflfectiveness of the CO2 recorder, Mr. Bolton was in- 
clined to think that much of the troubles arose from the difficulty of 
w)llecting the sample. He had just come from a series of observa- 
tions conducted on large stacks of the Waterside station of the 
New York Edison Company, during which a great variety of samples 
covering a long period of time were gathered from the smokestacks 
2W) and 300 ft. in height. From a selected point in the stack it 
^'as found, after a series of experiments, that the velocities varied 
*U over the stack, that the contents of the stack varied, and in one 
^^, after the medium point had been established by a series of 
experiments, the current of gases reversed itself in the stack at that 
P^^^t, and there was actually a down-flow instead of an up-flow. It 
"^Kht be well therefore that the poor CO2 recorder as a gage becomes 
'^ixed up from time to time. A great deal of study had yet to be 
^^0 of the flow of gases in flues and smokestacks. 

^' S. Jacobus said that careful gas analyses were made in his 
^^ and had not the CO been carefully measured as well as the 
J^ it would not have been possible to attain the high efficiencies. 
^"^ presence or absence of CO was most important. If in operating 
* furnace it was found that there were certain indications respecting 



338 OPERATION OF LARGE BOILERS 

the length of the flames, or the like, that gave a line on the amoiUL^ 
of excess air and the presence or absence of CO in the gases, a fur 
nace could be operated just as well by observing these manifestatioiL: 
as by making gas analyses. Indications of the sort were highly 
valuable in serving as>a guide for securing good combustion. Li 
Mr. Parker's tests both means were employed and contributed t* 
the attainment of the high efficiencies. 

Dr. Jacobus complimented Mr. Dow on the progress he wtk 
making in putting the right sort of men in the boiler room. HI 
said there was mote to be gained or lost in a boiler room than b 
any other part of a power plant, and he predicted that eventually i 
would be common practice to place the boiler room in the dhe^ 
charge of the best men in the organization. 

David Moffat Myers said that he had foimd a very bad state o 
affairs in the firerooms of factory power plants. The management 
as a rule, had not the slightest understanding of what was going on 
There was usually not the best of feeling between the chief an( 
firemen, and this was the first thing to be readjusted by the educa 
tion, not alone of the firemen, but of the management. Mr. Myen 
had in mind a typical small factory plant which had been drifting 
along for a good many years in the belief that no improvemeni 
could be made. A test showed that two boilers were being firec 
at only half their capacity, although on certain days they were no' 
holding steam because, as the engineer said, the draft was top weak 
They were evaporating 6 lb. of water per 1 lb. of fuel. That plan 
was greatly improved without spending any money on equipment 
by educating the firemen to fire properly. Only one boiler was noT 
being fired and with the damper closed one-third of the time to pre 
vent steam from blowing off. One pound of fuel was evaporatini 
8.5 to 9 lb. of water instead of 6 lb. as formerly, and the fireman o 
the plant was delighted. He had been educated by practical ox 
ample, was getting more money for his services and was intensel; 
interested in his work. The management had their eyes openei 
and were tremendously interested and satisfied with the resultc 
They were making over 40 per cent more steam for the same con 
sumption of fuel and without a dollar spent for new equipment. 

The preventable losses that today existed in factory power plant 
were tremendous. These losses were chargeable fully as much t 
lack of education as to improper equipment, and the managemen 
was directly responsible for both of these factors. 



DISCUSSION 339 

For some reason it was a fact that owners would go to great 
expense for producing eflSciency in other departments of their busi- 
ness while they allowed their power and heating plants to get along 
in the most haphazard way. A reform of education in this direc- 
tion would enable the payment of wages to firemen properly com- 
mensurate to their responsibility and would at the same time largely 
increase the net profits of the owner's business. 

Such a reform was gradually taking place, and it was bound to 
succeed universally for it combined at the same time the principles 
of science and of humanity. 

Harrington Emerson, while praising the detailed information 
given in the paper, objected to the inclusion of violently varying 
maintenance or supervising costs as pertinent. There were standards 
for maintenance costs as well as for power costs, for supervision 
and for rent, and standard allowances should be used in determining 
final costs, not accidental variations. In the report criticized, one 
of the boilers cost in one month for maintenance, labor and material, 
Sl-71, and another $253.02. When such great accidental variations 
occur the conclusions as to cost of product which include them are 
vitiated. 

Raih^oads can rightly assume a repair cost of $0.08 a mile for 
repairs (if this is the average), but no railroad can properly include 
in the cost of a single trip the destruction of a locomotive by explo- 
sion, nor yet omit the item of repairs from the cost of a particular 
"^^ In all cost accounting reference to standards is needed. 

Albert A. Straub (written). Although Mr. Parker has shown 
by results obtained in three and a half years of operation, that the 
operation of so large a steam generating unit is not only feasible, 
but highly satisfactory, from the most important points of operation 
Mid maintenance, it seems, nevertheless, that the choice of such a 
unit must be governed largely by local operating conditions. 

Mr. Parker stated that a scale of A in. thickness would form in. 
^be hot front tubes, but did not state how long it took to form this 
^^- I judge it was formed between the periods of turbining tubes, 
but Would desire further information on this phase of the subject, 
^t mud will cause leaky tubes not only with A in., or heavier 
®<^^e, but with scale of egg-shell thickness, and not only at high but 
*t moderate rates of driving, is evident, as shown by Fig. 13. These 
photographs are of a tube taken from the lower row of tubes of a 
^''^n.p. Babcock and Wilcox boiler equipped with Roney stokers 



340 OPERATION OF LARGE BOILERS 

and having a small combustion chamber. The damaged porUoj 
the tube was exposed directly to the action of the flame. Thefi 
water was taken from the Allegheny River and contained from 
to ten parts j>er 100,000 of incrusting solids, being treated i 
enough barium hydrate to neutralize the sulphate content. ' 
tube was a 4-in. No. 10 gage, lap-welded, charcoal iron tube 
placed that the weld was not exposed to the action of the fla 
The photographs of this tube show that the leak occurred dire 
under the deposit of mud and that the scale was so thin as to b 
practically no effect. Observations made at other times on ti 
which were renewed at this station showed mud to be the cauB 
overheating. The boilers at this station operate usually at ra^ 
and, for short periode, at as high as 75 per cent above rating. ' 
question of the behavior of such a sized unit when using bad w; 
is of vital importance to engineers of the Pittsburgh district. I b 




Fia. 13 Cboss-Section or Tube, and Outside of Tube SHOwiNa Lz> 



plotted (Fig. 14) 44 analyses of water from the Monongabela B 
taken at Rankin, Pittsburgh, Pa., from October 14 to Novembei 
inclusive. Thirty-two of these analyses showed the water t< 
either neutral or acid as high as L.'jO parts per 100,000. Su( 
water as this camiot be fed to a boiler untreated and a surface ■ 
denser with such a water should not be considered. 

With water of this character it has been found that cast iron 
be eaten out in anywhere from two to six months, and it is a ques 
what will happen to the tubes of a surface condenser. When u 
the jet condenser and treating the foedwater in a softener befoi 
enters the boilers a large quantity of so<lium salts is fed into 
boiler. If the water is treated as it enters the boiler, withoi 
softener, it has been founri that a verj- slight concentration of sod 



DISCUSSION BY 



341 



salts will cause the water to become wild and hard to keep in the 
front tubes of this type ol boiler, at moderate rates of driving. 

Mr. Parker stated that he treated the make-up water with barium 
hydrate, but did not state where he added it, or whether he filtered 




Oct. 1913 

^0. 14 Analyses op Wa 



^ Water after it was treated. I have been most successful with 
™* treatment when I could remove the precipitated salts in some 
°'*0'ttr before the water entered the boiler. 

I note no reference to any instrument for recording temperature of 
***pin(! gases. This record and that of a recording draft gage 



342 OPERATION OF LAKQE BOILERS 

are of vital importance, eBpecially during periods of banked 
where the overfed stoker is in use. 

Considerable stress seems to be placed upon having the prope 
content in the gases of combustion, which no doubt is deservi 
commendation. My experience has been that it is also advisa' 
insist upon a low combustible content in the refuse from the i 
or there is a saving of the one at the expense of the other. 
Parker seems to have neglected entirely any reference to the qi 





Fell. Fallsk Pabt Pi 



of refuse from the ashpit. I should like to know if he man 
any record of this factor. 

In regard to arches on Roney stokers Mr. Parker does not ^v 
data obtained from his experience with sprung arches. Fig 
16 and 17 arc views of a sprung arch, which together with a hi 
of this arch, may prove of interest. 



DI5CDSS10N BY A. A. 8TRADB 



343 



The photographs are of an arch of one of a battery of two 375-h.p. 
Babcock and Wilcox boilers, Alert type of setting with Roney stokers 
having a great area of 92.5 sq. ft. each. The arch is II ft. span, 
6 ft. 4 in. long and has a spring of 16 in. The furnace temperatures 
oteerved with a Wanner pyrometer through a peep hole 1 ft. below 
the edge and 1 ft. from the front of the arch, when this furnace was 
in operation, varied from 2800 deg. to 3000 deg. fahr. This arch 
was made of Woodland brick and was placed in operation December 
12, 1910. On April 18, 1911, the arch was in the condition shonn 
by Fip. 15 (badly sagged), the boiler having been off for leaky tubes 




Pio. 17 ViKw auowiNo Akch AtTsa it Fell Cokplbtely 



Of general cleaning nine times in this period of four months and six 
days. The boiler was placed back on the line in this condition and 
operated until April 23, 1911, when part of the arch fell, as is shown 
**y Fig. 16. This defect was patched and the boiler placed back on 
the line May 4, and operated without shutdown until June 25, when 
the wholte arch fell, as is shown by Fig. 17. The short life of the 
w^h was due to faulty side walls. The arches and side walla in 
both boilers were then rebuilt and held from August 1, 1911, to 
*^her 29, 1912; during this period the boiler wtis off 15 times 
*ither tor leaky tubes or general cleaning. 

Thb Author. Ab far as the fireman Is concerned, the steam 
flow meter need give merely relative indications for his guidance, 
■^feme accuracy is not necessary for his purpose nor would a con- 



344 OPERATION OF LARGE BOILERS 

stant multiplying error mislead him seriously. The experiena 
the Delray plant has been, however, that, properly installed 
calibrated, the flow meter is reliable and use is being made of it 
absolute measurements of steam also. 

It should be understood that the curve (Fig. 4) of over-all 
ciencies obtainable with the underfeed stoker, is a straight line dn 
through points taken from the Jacobus tests. The actual efficieo 
attained at the extreme points of the range of the tests are givei 
the paragraph on flexibility in the present paper. The curvi 
efficiencies presented by Dr. Jacobus in his report of the tests, 
intended to show the characteristics of the boiler as fired by eil 
the underfeed or natural draft stokers. The latter tended to | 
slightly better results at low ratings and lower efficiencies at \ 
high ratings, than did tho underfeed stoker. 

The efficiency curve of the present paper has been set up ae 
ideal toward which to work in daily operation. The instruments on 
gage board were chosen to give the fireman as much informatioi 
possible to aid him in approximating such maximum efficient 
During a test he has other information continually at hand. "h. 
important is the apparent evaporation, figured cumulatively £ 
the start oi the test. However, apparent evaporation is but a 
rived result and does not show the fireman the causes which lea< 
it. For judging of present conditions, it is invaluable for hin 
know drafts at various points of the furnace, rate of steaming 
shown by the flow meter and the record of CO2 in the flue g: 
coupled with observation of the gases entering the superheater, 
has been asked why use is not made in this connection of pyrom 
readings of the temperature of the exit flue gases. This has I 
attempted, but for everyday work this exit temperature was fo 
to be dependent ui)on too many other variables whose influenc< 
it is not well enough known. During a certain test, when the 
of steaming was being held practically constant and the combus 
of volatile gases was knowTi by inspection to be very complete, 
temperature of the exit gases was found to be extremely valui 
in showing up an excess of air. The temperature invariably 
when the gases contained too much air and fell as the excess was 
creased. It was possible in this way to predict changes on the 
recorder chart, since the recorder readings lagged at least 5 mini 
behind the flue gas conditions. In spite of this experience, it 
decided to omit exit gas pyrometers from the list of necessary o 
ating instruments. 



I 



CLOSURE 345 

The almost complete combustion which was obtained during Dr. 
Jacobus* tests is not too difficult to obtain every day. Flue gas 
analyses show ahnost daily as good or better furnace conditions for 
hours at a time. While driving these boilers at above 200 per cent 
of rating, and in one case at about 225 per cent of rating, the gas 
analyses by recorder and Orsat apparatus and inspection of the 
gases entering the superheater showed better combustion than that 
secured while running at equally high ratings during the tests. It 
is only natural that the firemen should become more skilled than 
they were three years ago. Again, with the self-cleaning stoker in- 
stalled with one of the latest of the boilers, routine sampling of the 
ash during December of 1913 showed an average of 12.6 per cent of 
combustible in the ash, there being 10.2 per cent of ash in the air- 
dried coal. 

In the discussion, further questions were asked in regard to auto- 
matic or semi-automatic control of the air supply to the stoker, 
^fore adopting such automatic control, there is this point to be 
considered. The load of the plant is varying up and down 1 or 2 
P^r cent continually, the greater variations being as a rule more 
gradual or else periodic. This is, of course, not considering such 
sudden peaks as those occasioned by thunderstorms. This sawing 
^P and down of the load will occasion slight variations of steam 
pressure and this allows our taking advantage of the capacity of the 
"filers for heat storage in the water. It is not necessary that the 
^^ of fuel combustion be so often changed. It would be a mistake 
^ employ an air supply controller which would attempt to hold 
^^^8tant steam pressure, if in so doing it were continually to disturb 
^*^© rate of combustion of the fuel. 

In regard to Par. 27, it was intended to show the cost of material 

^^d labor required for repairing these two units during a period im- 

^^iately following the season of peak loads, when time was afforded 

^^1* repairs which might have been difficult to accomplish when load 

^^xxditions were more severe. Since the plant contains various 

^ypes of boiler and stoker equipment, it was not desired to use for 

^he above purpose, the average boiler, stoker and furnace main- 

^Uance costs for the whole plant, which could have been obtained 

^^m the plant operating accounts. 



No. 1401 

TASK SETTING FOR FIREMEN AND MAIN- 
TAINING HIGH EFFICIENCY 
IN BOILER PLANTS 

By Waltieb N. Polakov, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Member of the Society 

The object of this paper is to outline a method for the accurate 
determination and permanent attainment of maximum economy in 
daily boiler room practice in the power plant by the task-setting 
method. The problem is two-fold: First, the determination of the 
conditions which will result in a maximum operating economy; and 
second, the determination of the factors which will secure the per- 
nianent attainment of these best conditions. The writer recently 
M an opportunity to reorganize the power plant of a large public 
utility company, and the methods employed to determine the tasks 
for the firemen and to attain the improvement in results which they 
J^present in everyday running, met with such success that a report 
on the subject seems to be warranted. 

2 The engineering fimction of a boiler plant is deliberately to 
convert the thermo-chemical energy latent in fuel into the volume 
energy latent in steam, through a process of trans-power, while the 
commercial function is to generate steam of required quality and in 
* required quantity at the lowest cost compatible with the circum- 
^^ces. The problem before the management, however, is to deter- 
ge and provide the necessary and sufficient conditions, the fulfill- 
ment of which will bring about and assure the permanency of the 
desired predetermined results. 

3 The degree of engineering perfection in a boiler plant is gen- 
erally reckoned in terms of thermodynamic eflBciency, but this cri- 
*erion alone is both inaccurate and insuflficient. It is inaccurate in- 
*^nch as the inherent thennodynamic efficiency of the plant, if 
determined either by calculation or by experiment under ideal con- 
Presented at the Annual Meeting: 1913, of The American Society op Me- 

^ANicAL Engineers. 

.347 



348 TASK SETTING FOR FIKEMEN 

ditions, is not attained in practice; if determined from everyc 
performance it is short by some unknown quantity, depending uj 
the variable ^Tiuman element/' It is insujBScient since the conoept: 
of thermodynamic efficiency of a boiler plant does not include 
"time element" which is the chief determing factor in our industr 
commercial and social lives. Thus, the thermodynamic efficiency i 
represent correctly the degree of perfection of the whole plant o 
if supplemented by correction factors taking into account the hun 
and time elements, and is only one of many factors to be conside 
in the problem of reckoning the industrial efficiency of a plant. 

4 As in differential calculus, the place of maxima depends u] 
the limiting conditions of variables and constants, so in our prob^ 
the proper and complete solution can be found only by strict 
servance of the rules of scientific investigation, and the steps to 
taken in this research work can be grouped chiefly as follows: 
analysis of elements, (&) study of limiting effects of variable and c 
stant elements on the maximum efficiency of partial processeB, i 
(c) determination of maximum effect and the correlation of detem 
ing factors. When in this manner we learn what can be ace 
plished and what are the conditions necessary for it, we have furl 
to investigate whether these conditions are sufficient Our knowle 
would be insufficient if we did not consider the element of hui 
will to attain the task set, and the stimulating factor to keep ] 
manently at work the power of will to maintain these known fa' 
able conditions. 

5 The well-known fact that the high thermal efficiency attai 
by experts during the boiler tests is seldom maintained in every 
practice is due to gross neglect on the part of the management 
(a) record the conditions causing the high efficiency during the ^ 
(h) instruct the men how to regulate these conditions in ordei 
duplicate the test results, and (c) provide an incentive to the mea 
striving for the purpose desired by the management or owners. 
this we may arid that in most instances there is no assurance or p^ 
that the lii^h test efficiency was really the highest attainable. 

6 The work of testing steam boilers as it is usually conduct© 
not infrequently done by young college graduates or sometimes 
the boiler room force, even in the plants of conservative and repute 
companies. The data thus obtained are seldom reliable and o 
plete, and even if every factor, however insignificant, is measiJ 
and recorded the results aro almost equally worthless, except i 



WALTER N. POLAKOV 349 

occasionally such tests disclose a serious leak somewhere and enable 
steps to be taken to remedy the isolated cause of loss. As a rule 
these evaporative tests are of no further use than to satisfy the 
owner's curiosity or fancy to see mere figures of efficiency and load 
and sometimes heat balance. As a consequence the work of testing 
boilers is brought in this country to disrepute, to the auxiliary role of 
a "seUing trick.** 

7 A mere heat balance is unable to furnish answers to the many 
questions of utmost importance for determining of conditions for the 
most economic steam generation. Lack of positive, well grounded 
principles as well is responsible repeatedly for faulty construction of 
^aces and arrangement of baffles and gas passages. The average 
data of most tests are of very little value inasmuch as such factors as 
attention and skill of firemen are dumped into the same heap with 
the factors of boiler and furnace construction, and of properties of 
fuel. Furthermore, the most reliable test data are of very limited 
practical value unless they are so analyzed that the dependence of 
certain phenomena upon definite factors is clearly revealed. 

8 What is needed most for a preliminary analysis is a method of 
l^oiler test research which will (a) establish a theoretical standard 
for each partial process and allow the determination of partial and 
ultimate efficiency, and (6) establish the influence of such conditions 
*8 variation of specific heat of gases depending upon their composition 
^i temperature, radiation of furnace, variation of efficiency of heat 
transmission and variation of volume of gases in passages with differ- 
^t conditions of combustion, various rates of firing and percentage 
of mfiltration of air, also influence of superheat on the economy of 
the process. The graphical method of studying boiler performance as 
^^ested several years ago by Professor Qrinevetski, fairly satisfies 
tbese requirements, and the diagrams thus obtained, representing the 
forking process of a steam boiler, are the most reliable tools in the 
"^iids of an investigator for setting the task for boiler operation 
independent of the skill of the casual firemen during th^ test, and 
plainly establishing the relation between the causes and effects. By 
tbe Qrinevetski method the relations between the temperatures of 
^"6 gases and the heat contained in them at various temperatures are 
^bown in the form of parabolic curves, as are similarly the relations 
^tween the heat in the gases and the area of heating surface, and also 
t"<5 relations of radiated heat to the heating surface. 

9 The development of this method of analysis and its application 



350 



TASK 8ETnNG FOB FIBEUEN 



to practice, with testa, at the Warrior Bidge power plant of the Po 
Central Light & Power Company, formed the basis of the method 
work relating to task setting and the maintenance of efBciency, d. 
cuBsed in this paper. These tests were made early in 1913, two 
which, known as Nob. 1 and 8, were for the purpose of ascertaini 
the economic result of the operating method in vogne at the pla 




■ --.-^-^ 

BHowiva LocATiosB or 1 
Oas Fassaoes 

Iwfori' bc'tternietit work was started and to determine any possih 
weaknesses of the practice. Test Xo. I is merely a record of observatio! 
made o\er a period of 80 days to determine the result of form 
operating randitiouB, while test No. 3 was a deliberate attempt 
make a favorable showing under tliose conditions. The efBcien' 
observed iji test Xo. 2 was G7.94 per cent. Other tests, known 
Nob. 3, 5 and 6, were run to study the effects of the vario 
changes made in operating conditions and for the standardizstii 
of practice, while test No. 6 was a check test on our stand* 



WALTER N. POLAKOV 361 

76.03 per cent when operating at &9.6 per cent of rating, while its 
official repetition under a load of 115.5 per cent of rating, showed an 
efficiency of 77.&6 per cent. Still other tests were made principally 
for the selection of coal. 

10 The advantages of graphical study of boiler performance were 
thus plainly demonstrated and the efl&ciency figure of 77.66 per cent 
was accepted as a practical maximum of thermal efficiency for this 
boiler, furnace and grate. As a method, it demonstrates with an 
appealing clearness the main conditions and results of the process of 
combostion and steam generation. As a matter of fact the character- 
istic curve does not change materially in shape for different boilers 
nor vary at all for the same boiler and same fuel, and thus the 
problem resolves itself into mere calculation of scales, shifting of 
coordinates and measurement of projections. 

11 The next question therefore was to ascertain what would be 
the reasonable limit below which no fireman should allow his efficiency 
to drop. In this we had to consider the factors beyond the control 
of firemen, viz.: sudden fiuctuation of load and unpracticability in 
that particular instance to analyze gases every 3 minutes; drop of 
attention every 40 minutes for the period of 11 to 20 minutes and 
effect of cooling off heating surface and furnace walls during the 
cleaning of fires (the allotted time for this was set on time studies 
^ 18 minutes per 100 sq. ft. of grate surface). On the other hand 
there was made a correction for blowing off the boiler once every 24 
hours, which credited the boiler with so much metered water and 
debited it with so many heat units in the same amount of water at 
^he boiler temperature. As a result of these investigations and 
studies, it was foimd that the standard for the task should be set at 
'0 per cent combined boiler and grate efficiency. 

12 In this connection it is interesting to note that all officials of 
"ie concern and the representative of the boiler maker, considered 
"^e task on this basis too higli and that accomplishment of it would 
^ out of the question. The only argument that obtained its tem- 
porary approval was that it was easier to reduce the task in the future, 
'^ not feasible to accomplish, than to make it higher. The fourth 
^onth of the task work, however, proved that 73.1 per cent of boiler 
^d grate efficiency was permanently maintained, effecting for the 
company a gross saving of approximately 25 por cent on the fuel bill 
*lone. This was accomplished, and we would like to emphasize the 
'*ct, without heavy capital investment for physieal improvement of 



352 



TASK SETTING FOR FIREMEN 



equipment like automatic stokers, special grates, force draft fanB, 
soot blowers, etc. The only expense was for a few instruments for the 
guidance of the firemen in living up to their instruction card. 

13 After the test results were carefully studied and the practicil 
maximum efficiency established, it was an easy matter, by referring 
to the test logs, to standardize the conditions of firing which neoa- 
sarily result in generating steam at a desired degree of efficiency. 




Fio. 2 Dial of Steam Flow Meter with Special Scales fob usk as Fbi- 

man's Indicator 



In this, however, difficulty was encountered in that, like the great 
majority of boiler plants in this country, these boilers were equipped 
with only pressure gagos ami water columns, and it was necessary to 
provide instruments for certain important measurements. As with 
other conditions equal, the weight of steam is in direct proportion to 
the weight of fuel burned, the first instrument necessary for inform- 
ing the fireman as to how niucrli coal to put in the furnace is a meter 
indicating the output of the boiler. But as this proportion is constant 
only at a given condition of combustion, the firemen have to be 
informed at all times as to what these conditions are. .Since complete 
combustion requires a strictly defined quantity of air per pound of 



WALTER N. POLAKOV 363 

fuel of given composition^ we have to know : (a) Composition of fuel ; 
(b) rate of firing, lb. per sq. ft. per min. ; (c) rate of air supply, lb. 
per 8q. ft. per min. In most cases it is possible to obtain fuel of 
practically uniform analysis, and in addition to have the analysis 
report within 3 hours from the time of the delivery of coal to the 
bin, 80 that the first variable may be taken as a constant. As to the 
rate of firing, this is indicated by the steam flow meter inasmuch as 
conditions of combustion are uniform. Then, our last variable, the 
quantity of air to be supplied per minute to the furnace, is the factor 
which we have to control. 

14 As long as the infiltration of air remains constant (it should 
be as near to zero as possible) and the cross-section of air ducts or 
pit doors is constant, the variable elements are the veloctiy of air 
wid its specific weight. The specific weight being a function of tem- 
perature, calls probably for not more than two corrections per year for 
winter and sunmier average temperatures in the fire room. Thus 
we have a practical solution of the problem in the indications of a 
draft gage. Draft, i. e. vacuum over fires, is usually measured in 
8uch small fractions of an inch of water colunm that, considering 
the resistance of flow of the gases through the boiler as constant for 
^ rate of firing, it is more conv^ient to take readings at the uptake. 
From our definition of the draft as vacuum, it follows that, in itself, 
^t is no indication as to quantity of air flowing through the fuel bed 
^i must always be considered in relation to the resistance offered 
by the layer of burning coal. Careful tests can easily establish the 
desired interrelation between the quantity of air and thickness of fires, 
or a duplex draft gage can be advantageously used. 

15 This reasoning leads to the conclusion that for practical 
guidance the fireman needs at least three instruments: (a) Indicating 
■^eun meter; (6) draft gage; (c) indicator for the coordination of 
Uie condition of firing with the load carried by the boiler at any 
Dioment. In his experience the writer found that the well-known 
General Electric steam flow meter of the indicating type could easily 
*Dd satisfactorily serve the third mentioned purpose. The writer 
^''anges on the dial of the steam flow meter an inside dial, as shown in 
Kg. 2, with numbers indicating the required thickness of fuel bed 
corresponding to the number of pounds of steam drawn from the 
boiler and a third dial with numbers indicating -the draft which is 
necessary and suflBcient to supply the required quantity of air for the 
combustion at a rate called for by the indicated steam demand. Thus, 
i^ the pointer, as in Pig. 2, shows that steam is flowing from the boiler 



354 



TASK SETTING FOB FIREHEX 



at a rate of say 14,000 lb. per hour, the fireman will know thi 
figure 4 under the pointer on the middle scale means that a dn 
0.4 in, of water is needed and that the location of the pointer o 
inner ecale between the numbers 6 and 7 calls for a thickneaa cA 
of from 6 to ? in, 

16 The next information vitally important for the fiiMn 
the frequency at which his furnace must be coaled to keep the 











, 








,. 




^ 


kr 


==^ 


^ 




^ 


'.■' 






^^ 


f^. 


N 


^ 


X 


^ 






\ 






\ 




ofofrvn '■ 


K 








\, 




\. 








Fio, 3 DiAGBAu SHOWING MosT EooNOUic LoADiNOS Foa Tuioue Tn 



in best condition. 'I'hc method adopted by the Italian na 
accepted by the writer as most satisfactory, consisting chi^y ij 
signaling at intervals in proportion to the load carried by the In 
which signaling is regulated by clock mechanism connected » 
flow meter. For use in a boiler house where a number of bat 
are fired independently and it was desirable to eliminate the varii 
of load among them, a modification of this method was devif 
equalize the driving of each furnace. For this purpose the cc 
of the feedwater weigher, supplying water to the entire boiler 1 



WALTER N. POLAKOV 355 

riiigs the bell every time a certain number of thousand pounds of 
water is fed to the boilers, thus giving notice to the firemen that an 
adequate number of shovelsful must be thrown into each furnace. 
This number is easily determined since the weight of a shovelful of 
coal is known and the rate of apparent evaporation at the given condi- 
tion of firing is a constant. 

17 In a public utility plant the load carried by the boilers varies 
considerably, as a rule, not only throughout a day but often within 
an hour, in which it may swing from maximum to minimum, or vice 
versa. This condition was particularly noticeable in the plant of the 
Penn Central Light & Power Company at Warrior Ridge^ Pa., supply- 
ing power to the consumers as different in character as residential 
lighting, coal mines, textile mills, quarries and interurban railroads. 
While with a number of small steam generating units the peak per- 
iods and off-peak valleys in the load curve do not affect the rate of 
driving individual boilers since the number of boilers put into service 
can easily be changed, a widely fluctuating load within a short period 
has its limiting influence on the attainable efficiency of steam genera- 
tion. The time element in boiler performance, or, in other words, 
Uie time required for generation of a certain quantity of steam with 
the greatest economy, is of utmost importance. Some idea of the rela- 
tion of factor of thermal efficiency to the rate of driving for boilers 
of different designs is given in Fig. 3, a chart compiled from data 
gathered from the experience of the writer. 

18 Here again we are confronted with the fact that the thermal 
efficiency is not a final criterion and it is often the case that high 
fate of driving, although thermally efficient, is too expensive on 
account of special costly devices necessary for forcing the boilers or 
^even distribution of work on the men requiring extra men idle 
part of the time. Unwarranted lixed charges in one case and a high 
pay roll in the other make it financially desirable to limit the output 
of the boilers. 'Again, in other cases low rates of driving are aban- 
ooned irrespective of the thermodynamic advantages on the strength 
of financial impossibility for the concern to add new units. 

19 The above considerations require for proper solution of the prob- 
'^ a scnipulous research into the interdependence of: (a) Variation 
of fixed charges with various time units required for production of a 
^it of volume energy in shape of steam; (&) variations of thermal 
^ciency with the variations of the above time unit; (c) variations of 
P*y roll, etc. ; (d) variations of the cost of maintenance, etc. ; (e) phy 
^^^1 limits affecting the quality of steam, as size of superheaters 



356 TASK SETTING FOR FIREMEN 

which at certain point are unable to absorb the heat due to 
convection of heat by dry steam; and (/) physical limits of s 
Thus, while the increase of output up to certain limit usuall; 
creases the commercial eflBciency, after this point it begins to fall 
it is in most cases erroneous to assume the maximum thermal effici 
point is a best load to operate the boilers at, due to the complex! 
the above mentioned limiting factors. 

20 From this short reference to the limiting influence oi 
variable factors on the final commercial economy we may pai 
the problem of final criterion for the determination of the task, 
process of steam generation can be conveniently represented in 
form of the equation: 

J57s =J57f X-Bp xEm xEg xEo xEt 

where E indicates the ratio of utilization, or efficiency, and 
corresponding indexes signify as follows : s steam generation, /• fi 
cial outlay, p purchase of fuel, etc., m attendance of men, g gaa 
tion of fuel in furnace, c combustion of gases, and i transmissic 
heat of gases to the boiler water and steam. 

21 In a given plant E^ is constant; ^ is to be deteni 
previous to the setting of the task for men; the quality, characi 
tics and cost of fuel are so strictly governed by the construction o 
furnace and boiler, by the available draft, and methods of stc 
by the coking or baking peculiarities of fuel, that from the 
varieties of fuel available on the market, the selection of the 
suitable is a mere computation of the cost of fuel for generatinj 
1000 lb. of steam of given quality. This computation^ how 
shall follow, not precede the determination of the best conditic 
combustion with each of the varieties of fuel permanently avai 
on the local market at a given cost including freight rates. 

22 Efficiency of gasification of fuel E is a variable which i 
turn is limited by: (a) rate of firing, (b) fusing and clink< 
quality, (c) size of fragments of fuel, (d) method of firing, 
frequency of leveling or shaking, and (/) thickness of coal bed ' 
vided the design of furnace or grates remains unchanged). 

23 Similarly £j, efficiency of combustion of gases libe] 
from the fuel, is limited by several factors : (a) composition and lU 
of volatile matters, (h) proportion of gases to oxygen supplied b] 
(c) volume of gases developed per unit of time, (d) velocity o^ 
currents, (e) volume of furnace, (/) distance of the combustion 



WALTER N. POLAKOV 357 

from the heating surface, and (g) thickness of fuel bed, or length and 
shape of torch (for gaseous and liquid fuels). 

24 Finally E^y eflBciency of transmission of heat, even in the 
boiler of a given design, varies widely and is positively determined by : 
(a) velocity of hot gases, (&) volume per unit of time intact with unit 
of area, (c) temperature of the gases, (rf) pressure inside of the 
boiler, (e) insulating coating of cool gases, soot and scale deposits, 
and (/) desired quality of steam. 

25 A method of computing these partial efficiencies is self- 
evident : 

Eg (efficiency of ^^^^ value in refuse from N lb. coal burned 
gasification) " heat value in N lb. of coal 

Ec (efficiency of ^^^^ developed, computed from gas analysis 
combustion) "" heat in fuel less heat in refuse 

Et (efficiency of hes,i in steam generated by 1 lb. fuel 
heat transmission} "" ' heat~availa.bie forTeatrng'surf^^^ 

In the last case the temperature of the boiler itself at the given pres- 
sure could be taken into consideration as well as the temperature 
required for the creation of draft. In other terms this equation can be 
represented as the function of temperatures. 



T—t], 

^here 

T - temperature of the gases of combustion 

U - temperature of gases leaving boiler at uptake 

k - temperature of boiler water 

26 The information these formulae convey is of the greatest 
importance for influence of judgment as to what partial efficiency and 
^ what extent it could be sacrificed in order to arrive at a desired 
high standard and meet all other practical requirements and condi- 
^ons. But, it must not be forgotten that they contain no time ele- 
ment in their composition. To introduce this criterion the boiler 
^^tpnt per hour shall be recognized in either of the methods: 

., , , ., , heat absorbed by boiler per hour 

inermal boiler horsepow(T = 

1,980,000 ft-lb. 



358 TASK SETTING FOR FIREMKN 



or 



P XV 

mechanical boiler horsepower = 



23,760,000 



where 



p = steam pressure absolute per sq. in. 

V = steam volume generated in cu. in. per hour 

2'7 This general outline of a method of analyzing the li 
values of variables and determination of conditions necessary i 
attainment of certain predetermined results would be inco 
without a reference to the practice of studying the influence o 
vidual variables. The writer is convinced that any boiler trii 
ducted with the most scrupulous care may leave obscure the in: 
of a number of the above mentioned limiting factors as well a 
the question uncertain whether the maximum practical efi 
or capacity was really obtained during the test and whether 
the various conditions as observed are necessary and suffici 
duplicate the results at any time. The writer maintains, that i 
as the question is not to attain accidentally a mark set at n 
but clearly and fully to determine all conditions necessary for 
mum economy of operation, for the purpose of setting definite 
ards, it is imperative to conduct a number of separate obser^ 
though of short duration, dealing in each case with one an 
one variable in order to find its limiting effects. Only throi 
a posteriori method of reasoning, through a wide induction : 
sufficient number of particular observations, may the probabili 
is tantamount to certainty be attained. 

2S Ascertaining finally the physical elements of the efi 
equation and its value and, eliminating the constants beyo: 
control, we ultimately obtain a reliable basis for judging t 
ciency of the 'Tiuman element" of the problem which could be ex 

Em =/ (e) 
and its limit is reached when the difference between the the 
efficiency of the process and its actual accomplishment is zero 
29 We now come to the question of how to use this a^ 
knowledge based on theoretical research in such a way as to 
the best results practicable in regular service by the task i 
In setting a task for firemen, it remains to be determined w 
scope of the task shall be. In order to accomplish the pui 
devolves upon the management to accumulate the detailed an 
knowledge of the most favorable conditions to attain restL 



WALTEB N. POLAKOV 359 

make it possible and desirable for every employee to live up to them. 
It is for the employee, on the other hand, either to create or maintain 
such conditions as are required in the management's specific instruc- 
tions. 

30 Various schemes have been used as the basis of task setting 
for firemen which to the writer's knowledge have always created 
dissatisfaction. Certain of these are as follows : 

a The cost of steam generated was used for the basis of the 
task in the boiler room of a large cement plant, and a 
premium offered for the reduction of this cost, but as 
firemen have no control over the purchase of fuel, mainte- 
nance of equipment, etc., this task involved the standardiz- 
ing of conditions of combustion, for which no instruments 
were provided and no definite standard or aim was set 
before them, and the scheme was soon abandoned. 

b The high percentage of GOg in flue gas was adopted as a 
task basis for firemen in several plants, but the men 
were not trained nor were they even shown how to obtain 
it. When they occasionally attained the mark, the ques- 
tion remained undecided whether high percentage of car- 
bon dioxide was coincident with the most economical 
steam generation or not, and the method proved generally 
unsatisfactory. 

c A high percentage of COj and low percentage of combus- 
tible in the ashes, were factors upon which another attempt 
was made to specify more definitely the firemen's task. 
The question remains, however, whether the conditions 
which the firemen must observe to attain the task and 
produce gas rich in carbon dioxode and an ash with little 
carbon, are actually the best for transmitting the heat 
of the gases to the water and steam and whether at any 
load the same standard is equally beneficial. 

d A limit on coal consumption as a task for railroad firemen 
was favored at one time. This idea, probably the most 
ridiculous and illogical, soon demonstrated its own weak- 
ness and has been almost entirely abandoned. 

31 The lack of analytic thought in these instances is remarkable ; 
such important factors as condition of equipment, variable quality of 
™1, weather conditions, necessary instruments, complete record keep- 
^^gi thorough instructions, etc., were disregarded or undervalued. 
^T^e common cause of failure of such schemes has been the desire 



360 TASK SETTING FOB FIREMEN 

to make a short cut and jump over all preliminary studies, and 
the time and trouble of training men in a systematic and thoroxxgh 
manner how to accomplish the task set for them. Should such tr&in- 
ing be undertaken with bona fide intentions, the instructors themaelveB 
would be compelled to discontinue the training as soon as they dis- 
covered that the control of the conditions affecting the results h 
beyond the men. 

32 The question of measuring the effect of task accomplishiELeiit 
can be approached from either end, but it is more convenien't to 
figure out the result, and if this is below the standard, turn to "tlie 
records of conditions and there locate the discrepancy between "tlie 
required results and those obtained. A gage for measurement of iJhe 
degree of fulfilment of task conditions set is offered by the factor of 
thermal eflBciency of grate, furnace and boiler which is 

heat transferred to steam 

heat available in fuel 
This measurement involves several corrections for factors bqf^^^ 
firemen's control and neither ratio of apparent evaporation nor boiler 
efficiency nor efficiency of combustion alone are anywhere near suffi- 
cient for the purpose of judging the efficiency of the work of men. 

33 Actually to calculate the efficiency of the boiler, furnace BXii 
grate is a tedious and comparatively long procedure, and is never 
made in power plants for a day, shift, fireman or gang of firemen 
working in team. The writer in his capacity of consulting engineer 
devised and introduced a comparatively simple method of obtaining 
a complete record of firemen's performance and to figure their eflB- 
ciency. This method which has been in vogue for over a year at tbe 
the central station at Warrior Ridge, Pa., requires the following record 
data: 

a Coal records from store issue tickets and coal passed 

reports compiled every eight hours 
b Heat value of fuel determined by bomb calorimeter an^ 

value of coal in B.t.u. known for each coal pocket 
c Amount of water fed to boiler (banked boilers fed sep*' 

rately) ascertained for the same periods 
d Temperature of feedwater recorded 
e Steam pressure recorded 
/ Degrees of superheat recorded 

34 These data are turned over to the station clerk who proceedB 
as follows: 

a From th<^ slide rule shown in Fig. 4, he ascertains the 



WALTER N. POI^KOV 




TASK SETTING FOB FIBEUEN 



factor of evaporation (corrected) on the basis of absolute 
boiler pressure, temperature of feed and temperatnre of 
superheat 
b By means of the power plant log calculator, Fig. 5, he 

determines 




fi PowEK Pi^NT Loo Calculatob 



(1) Actual evaporation ratio during each watch or 

per each man 

(2) Factor of (evaporation during each watch or 

per each niun 



WALTER N. POLAKOV 



363 



(3) Kquivalent evaporation during each watch or 

per each man 

(4) Efficiency of steam generation per watch or per 

each man 

(5) Cost of fuel per 1000 lb. of steam per watch or 

per each man 



9 


€ ^*I5 


•••WTM 


•*• 1 »•" 



I MAM IHVCaTMATV* •■•• RlPMIT SCiOW TmI 

CAUSE OF LOST BONUS 
O. Hav/t ^ OM ^- Firinof 



ocrr. £lecir 



o»T«. War. Ridcfe 



COMOITIOM 



Draff- was set yvrotncf 



Due to leah i n d rct- Ff- qfotu^e 



lUTV IS MXOCATEO TO - 



Motintenoince Man 



REMEDY *T'"'*'>««> TO Bv mk Orofcrincf Rcpctir 

6, D. Port 



e 


/p 


'•/J 


•••M. 


•a* 


*«M 



I Na«i iN«c*TM«Tia Mia ntP9tn Oitow Tmi 

CAUSE OF LOST BONUS 



P. M. Pope 



.ON JOO 



Firinof 



ocrr. Elecfr 



owrn.H<aK Ridicfe 



OONOITfON 



Ej(froi t>oiter^ were shut down cf-fiher m/c/nf^ht 



Unexpecfed /ootd coime, foo hi'iyh rate of fi'rincf. 



....^••.urv .. *Lu»c*TCD TO ^*yifch-board operaior 

REMEDY *T^'*°'° '^^ *^ **' Reprimanded 

v5. D. Port 



-mmm—a0»m^mmr^ 



• 6 Examples op Form used for Records of Cause of Lost Bonus 

hen enters the results of computation on the daily power plant 

"t form (see Figs. 11 and 12). The whole procedure takes on 

iverage 18 minutes of the clerk's time, for whom, incidentally, 

ecific task is assigned and sufficient hourly bonus offered for 

ulfilment. 

5 Every case of failure on tho part of any fireman to secure on 

^atch the combined boiler, furnace and grate efficiency of 70 per 



364 TASK SETTING FOR FIREMEN 

cent or above is immediately investigated by studies of other records 
and recording charts of drafts, temperature of escaping gases, nature 
of boiler refuse, etc., and if no reason can be found there, an examini- 
tion of the physical condition of equipment and apparatus is madft 
The result of this investigation is recorded on a form for cause of hit 
bonus, Fig. 6. This method is particularly valuable and outside of 
its direct advantages provides an additional and continuous training 
of the men in careful observation of harmful factors of the slighteit 
nature. 

36 Then by means of complete and trustworthy records the fire- 
men are informed as to results of their* work before they come back for 
the next watch (see Fig. 7) and moreover, while they are proceeding 



CHAIMtC 

DAILY BONUS SLIP 



September 



-OATC 

oi«T»iicT . >.^»>.-r JVarrior Ridofe 



HOURS DAY WORK jL 



4 

HOURS BONUS CARNCO . . < 



HOURS BONUS WORK 



TOTAL HOURS POR DAY 



s 



RCMARKs 7/.^^- 4 hrs. f/rmcf on 3'S'sHtft, 
4 hrs- poissihof coat ibr sick coal parser, 



SIONCO 



6. D. Port 



FiQ. 7 Form for Daily Bonus Statement to Firkickn 

with their work, they have in addition to previously mentioned in- 
struments indicating the condition of firing, continuous information 
as to results they are accomplishing up to any moment of their watch. 
This is accomplished by liaving coal weighing and water metering so 
balanced that an even number of dumps of feedwater and dumps of 
coal indicates that the ratio of evaporation (superheat, pressure and 
feed temperature being as specified), is on the safe side of the re- 
quirement. 

37 The record of attainment of the task by firemen kept in the 
manner devised by H. L. Gantt (Fig. 8) offers such well-known 
advantages over any other method that it was adopted for general use 



WALTER N. POLAKOV 



li. I 



II 1_J . I I 'll'l 

t liH > • I I 



I I 



III 



II 
II 



ill" 4 -I 
iii I iiiii I I 



>■ ■■ 

L ■■ 



";TII..I' 

■ ■ I 

n 



IM 



"I ^ i 









366 TASK SETTIN(i FOR FIREMEN 

by the above mentioned public utilities companies. The illustration 
of this record, kept from the start of task work in the boiler house, 
shows steady improvement and better habits of men. While the May 
record showed only 68.7 per cent efficiency of boiler and grates of the 
whole plant, the last month on this record showed the efficiency of 
73.1 per cent. The number of day-men falling short on the task is 
steadily reducing. The number of men absent is, however, chiefly 
due to "days off" and summer vacations, for the men work seven days 
a week in a plant of this character. It should here be stated that the 
departure from the principle of separate man's record made by the 
writer at first involuntarily proved to be so gratifying, creating as it 
did an unusually strong team spirit of cooperation, that the writer 
has never attempted to split the records of two or three men working 
jointly firing one battery of boilers. 

38 The elements affecting the choice for or against task work 
arc so numerous that they cannot all be mentioned. The essential 
thing is that some element of advantage to the workmen be intro- 
duced sufficient to overcome actual or imaginary disadvantages be- 
lieved by the men to exist as a result of the new state of affairs. This 
advantage takes the form of a sufficiently attractive and generous 
bonus to be paid for willingness to learn the new way and to continue 
to observe the instructions. Actual accomplishment of the task and 
consequent earning of the bonus means the adjustment of certain 
conditions concurrent with the adjustment of others. This adjustmeati 
being under tlie control of the employee is a physiological process 
principnlly depending on (a) the will power of the man, and (O 
physical fitness. 

.')0 The man to whom a certain task is assigned must strive \X> 
accomplish its aim. The exercising of the power of will is a threefold 
process: first, the man must have a desire; secondly, he must make ^ 
flioico of ways and means; and thirdly, he must perform necessary 
actions. The workman's desire from necessity is to earn his living 
at least; next he has to choose whether he shall work under instruct 
tions as set forth in the standing order and instruction cards for th^ 
compensation offered ; and lastly, ho has to act according to hi ^ 
«lecision in order to satisfv his desire. 

40 As a rule, the workmen feel that the adoption of a new methoo 
will impose on them an undue strain, but it is comparatively easy U^ 
overcome this misconception with the firemen from the fact thfc't 
^rreater efficiencv means loss coal to be shoveled. On the other hand- 
the new conditions require the men to «xive their attention to instruc^ 



WALTER N. POLAKOV 



367 



nd the indications of the apparatus, which diverts them un- 
tly from chatting at leisure with their fellow workmen. This 
I more serious obstacle to their quick decision in favor of new 

than anything else. 

Cases are not infrequent where the men, particularly those 
r less in authority, take offense at scientific study and prefer 
; it or even quit rather than admit the advantages of the new 
3. Temperament usually determines the vigor of the oppo- 

Social conditions occasionally influence a man^s choice for 
nst the new regime. If a person who is admired by his associates 



a 

o 
a 

m 

w 

E 

£ 

to 

w 

o 
2.5 

2.0 
1.5 

to 

0.5 





\ 



50 






V 






Dcn^ 



\ 



ficttff 



\ 



\ 



Prey io us Doty Rate 



oTcsf 
No. 5 
TesfNaZ 
... N 

\ 
\ 



Test No. to B 
o 



Bonus 



oTesfNo.6 



oTestNatOA. 



\ 



11.5 
11. 

las 



ia ^ 

9.5 E 

o 
o 

-J 
o 

a5i 

u 
o 

lE 

7.5^ 

t) 
o 

7. «-> 



6l5 
6. 



55 



60 



80 85 

9 Diagram showing Method or Task and Bonus Adjustment 



i>b 70 75 

Boi\er aMd Grcxte Efficiency 



18 to decide against task work, he is liable to influence the choice 
friends and acquaintances very materially. Members of labor 
I are more apt to disfavor task work, while socialists are strongly 
or of it, feeling that the sciontific method of management helps 
ve the problem of nationalization of industries. 

In order to determine the amount of bonus, there must be 

nits established — a maximum and a minimum. The maximum 

should be equal to th(* amount of net saving accomplished 

^von circumstances, while the minimum boniis is, of course, 



368 TASK SETTING FOR FIREMEN 

equal to zero. When the bonus to be paid actually reaches either 
these limits it loses its usefulness since it loses its stimulating e£bc1 
with the management^ if the maximum^ and with the men, if i 
minimum. Since in an average boiler house the task results in six 
25 per cent saving on the coal bill while the fireman^s payroll is fr 
10 to 15 per cent of the coal bill, it is evident that there is a cons 
erable latitude for adjustment of bonus. 

43 After the choice has been made in favor of task work, m 
result of the stimulus offered, the third element, proper action, is ; 
far from being secured. To act in the chosen direction one mi 
know how the desired result is to be accomplished. Lack of sofficic 
information necessarily produces a strong perception of uncertaii 
coincident with suffering. After the excellent essay on training woi 
men by Mr. H. L. Gantt, little if anything can be said on this subje 
except, that in case of firemen, the success of attainment of the ta 
is determined by detailed, patient, and prolonged training and instni 
tions, and as such this is the most important function of the manag 
ment. A dummy furnace was found to be an excellent means to brei 
in the green hands. 

44 Although the above requirements of additional compensatii 
and exhaustive training for stimulating men's will to cooperate wi 
the management in attainment of the state of high efficiency a 
imperative, they alone are insufficient. The psychical conditions und 
which the men have to work must be so arranged as to insure t 
fullest preservation of their strength, health, and psychical facalti< 
The opposition exercised by some labor organizations in instanc 
where greater efficiency is demanded from the workingmen witiio 
adequate safeguards to their vitality and ability to work is a just a: 
well grounded fight against the short-sightedness of some self -term 
efficiency experts. 

45 In a boiler house the amount of work per man per hour 
constant, and cannot be increased without knocking down the effiden 
to a ridiculously low figure, but the number of foot-poimds of wc 
can be reduced in an inverse proportion to the increase of efficient 
so that the question of preservation of a man's health, etc., eliihina' 
any consideration of overspeeding. The conditions which then remi 
for consideration are (a) temperature of room; (6) ventilation (di 
and draft) ; (c) lighting; (d) drinking water; (e) restful seats; a 
(/) sanitary washrooms. 

46 One familiar with the common layout of a power plant cam 
over-emphasize the importance of the above conditions to enable t 



WALTER N. POLAKOV 



369 



men to live up to their task day in and day out. While engine rooms 
not infrequently offer very pleasant and sanitary surroundings, boiler 
houses, the most important part of any plant, are so built as to make 
them unbearably cold in winter and uncomfortably hot during the 
summer; ventilation apparently serves either to fill the lungs with 
coal dust or to chill the perspiring men after cleaning their fires. 
Lighting is an unusual luxury, so that after looking into tlie furnace 
no man could read his gages or examine anything around the boiler. 
Good drinking water is rarely provided, and restful seats with backs 




no. 10 Graphical Record of Actual Reduction or Cost op Coal and Labor 

PER Kw-Hr. 



(seats without backs are equal to no seat at all) were never found by the 
^^r in any boiler house. Yet the mere fact that the firemen, if 
provided with seats having backs, can get through the cleaning of 
"^68 in 18 minutes per 100 sq. ft., while without them they consume 
at best 24 minutes, apparently should convince any unbiased mind. 

^7 On the contrary, the absence of an elementary condition of 
^nifort in a working place where the men spend the better part of 
their lives is more harmful to the employers than to the employee, 
l^he petty annoyances and feelings of discomfort divert the attention 
01 the men from the performance of their duty to means of avoiding 



370 



TASK SETTING FOR FIREMEN 



the annoyance or harm. Steady attention on the part of tl 
is much more important than is generally realized. A psj 
test conducted by the writer on the eflfect of the occasiom 
attention with the same individual and with individuals 
diflferent degrees of this faculty proved that physical cone 
strength being constant, the boiler efficiency percentage is in 
direct proportion to the degree of attentiveness of the firen^ 
48 With healthy, sanitary and pleasant surroundings 
cient criterion for judging whether the man's task is h 

'^'^ DAILY POWER PLANT REPORT 

ptnn ecfmiAL liont and towkn co. FT 



WATOM I 



WMTONI 



WAT^NS 



W^TONA 



ee«t u*c» te 



mtettM cvAvoMirK* 



ACTUM CwaMMUTWM 



wm 



48800 

-^tssoo 

6.62 
1.2187 
10. SO 
7Ji-fX 
0.0815 



-^SBOO 
'408B00 

8.52 
1. 2 185 
10.13 
70.8% 
a 0845 



' 34000 

284000 
8.37 

1.2287 
10.28 
71.8% 

a 08 33 



980 

21220 

79.5 

19.78 

2.30 

10.71 

a00201 



8i 
20- 

20 
2. 
10. 

aoi 



RCMAflKS: 



eoM, irace roM I 



TOTAL evvwrr. 



55 — . 3000 ^ 
30 



5.0. FoK 



Fio. 11 Example op Daily Report from the Plant SHOwmo 

Results 

simple and apparently reliable method was devised by t 
It is evidently beyond the means of ordinary time study 
whether or not the possible output in a unit of time is f 
from the viewpoint of the preservation of the individua 
nation. The problem in itself is twofold: (a) strain per ui 
in foot-pound per square inch of cross-section of a muscle 
number of time units at work. As in every case where i 
two variables are evolved, the maxima are determined by th 
conditions of variables, and the constant safe limit can I 
either by a comparatively great strain during a short time 
intense strain during a longer period. If t and s are time i 
respectively, the equation 

d/c X/\ 

dViXc's)^^ 



WALTER N. POLAKOV 



371 



if differentiated, illustrates the problem; yet, whether factor c for 
time or c' for strain has the same numerical value the experiments 
alone are able to show. More study along this line is needed. 



DAILY POWER PLANT REPORT 



nxm ecMTiiAt uoHt and powin eo. 
w^T.<> ii Warrior Rid^e 



>3 



7'- 



VMTOM t 



WMTONa 



VWITON A 



«wn«Me 



riMNMTC 



M«iM mvwm 



vwMwrpwr. 



SBOOO 
440000 
8.66 

t.212S 
tO.49 

73. S 
aOSB3 



SOOOO 
430000 

6.62 
f.21S9 

fO.48 

75.6 
a MM 



31900 
265500 

3.3^ 
t.?05l 

t0.05 

70.6 
a 0848 



■TarnmMN 



I300 
22700 
88.5 
19.78 
2.29 
to. 8 5 
0.00198 



2240 

22560 

68.3 

19.07 

221 

11.22 

a 00189 



_ 



60 

f4840 

62.1 

18.00 

215 

11.54 

000206 



5S fa- 5000 



40 



^ ^B.r.U 136 00 



3. 0. Pbrf 



DAILY POWER PLANT REPORT 



IM OINTIMi LMMT AND TOWKN CO. 

mt w Warrior ffidge 



9 



7J 



7-- 



WATeM t 



VMTeMa 



VMTOM* 



VMTOM ^ VMTOM O 



51850 
436600 

643 
U212S 

1022 

71.8 X 
0.0837 



54000 

423000 

7.85 

1.2095 

9.49 

66.7% 
00900 



30750 

260500 

8.50 

1. 1965 

1017 

71.5% 
00840 



•TUUt m MM 
••Mm KMN 



530 

22470 

76.3 

19.43 

2.31 

10.72 
000196 



4890 

22310 

74.4 

1699 

2.42 

1026 
000205 



13400 

55.8 

19.46 

2.80 

10.80 
000208 



1 .Ol 



mjum •UNiNO. 



8 



0_S 
43 



2000 



.LM. COAL ANAIV*I« STU AVK 



B.T.U. 13800 



*••*••»••?. 



^S. D. Port 



^^' 12 DxttT Hbports showing High and Low Average Results from 

THE Plant 

^9 In our experience we adopted in addition to time studies, a 
^f^^ul investigation of fatigue, both mental and physical, and meas- 
^^nientg of the vitality of the men affected by various ronditions 



372 TASK SETTING FOR FIREMEN 

of work and number of working hours per day. Xo task is reasonable 
unless the workman can fully regain his loss between quitting time 
and recommencing work the next day, and during a suflSciently long 
period of observation a man should be able to gain or at least not loae 
anything in his vitality. Observations should cover probably four 
factors: (a) weight of body; (h) blood pressure; (c) temperature 
of body; and (d) pulse. The blood analysis while considered desir- 
able is too cumbersome to make, and other indications being favorable 
can safely be omitted. Almost unanimous statements of those observ- 
ing the task work performed in a great variety of industries assert 
that men are gaining in health and spirit, but scientifically definite 
data alone could prove this fact beyond any doubt. 

50 Finally, the time element in relation to task setting for men, 
particularly if the work requires a considerable strain, must be settled 
by examination no less careful than the study of the time rate of 
driving boilers. When, however, as in the case of firemen, both 
physical strain and attention are required, it was found that with 
strong, healthy individuals the limiting factor on number of hours 
of profitable work is set not by physical exhaustion but by weariness 
of spirit. Other conditions being equal, a fireman on a IB-houT 
watch is found to he about J^.5 per cent less efficient than the same mati 
on an 8-hour shift 

51 This time- limiting factor on human efficiency, taken in con- 
junction with a scientific certainty in determination of the most ad- 
vantageous thermal efficiency, formed the grounds on which the writcT 
rejected the sliding scale of bonus rate results exceeding the task set 
by various degrees. The task set must bo so little below the most 
advantageous point that it coulH be reached with greatest benefit to 9-1^ 
concerned and it is not desirable from economical aspects either to 
fall short of or considerably to overreach it. Offering extra compen- 
sation for excess of the task requironiorit moans in final analysis eith^'' 
that the investigator did not dotormine both limits, or that the maxi- 
agemont tempts a man to do more than the average employer dares to 
ask directly. 

52 The example of efficient cooperation between employer aoo 
employee in the power plants of public utility corporations here re 
ferred to Henion.'^t rated tho ^alue nf the above principles for settixi^ 
task and aroonipiisliiiifr the prodctorniinod results in firing boilefS- 
The diagram in Fig. 10, s]iowin<r cost per kilowatt-hour of fuel rel^' 
live to fircmoiV}: payroll niifl Ikhius before and after adoption o* 
i^ciontific basis for firing, prcs<'nts, outside of the interesting reduction 



DISCUSSION 373 

in cost since the change of method took place, another feature also 
of no less importance, namely, that since that time the unit cost re- 
mained practically constant, while previously it fluctuated con- 
siderably. Samples of daily power plant reports are shown in Figs. 
11 and 12. 

53 The writer does not claim to have made any new discovery 
or exhaustive treatment of the technique of the question. The under- 
taking of presenting to the profession a brief outline of systematic 
method of task setting for one particular job can be considered fairly 
fulfilled, if the necessity of thorough scientific research and accumu- 
lation of available data for further enlightenment of the many still 
obscure facts and their coordinations is sufficiently demonstrated. 

DISCUSSION 

D. S. Jacobus believed it impossible to get up an equitable bonus 
system where the men in the boiler room would be paid individual 
bonuses. The whole organization should be taken together. If an 
endeavor were made to pay individual bonuses, based on the boiler 
efficiency secured in each case, the men would soon find out that by 
carrying a uniform fire they would get the best eflBciency. In the case 
of a fluctuating load those conscientious enough to meet the variations 
by manipulating the fires to give more or less steam would be penalized 
tbrough their inability to rim at as high a rating as the men carrying 
unifonn fires. It was hard to see how this point could be covered in 
*fiy equitable system other than by considering the work of the men 
M a whole. 

He considered that the best way of handling the situation would 
be to put the right sort of a man in charge in the boiler room and 
Diake him responsible for the results, in which case the men might 
be given an increase in pay in proportion to the amount they could 
wve by exerting themselves to the utmost. The general idea that the 
firemen were opposed to improvements did not seem correct to Dr. 
Jacobus. He had had considerable experience in working in fire- 
'^Das to get the best out of the men and knew that if the firemen 
'dt that the expert was in a certain sense one of them, they would 
^0 all that they could to cooperate. 

H. G. SrroTT took exception to the curves showing the most 
Gnomic loadings for various types of boilers. His experience was 
^bat the type of boiler had very little to do with that question ; it 



374 TASK SETTING FOR FIREMEN 

was entirely a question of the furnace and the combustion of the fuel 
A boiler could be driven easily up to 400 per cent rating, or even more. 
The arrangement of the tubes one way or another was ImmateriaL 

In the table of the rate of boiler readings, No. 7, a fire-tube boikr 
with superheater, was given as the most economical one. Mr. Stott 
said he had efficiencies on the regular Babcock and Wilcox boiler equal 
to those shown in this curve ; the Babcock and Wilcox boiler could be 
carried practically to unlimited rating. Inseparable from this ques- 
iUm of rating was tlie one of the economics of the plant. A plant mi^t 
be run at an efficiency of 60 per cent during the peak load, and operate 
more economically, when the fixed charges were taken into considera- 
tion, tlian when running at 80 per cent. When running at 80 per 
cent, the boilers had to be operated at 70 per cent of the so-called 
rating, and above that these high efficiencies were not obtainable. At 
the same time, if two curves were plotted, one of the fixed charges 
per kilowatt-hour, and the other of the operating cost per kilowatt- 
hour, it would be found that for the peak load which might last two 
or four hours a day, the operating charges were relatively moDr 
portant, but the greatest care must be taken to keep down the 
fixed charges. In other words, the number of boilers on a line must 
be kept down, as well as the number of banked boilers to be operated- 
Mr. Stott believed the time was coming when a boiler plant would 
be equipped with modem combustion appliances, otherwise modem 
stokers, which were practically automatic and required little attention*- 
Xot firemen, but combustion engineers, or men who had graduated 
from technical schools, would be required then. It was impossible to 
get that type of man to go into the boiler room yet, but this would 
come about when owners of boiler plants were willing to pay more *^ 
the man who operated the boiler than to the man who operated tl*^ 
turbine room or the engine room, because the latter could make O-^ 
change in the economy of the plant, whereas the former could mab^* 
5 to 10 per cent diflference. 

AiJiERT A. Cary (written). The skill of the firemen and tl»^ 
ability or capacity of those who have them under their charge mX^ 
most important factors in the economical operation of a boiler plaO* 
and means must be employed, during preliminary investigation worfc 
to ascertain the part played by such men in arriving at the resul*^ 
obtained. Special apparatus should be used to determine carefully 
every individual feature included in the furnace, boiler or other parf 
of the equipment and every variable condition which enters into ib« 



DISCUSSION BY A. A. GARY 375 

operation of tlie plant should be noted at the time it actually occurs. 
Merely taking observations during the time of a test and waiting until 
after its conclusion to work up all results, and then attempting to 
make deductions, is a practice which will often lead to the overlooking 
of very important occurrences which would lead to a materially 
different method of future operation of the plant. 

I have found it extremely desirable to use a system in testing by 
which very frequent gas analyses are obtained (not less than from 
six to eight per hour) and these results are chalked up on a black- 
board as rapidly as they are obtained. By this means it is possible to 
follow closely the occurrences taking place in the furnace during the 
course of a test. When making hand-fired tests, I use a device which 
tells exactly the number of seconds the furnace doors are kept open. 
Together, these two means serve to size up the value of a fireman 
very quickly and the comparative merits of two alternate firemen be- 
come very apparent in a short period of time. This subject was 
treated at considerable length by me in a series of papers^ written 
for the Iron Age. 

I have had considerable experience with Segar cones for determin- 
ing furnace temperatures and have found that the true furnace 
temperature could not be obtained through their use on a poker, as 
was shown by Mr. Polakov. I have found their general use so un- 
satisfactory that I have abandoned them entirely. The proper use of 

* good optical pyrometer will give the most reliable results. 

Keferring to the statement as to the impracticability of getting 

* gas analysis every three minutes, I have not only obtained the 
ordinary gas analysis (including COj; 0; CO and N) for 3 minute 
intervals, but have also succeeded in obtaining the complete analysis 
of the gas including H and CH^ over 3 minute intervals. But gen- 
^'^y, in refined boiler testing, intervals between analyses should not 
•» over 10 minutes. 

Mr. Polakov states that the weight of the steam generated is in 
^^t proportion to the weight of fuel burned. I hardly think that 
^e intends this statement to cover operation below rating, at rating 
*^d when the boiler is being greatly forced. Also he speaks of having 
^"6 firemen carry the fire bed at a uniform thickness ; this is hardly 
Practical in hand-fired practice where, after cleaning, a comparatively 
"^ bed is started which is increased in thickness up to the time of 
^ next cleaning, although the use of good shaking grate bars will 
^^^^j this condition somewhat. 

•Iron Age, vol. 90, p. 832; 900; 1012; 1026. 



376 TASK SETTING FOR FIREMEN 

Mr. Polakov showed a large number of factors used to arrive at 
the useful result obtained iu steam generation, but these only aerve 
to complicate and obscure a rational consideration of the problem. I 
make it a practice to determine the individual efficiency of the funuice, 
and study my furnace conditions apart from the balance of the com- 
bination. I then determine the individual efficiency of the boiler and 
study it by itself, and find whether the boiler is operating under im- 
proper furnace or other conditions. 

Unfortunately, boiler efficiency is not a fixed quantity undei 
varying conditions of operation, depending largely, as it does, upon 
tlie operation of the furnace ; with no fire in the furnace, the boilei 
has no efficiency at all. But, during the course of any particular test 
the boiler has its individual efficiency for the set of conditions foiuw 
at that time, and the study of its efficiency in connection with it 
controlling conditions shows us where we can improve the defect 
under which it is operating. These, if remedied, will raise th 
efficiency of the entire steam generating unit. 

The efficiency of the boiler has long been considered and obscure 
in the reports of combined boiler and furnace efficiency, as this cone 
bined efficiency is composed of the product of the furnace and boil< 
efficiencies. When a low combined efficiency results during a test, ho 
are we to know whether the fault is in the boiler or in the furnace 
Inference may help us somewhat, aided by the observations take3 
but this old time "cut and try" method of making improvements 
not in keeping with modern engineering efficiency practice. 

R. J. S. PiGOTT, referring to the diagram showing most econon*. 
loadings for various types of boilers, thought there was still a goc 
deal of misapprehension among most engineers as to the econosB. 
poiiil of l(>n<liii<r, both of a hoilor and of a turbine. He found thatti 
efficiency of the boiler and of the turbine had much the same cha- 
acteristic, namely, tliere was a dome or high point at some place i 
the load: with the turbine it was usually at full load that the be; 
efficiency occurred ; beyond that point there might be some 25 or £ 
per cent capacity allowed for overload. In the boiler this best loadin 
occurred very low in the total capacity of the boiler, about one-thii 
or one-(iuartcr of the maximum capacity. The total rating of tl 
engine r()oni consisted not only of the usual rating of the turbin 
but also of the auxiliaries necessary to run the turbine; in other word 
the water rntc of llu* turbine might be 12 or 13 lb. per kw. at i 
best load, l»ut wlicn the load required to drive the auxiliaries it 



DISCUSSION 377 

superimposed, the water rate was much higher, possibly 16 to 18 lb., 
and the best water rate, including the auxiliaries, was always at a 
higher load than the best load on the turbine only. This was also 
true of the boiler room, where there are auxiliaries such as the forced 
draft fans and possibly induced draft fans, the boiler feed pumps, etc. 

While the condenser auxiliaries ran with a practically constant 
amount of steam, no matter what the load on the turbine, the units 
in the boiler room were different and required somewhat less steam 
at lighter loads than at full load. For instance, with a centrifugal 
boiler feed pump the total steam consumption at zero delivery was 
seldom less than 56 per cent of the steam at full load on the pump. 

If the net output of steam per boiler delivered by the boiler room 
were considered, the most efficient point would always be at a higher 
load on the boiler than the best efficiency of the boiler alone. 

Edw. a. Uehlino (written). Mr. Polakov^s paper brings out 
^0 very important points: First, it emphasizes the fact that the 
>oiler house is the place where the greatest savings can be made, and 
®cond, that boiler efficiency tests are of very little economic value 
^688 adequate means for guidance and control are inaugurated, and 
^e consideration is given to the human element. 

The economic conditions found in the plant under consideration 
^ Mr. Polakov^s paper are those prevailing in the majority of steam 
^Jler plants. The fact that a "saving of approximately 25 per cent 
1 the fuel bill alone was accomplished without heavy capital invest- 
^enf for equipment and alteration of plant, etc., except for the 
^cessary apparatus and instruments for control and guidance of the 
>iler-room crew, should serve to arouse all those power plant man- 
?er8 who have given the question of fuel economy insufficient thought, 
f have attacked the problem only in a more or less superficial way. 

As to the necessity of keeping the fireman informed how well he 
^ or has been, performing his task, there can be no question ; as to 
lie best method of accomplishing this end, opinions may differ. Mr. 
PolakoY presents a very complete bonus system, which is no doubt 
effective and the principal cause of maintaining the high efficiency 
sported, but it is too elaborate to merit wide application. I would 
»l8o question the rationale of his guide to efficient firing controlled 
Qitirely by the steam flow meter indicating the thickness of fire and 
^^ to be maintained ; there is no constant relation between draft 
^^i thickness of fire. The efTectivoness of a given draft is modified 
"y several factors: (a) tlio conditions of the fire as affected by the 



378 TASK SETTING FOR FIREMEN 

size of the coal, which may vary greatly from hour to hour^ (6) 
thickness of the ash bed, and (c) the presence of clinkers. Thni 
in. of draft may be less effective when the fire is dirty than 0.^ 
after it has been cleaned. Mr. Polakov does not say whether all 
boilers are controlled by one flow meter on the main steam lim 
whether every boiler is equipped with an individual flow meter. 
the former case, how can a fireman tell whether his boiler is ma 
its full share of the steam required ? In the latter case, the lee 
individual boiler does, the less the indicator will show what it o 
to do. It would seem, therefore, that a guide for the fireman, 
trolled by a steam flow meter, would be of questionable value, 
success which Mr. Polakov scored in attaining and maint4iininj 
high efficiency is due: 

a To putting the plant in the best possible oondition 

selecting the most profitable kind of coal; 
b To instructing thoroughly the personnel of the boiler 1 

and providing for legitimate comfort; 
c To the inauguration of a liberal bonus system, baaed oi 

actual efficiency of every individual fireman ; 
d To the admirable system of investigating every shortooD 
in order to determine whether it was due to the mai 
to sometliing over which he had no control; and ii 
latter, to the immediate remedying of the cause. 
The fact that, in order to carry out the above plan, it is neca 
to meter the water correctly to every individual boiler, to keep 
on the water wasted in blowing off and that fed to boilers banked, 
to weigh out the coal for every individual fireman for each shift; 
to make the necessary calculations and write out the individua 
ports, etc., necessarily brings up the question whether equally 
results may not be obtained by simpler means. 

Mr. Polakov mentioned several other ways in which it has 
attempted to inaugurate bonus systems for firemen, all of whic 
doomed to failure. Among others he mentions the attempt to 
such a bonus system on the percentage of CO^ contained in the 
gas. Of this, he says, "The high percentage of CO, in the flui 
was adopted as a task basis for firemen in several plants, but the 
were not trained nor were they shown how to obtain it. When 
occasionally attained the mark, the question remained unde( 
whether the high percentage of carbon dioxide was coincident 
the most economical steam generation or not, and the method pi 
general y unsatisfactory." 



DISCUSSION BY B. A. UEHLING 379 

I ask the question : How could it be otherwise ? Would not Mr. 
Polakov^s system prove worthless if carried out in the same slovenly 
way? It can be safely stated that wherever 00, has failed to be a 
true guide to efficient firing, it has been due to similar causes. 

It is an indisputable fact that of any given boiler fired with the 
same fuel under the same conditions, the higher the percentage of 
CO, within the limits of practically complete combustion, the higher 
willbe the efficiency. Any exceptions that may have been noted are 
always due to variations in the fuel, either physical or chemical or 
both, type of boiler, type of furnace, rate of driving, etc. 

For example, excessive stack temperature due to hard driving, or 
insufficient heating surface, or a dirty boiler, may easily neutralize 
the benefit due to several per cent of OOj, and thus it may, and does 
frequently happen, that the same boiler driven more moderately, 
resulting in a low stack temperature, may show a higher efficiency 
with a lower percentage of CO, in the products of combustion. When 
the results from boilers of different types operating under quite 
different conditions are compared, the apparent contradiction to the 
above statement may appear even more obvious. None the less the 
fact remains, that in every case where a comparatively low efficiency 
is obtained with the high percentage of CO, it would have been still 
lower if the CO, had been lower, and where a comparatively high 
efficiency results from a lower percentage of CO, it would be corre- 
spondingly higher if the CO, had been higher, and these apparent 
^ntradictions do not all militate against the value of CO, as a guide 
for, as well as a control, over the fireman. Wherever exceptionally 
'^igh boiler efficiency has been achieved and maintained, a high per- 
centage of CO, in the flue gas has been obtained and maintained. 

The high standard set by Dr. Jacobus by the efficiency tests of 
^e large boilers at the Delray plant of the Detroit Edison Company 
^w achieved with. a percentage of CO, averaging over 14 per cent, 
^i this high standard of efficiency has been practically maintained 
^der every day working conditions, using the continuous recording 
*nd indicating CO, meter as the principal guide for the firemen.^ 

That this cannot be otherwise becomes self-evident, when we take 
Uito consideration the fact that up to 90 per cent and more of the 
heat loss in the generation of steam in the average boiler, is due to the 
heat which passes up the chimney. This loss is the product of weight 
^^ the products of combustion, the temperature at which they escape 
^i the specific heat. The weight increases rapidly as the CO, de- 

^ reported in the paper by J. W. Parker, Trans.Am.Soc.M.E., vol. 35, 
p. 307. 



380 TASK SETTING FOR FIREMEN 

creases and the temperature is not materially changed, due to 
percentage of CO2 in the flue gas. 

Much stress is laid on the danger of losing more by tiie preae 
of 00 in fuel value due to high CO2, than is gained in Teducijig 
loss of sensible heat by reducing the weight of the flue gas. Whi! 
by no means wish to underrate the importance of complete coml 
tion, I do believe that there is much misconception regarding \ 
point. In a paper, (Combustion and Boiler Efficiency,^ read be! 
the Society three years ago, I believe I have demonstrated by 8( 
1100 odd flue gas analyses that there is no relation between the c 
tent of 00 and OOj in flue gas ; that low OO2 is not a guarantee i 
combustion is complete and high OO2 is not necessarily acoompai 
by an appreciable percentage of 00. This fact is also borne out 
the flue gas analyses reported by Mr. Polakov, which showed that 
lowest percentage of OO2 was accompanied by the highest percent 
of combustible gases. Oomplete combustion depends much less 
large percentage of free oxygen than on the method of firing and 
construction of the furnace, and most of all on the furnace temp 
ture, and inasmuch as an imnecessary amount of excess air lo^ 
the furnace temperature, very low OO2 is more likely to be aco 
panied by combustible gases than rationally high CO,. 

It has been abundantly demonstrated that with correct fun 
construction, thorough instruction and proper treatment of the i 
men, and by providing them with adequate means for their guida 
and control, 12 to 15 per cent of OO2 can be regularly attained w 
out appreciable amounts of 00 and maximum efficiency thei 
maintained. It has also been demonstrated that a large excess of 
i. e., a low percentage of OO2, is no guarantee against incomplete 
bustion, that sporadic boiler tests and occasional gas analyses an 
little value, that half-hearted attempts with an inadequate means 
guidance and control cannot succeed and are therefore a waste of t 
and money. 

To insure success the conditions must be studied, radical def< 
must be remedied, the firemen must be instructed and their legitin 
comforts considered, an incentive to excel must be given, and ab 
all, adequate means for their guidance and control must be provic 
The correctness of the above general proposition will be conceded 
all who have given the question of boiler house economy due t 
sideration. 

Dr. Kent made the statement, "If we could get a contini; 

^Trans. Am. Soc. M. E., vol. 32, p. 1215. 



DiscnasioN bt e. a. uehling 




382 TASK SETTING FOR FIREMEN 

record of the furnace temperature, we should have no need of 00, 
recorders." This statement is apparently corroborated by the fac- 
simile of two records (Fig. i;^), which were made simultaneously 
by a combined Uehling CO, meter and pyrometer. The gas analjfzed 
was drawn continuously from a Babcock & Wilcox boiler near the 
uptake^ and the temperature was taken a few feet back of the bridge 
wall. These two records corroborate one another to a remaikible 
degree, and one could apparently serve as well as the other as • 
guide and control of combustion efficiency. It will be noted, howeva, 
that CO2 gives the more pronounced record. The temperature is alflo 
less valuable than the CO, because it is not a direct factor in dete^ 
mining the loss up the chimney ; it is also unreliable, in that it is im- 
possible to distinguish whether the variations in temperature shown 
by such a record are due to irregular driving or irregular air supply. 
But such determinations are impracticable because there is no pyro- 
meter available that can stand up continuously under the high tem- 
perature of a boiler furnace. 

Dr. Kent has also frequently called attention to the fact, borne 
out by all efficiency tests, that the best results are obtained ^en the 
percentage of oxygen in the products of combustion ranges between 
5 and 7 per cent, and he has strongly advocated the substitution of 
oxygen for CO, in the control of combustion efficiency. 

I have also shown in my paper Combustion and Boiler EflBciencyj 
by coordinating the flue gas analyses of over 1100 boiler tests, that 
the percentage of oxygen increases as the percentage of CO, decrease^ 
and vice versa. This relation necessarily follows from Alvogadros 
law. When burning bituminous coal 7 to 15 per cent of corresponds 
to about 11.5 to 14 per cent of CO,, which is good practice. 
Theoretically, therefore, it would be quite immaterial which of ihew 
two constituents was adopted as the basis of control. Practically, 
however, COg has everything in its favor; first, because it is very 
easily determined, wliereas is determined with greater difficulty, 
and second, because of this fact there is no oxygen recorder on the 
market, wliereas there are several very good CO, recorders availaW®* 

There are two fundamental principles on which a bonus system can 
be established. It can be based (A) on the ratio of the heat output 
in the form of stoam to the beat input in the form of fuel, or (B) <^ 
the ratio of tlie hoat input to heat wasted up the chimney. 

(A) If based on the boiler output we must know (a) the weight 
of coal fired under every individual boiler and (6) its average heat 
value for each shift and fireman. Second, we must know (c) the 



DISCUSSION BY E. A. UBHLING 383 

ight of water fed into every boiler, (d) its average temperature, 
\ quantity wasted in blowoffs, etc., for every boiler and shift, and 

(/) the amount of superheat or priming. From these six factors 

1 exact standing of every fireman in terms of eflSciency can be cal cu- 
ed and the correct bonus determined. 

To determine these data means must be provided (a) to weigh out 
t coal to every boiler for every shift, (6) to analyze every car of 
J received, (c) to meter the water into every boiler, (d) to record 
temperature, (e) to record the temperature and pressure of the 
am, and last, the data must be promptly collected, correctly co- 
linated, and accurately calculated, for which important work a 
apetent clerk must be available for every shift. To be an active 
nulus for proficiency every fireman must be informed whether he 
ned a bonus, not later than the beginning of his next shift. 
At the expense of accuracy this method may be materially simpli- 
i by assuming (b) that the coal is of uniform quality, (d) that 
temperature of the feed water does not vary, (e) that the quantity 
water blown off, etc., is the same for each boiler and shift, and (/) 
it the quality of steam is constant. 

(jB) If a bonus system is to be based on the heat wasted up the 
mney, we must know (a) the average percentage of CO, in the 
Hlucta of combustion as they leave the boiler, (6) their average 
Qperature, and (c) the rate of driving. These three factors give 
the information necessary: (a) determines the eflBciency of com- 
ition, (b) shows the efficiency of absorption, and (c) tells whether 
■ fireman is doing his full share of the work. These three factors 
i8t be autographically and continuously recorded for the purpose 
comparing and scrutinizing as well as for the purpose of estimating 
' bonus. Instruments are now available which will record these 
ee factors on one chart. This reduces the number of charts from 
ee to one, which reduces the time to scrutinize the records, and to 
inige up and estimate their value to one-sixth or less of that re- 
ired if the data must be taken from three separate charts. 
To get the best results it is necessary that the fireman should know 
'4t he is accomplishing all the time. He must, therefore, have 
licators at or near the boiler front which will continuously show 

2 rate at which he is driving his boiler, the percentage of 00, he is 
oducing and the stack temperature. With this information before 
% he can see all the time whether he is operating on a bonus 
niiiig scale or not, and this knowledge will not only stimulate, but 
■^atly aid him to get the best results. The pilot steam gage used 



384 TASK SETllNG FOR FIREMEN 

at the Delray plant is an excellent idea, where the load varies greatly, 
as by thus keeping the firemen contimiously informed, it obviates the 
necessity of making a written report to each fireman every day. Esti- 
mating the bonus once a week is quite suflBcient. This reduces the 
clerical work required to a minimum. 

Determining the bonus according to method (A), if fully carried 
out, has in its favor great exactness; also it shows the daily cost 
of steam production, and gives the necessary data, by which 
the coal can be purchased on the heat unit basis, the economic im- 
portance of which is not sufficiently realized by coal consumers. 

On the other hand method (B) has in its favor greater simplidtf, 
more general adaptability, and above all the immediate and continuous 
occular exposition of the complete process of heat production and 
absorption, and the continuous autographic record of the three con- 
trolling factors, in the best possible form. 

The cost of the apparatus and appliances necessary will probably 
not differ greatly. The cost of upkeep and attendance, including the 
coal weighers and chemists, will no doubt be largely in favor of method 
(B). Either method if consistently carried out will give marimnin 
efficiency. 

The procedure necessary to establish the maximum normal effi- 
ciency obtainable in any given plant may vary greatly in detail, but 
the broad principle outlined by Mr. Polakov must be followed. 
Whether it is necessary to employ an expert depends on the availability 
of adequate home talent. Generally it pays to get expert advice- 
Unless the plant embodies fundamental defects, costly changes sX^ 
generally not necessary to produce good results. In the majority <** 
cases, it is only necessary to put the plant in proper working ordC» 
educate the firemen, or give them the means and the incentive ^ 
educate themselves, by inaugurating a bonus system. 

Mr. Polakov raised the efficiency of the Warrior Bidge power pla^* 
from 54.2 per cent to 78.78 per cent by increasing the percentage o^ 
COo in the flue gas from an average of 4.3 per cent to 12 per cent 
The liigli efficiency csttihlislied in this plant can be maintained om 
as thi' high percentage of (JOg is maintained; there, as in every other 
case where higli clHciency is attained, CO2 is the most conspicuDii^ 
single factor. 

In comilusion a few words to those who claim that CO, records* 
are unreliable, and tliey are continually getting out of order. ThcJ 
are neither infallible nor fool proof. In this they do not differ from 
any other apparatus or machine, a common pump for example. A 



DISCUSSION 385 

Q pump is not a very complicated apparatus and is considered 
reliable, but it will not draw water if the strainer is choked up, 
chip gets under the discharge valve. If such a pump be placed 
me comer of a plant in charge of nobody in particular, it is a 
1 certainty that this pump would be inoperative the greater part 
le time. Nine times out of ten that is the situation where CO, 
ders of modern type (obsolete apparatus are not considered here) 
;o perform their legitimate function. In the majority of cases it 
en worse because the pump would more than likely stand on 
ral ground, whereas the CO, recorder is generaly projected into 
itile camp. It is looked at askance from the beginning and con- 
ed a despicable telltale, at best as one of those new-fangled ideas 
won't work anyhow. 

n not one cas^ in ten where CO, recorders fail to perform their 
er function does the cause lie in the instrument; nine times out 
Q the fault lies with the man higher up, in that he does not hold 
one person responsible for its proper and continuous operation, 
failure to detail some one and hold him responsible is due either 
X management or to lack of confidence in his own judgment when 
ecided to install such an instrument. 

f the troubles complained of were inherent in the apparatus, it 
d logically follow, that the difficulties must multiply with the 
ber of recorders installed, whereas practically all the failures 
)red about, and nearly all the complaints received are from plants 
B only one recorder has been installed. It is apropos to say here 
the benefit derived from the installation of 00, recorders is in 
'88 ratio of the completeness of the installation at best. A com- 
equipment always results in marked savings, whereas a single 
ument rarely shows tangible results. 

'. A. AusTBOM (written). In preparing his paper, Mr. Polakov 
wisely emphasized the human element as an important factor in 
iconomy of boiler operation. Previous speakers have all agreed 
him on this point, but it occurs to me that most of these gentle- 
had in mind mainly the larger steam installations, judging from 
fal remarks, as for instance, Mr. Stott's regarding the fact that 
g should be in the hands of educated and trained engineers, 
iad of as in the past by ordinary firemen. In large plants where 
firing is done mechanically, this can be accomplished without 
h difficulty, but in the multitude of small steam plants I believe 



386 TASK SETTING FOR FIREMEN 

tliat we shall in the future, as well as in the past, see the shove 
wielded by the old type firemen and not by college graduates. 

Very little has been done to graduate firemen in their line of wor 
considering the great importance of such an education from tl 
viewpoint of both individual and national economy. The economia 
end of boiler operation is very little understood by the average firema 
and some kind of treatise, dealing with the problems involved in th 
economical operation of boilers, written for the benefit of these mei 
has been a long felt need. Such a publication has recently been issue 
by the Travelers Indemnity Company of Hartford, and this, I believ( 
is the first attempt made along these lines. It deals with practical!; 
all the factors relating to boiler economy and should be of great hel; 
to firemen and owners of small steam plants. 

Harrington Emerson (written). Efficiency in boiler plants i 
measured by the standards set. As elsewhere, everything depends o 
the value of the standards. The rational standard cannot be th 
ultimate attained in a test run where all conditions were momentaril 
perfect, as on a race course. Nevertheless the test run of today b< 
comes the expected regular achievement of tomorrow if we are able t 
eliminate the unstandardized conditions and operations. 

Mr. Polakov's paper is exceedingly valuable because it shows wa] 
of standardizing conditions and operations in the boiler plant Tl 
whole paper is so good that I feel less compunction in calling attentio 
to an omission. 

Most manufacturing operations consist of the wise combinatio 

■ ■ 

of materials, work and equipment. In boiler plants manufacture 
sttnun the materials are chiefiy the fuel, the equipment is the who 
Ijoilcr plant, and the attendants are the workers. The performan* 
of tli(» pliinl (IcjK'Tids on the initial quality of the fuel as well as on tl 
way it is iiscil ; it depends on the initial excellence of the equipnie* 
as well as on the way it is used ; it depends on the initial quality of W 
afl('N(l(inis as well as on tin* way lliey arc used. Before expecting co' 
tinuous runs of l)i;4:h exeeiienee we would provide for tests of the f^ 
so as always to haw. the standard amount of B.t.u. per lb. We woul 
similarly eontiiiuously inspect and test furnace settings, boiler join^ 
clean oil scale or deposit inside and out, etc., etc. 

How can we expect best results unless the boiler room attendan 
have initial aptitude; and an* continuously maintained in effecti^ 
condition? Mr. Polakov lavs stress on fu(»l of the necessarv conditw 
selection and use of fuel, selection and use of equipment, use of * 



DISCUSSION 387 

tendants, but omits reference to the selection of men. No one would 
think of raising a big crop, however excellent the climate, soil and 
tillage, from inferior seed. Mr. Polakov has emphasized the careful 
adjustment of work to men, but not the equally important adjustment 
of men to the work. 

Frank B. Gilbreth (written). Four years ago I called the at- 
tention of this Society to the necessity of a government bureau for 
the collective cataloguing and disseminating of knowledge regarding 
management, that the best methods of each individual of each genera- 
tion might be recorded for all. Mr. Polakov's paper not only shows 
a typical advance that is being made in management, but also in the 
conservation of our natural resources. It shows how workers can be 
taught to be more efficient, to waste less coal and at the same time 
how to earn higher wages, and how they can perform their duties 
without wasting their energy. . 

What Mr. Polakov says regarding chairs in the boiler room brings 
up the subject of chairs in general in the industries. Absence of chairs 
in the past in the workshops has been due to general ignorance on the 
part of managers, but there is now no longer any such excuse. Every 
act, every moment of unnecessary standing causes fatigue, and fatigue 
must be allowed for in the determination of a fair task for each 
worker. 

In our work of installing management I have been greatly impressed 
with the evidenced unnecessary wasteful hardships due to the absence 
of recognized rest periods in all industries. Rest periods must be had, 
and therefore should be recognized, although the manager of one large 
niachine shop said : "Sitting down even when there is nothing for the 
worker to do doesn't look well, and also makes him lazy." 

Many occupations have periods of unavoidable delay, and thus 
require no specially assigned rest periods ; while others have no such 
unavoidable rest periods, and therefore should have them properly 
timed and scheduled in order to get tlie best results, least fatigue, and 
greatest output. 

The Autiioh. In view of the fact that many of the points brought 
ont in the discussion are ^i^encral in character, 1 feel justified in em- 
pliasizing the main points. 

First, the method of nuina<^enieiit as illustrated in our particular 
^mple is based on induction otherwise known as the method of 
scientific investigation. It is a basis of all modern positive science 



388 TASK SETTING FOR FIREMEN 

and is as old as the Novum Orgaiium of Frauds Baeon. Applied to the 
art of management by Dr. Taylor it is known as "scientific manige- 
ment.'^ The more exact is our knowledge of engineering sdences, 
psychology, physiology and political economy, the higher is our 
standard and the higher is the task. The accomplishment of the task 
is primarily based on the system of education of men engaged in the 
work. For this purpose each particular case shall be studied indir 
vidually and all details — task, methods, implements, bonus, etc, most 
necessarily be concurrent with the existing conditions and dream- 
stances. 

Second, the task and bonus method is a most essential part of th< 
power plant management, being an educational campaign with < 
reward to those who learn. This makes it unnecessary to hire « 
college graduate to shovel the coal in the furnace when he can trai^ 
the others to do it well. Professor Jacobus is in sympathy with thofi 
"poor fellows who did not know the method employed by other men 
and thereby missed tlieir bonus; he sees the danger which actuaU 
lies in the strong incentive for cooperation and improvements. Tb 
systematic education of the employees in order to improve their woi 
and remuneration stands in the same relation to the selection of heJ 
as the method of using the equipment stands to its purchase. 

Yet in the particular case related in my paper the question ^ 
selection is infinitely less pressing than that of supply. The locati<: 
of the plant I have reference to is such that to secure any employe 
or summon a man to help in case of emergency often amounts to < 
impossibility, and the problem is not whom to hire but where to fiJ 
anyone. Under such conditions we must say with all due credit 
the importance and desirability of proper selection of employees, tfaJ 
the method of training green, and sometimes unfit men, and tumil 
them rapidly into valuable producers is far more important. Tl 
rac-o track is the testing department; no one would think of nmnix3 
a race with a dray horse, but the profit of a trucking business depenc 
upon the skill of the drivers and planning of deliveries, and not o 
pedigree alone. 

Third, in the past too much stress has been laid on the physica 
perfection of o<]ui]nnent and lliis one-sided engineering is so well rootec 
in the minds of average managers that nearly all industrial ills anc 
losses have been helievod c'ural»lc by "patent" devices. Used by untrained 
and often underpaid and indifferent "hands," they fail to pay for 
their first cost. It matters not whether after rebuilding the furnaces, 



CLOSURE 389 

baffles, etc., and changing fuel the various boilers will give the char- 
acterifitic curyes of the same value. The most suitable coal might not 
be obtainable at the desired cost and the reconstruction might be 
impracticable under the conditions of service. The question is whether 
with obtainable fuel and existing equipment we know how to get all 
we can for the dollar^s worth ; and if not, to learn how the desired 
result could be obtained. Unless we teach and stimulate the employee 
to strive at the high task, the best equipment, if purchased, will again 
nm in a haphazard manner. 

And lastly, to utilize the knowledge to the fullest advantage and 
to control the process at will, the conditions, not results, must be 
watched and regulated. The instruments will show the changes of 
conditions, and instruction cards must tell what to do; then if the 
cause is properly treated, the result is gratifpng whether it appears 
on the CO2 chart, on auditor's balance sheet, or is reckoned in thermo- 
dynamic terms. 



No. 1402 

THE PROPERTIES OF STEAM^ 

By R. C. H. Heck, New Brunswick, N. J. 
Member of the Society 

The fundamental physical properties of steam are pressure p, 
temperature t, specific volume v, and heat content or total heat h. 
Of these, p and t are taken as independent variables, and equations 
expressing v and h in terms of them are developed. From these the 
values of internal energy, entropy, specific heat, etc., can be calculated. 

2 Two relations from thermodynamic theory find useful applica- 
tion in connecting volume and heat formulae, namely 

dcp\ /d^v\ , , 

and 

Q-''K*)H p' 

And at saturation, where p and t cease to be independent of each other, 
there must be satisfaction of Clapeyron's equation 

L^At'^^ ....' [3] 

u dt 

**here r is latent heat and u is the increase of volume from water to 
8team during vaporization. 

3 The two general equations developed in the paper are as 

follows : 

fl Volume Equation 

pv = BT — yp — zp-' [4] 

o is the gas constant for H2O, determined by molecular weight and 
taken as 0.5956, for units as defined in Par. 4. 

"Thia paper is published in abstract only. The complete form is on file and 
"^y be referred to in the rooms of the Society. 

Presented at the Annual Meetings 1913, of Thr American Society of Me- 
chanical Enqinburs. 

391 



392 



THE PROPERTIES OF STEAM 



b Heat Equation 



300 



200 



too 



2/ = 



[4.66365] 



z = 



(< +130)2 
[11.02244] 



y' 





1^ 










. 




c 




h 




1 




/ 


N 


\ 


i 




A 




400^ 






A 


/ 


NSBO 


> 


V 




X ^ 


Ssoo 


\ 


^ 


V 



(« +40)« 

h, =ho — y'p — z'p** 
[4.40815] [6.75057] 

'Jt+my' («+130)» 



300 



.|. 



|! 



t20 440 -WO 480 500 520 

pv 

FlO. 1 ISOTHERMALS OF pV ON p 




1160 1180 1200 1220 1240 » 

h 

FlO. 2 ISOTHERMALS OF h OH 



, [10.75471] [13.31101] 



(t +40)« 



a +40)' 



I 



/Iq is the total heat at zero pressure given by the formula 

ho --:509.G4+0.302O ^-{-[2.42163] log (<+ 688) +0.000072 P.. 

4 These equations are for English units, with p in pounds 
square inch absolute, t ot T = (^-{-459.64) in degrees fahrenheit, i 
cubic feet per pound of steam, and heat quantitiee in the m 
British thermal unit. In the paper all formulae are also convei 
to metric-centigrade units. One special notation adopted is 
giving of the logarithm of a constant, thus [4.66366] in equation [' 
in place of the number itself. 

5 Equations [4] and [r>] are illustrated directly by Figs. 1 ** 



R. C. H. HECK 393 

their derivativeB by Figs. B and 6. Instead of the volume v, which 
varies bo widely with pressure, the product pv is plotted in every 
case. These three pairs of companion diagranu show the close 
UBlogies in behavior between external energy pv and heat content h. 











M 


f 






V 


,/ 


w 








f 


V// 










p 


'// 










l// 


' 








i 


/ 












w 




u 


y> 6E0 











A 


w 




A 




,/, 


^ 


^ 






^A 


^ 


r 






/ 


V 


y 








// 










/' 










« 


- 


— 




r; 


— 





«. 


— 


— 


v^ 


\ 


— 


— 


J-07 






A 


\ 






S/ 


A 


\ 




:5k 






^\ 


\ 


^(T 


s^ 


^ 


5^ 


















* 










* 







■V 


M. 


s 


» 


eoc 



9 OF Specific Heat 



"1 Rgg. 1 to 6 curve 88 is the saturation line, the lower limit of the 



Seld 



W'ered by the general equations. 



a In Pigs. 1 and 3, strong emphasis is laid on the isothermal 
™"« rr. Por a perfect gas, pv or fc would be constant with tem- 



394 THE PROPERTIES OF STEAM 

perature, or either isothermal would be a vertical line 
Actually, and especially toward saturation, there is a shrin 
straight line AD shows the effect of term yp or y'p, whil 
z''p^'^ adds curvature to the isothermal. 

7. Change under constant pressure is shown in Figs, 
where each curve of type PP is marked with the value of iti 
pressure in pounds absolute. In Pig. 3, the line for zero 
represents the straight-line variation of ideal pv {or BT) ^ 
perature; and any distance like AB shows the shrinkage t 
to actual, along the isothermal and with rise of pressure. 1 
the line for zero pressure is not straight because the specif 
not constant but rises slowly with the temperature. 

8 Figs. 5 and 6 show rates of change under constant 
still retaining the factor p with v. The derivatives from 
[5] and [6] are, for Fig. 5 

'dv\ dv j.^d^ 



for Fig. 6 



^Ut)r^~^~dr^' dt 



dy' ^,,dz' 



The y and z derivatives are negative so that the secondary i 
themselves to the first, principal term, and the curves are 
the pressure is greater. 

USK OF THROTTLING DATA AND RELATIONS 

1) Heretofore, all determination of the shape of the i8< 
in Figs. 1 and 2 has been by volume data. The paper int 
new determinant on the side of heat content, based upon 1 
data. The operation of throttling is one in which the prei 
temperature fall while the heat content remains unchanged. 
7 the throe important groups of throttling experiments on i 
plotted together, in comparison witii curves of uniform i 
from equation [6]. Here, on p as base and with t as ord 
/i-constant curves and ^-constant horizontal lines. In Fig. 
vertical p as base and h as ordinate, there are ^constant c\ 
/i-constant vertical lines. Evidently, the slope of the throttli 
in Fig. 7 must have a direct bearing upon the slope of the ii 
curves in Fig. 2. 

10 The relation is established as follows: from the gene 
ment h = f (p, t), write the differential e(|uation 



R. C. H. HECK 



=(l) 



dv + ( 



.[10] 



Xow impose the condition h = constant or dh = 0, and get for the 
nte of change of h with p when t is constant, or the slope from the 
vertical of the isothermal in Fig. 2, the value 




.^ 


r' 
^ 


^ 


M 


-^ 




* '* 


/ 


*^ 


'\ 


<i 




.^ 


K^ 

-/ 


V 




f* 


^/ 






#?/ 


( 






^^^ 


f 







PW. 7 THEOTTLINO ExPEKIMEt 



1 Steam Initially Saturated 



(S); 



— Cp»*. . 



Ill] 



Tile specific heat c uiiili-r coiistunt pressure is, of course, the rate of 
chtnge of heat with presaun- for i< wiiKlaiit. or l~\ ', and fi or 



396 THE PROPERTIES OF STEAM 

— ) is the throttling coeflBcient, the slope of the oonstant-hc 

curves in Pig. 7. 

11 There is considerable experimental information^ oonceniii 
other gases as well as steam^ which seems to indicate that /c is near] 
or quite independent of p and ^, being a function of t alone. If tii 
is true, any horizontal line of constant temperature in Kg. 7 wi 
be crossed at the same angle by all the throttling curves which 
intersects. And if these separate curves have all the same slant i 
any particular temperature, they may by horizontal shifting I 
brought into coincidence as one continuous curve. 

1^ The first step in an investigation along the line of these prii 
ciples is to assume, for the time being that fi is constant with i. . 
curve of jtt on ^ has been laid out by H. N. Davis for the range fio] 
250 deg. to 625 deg. fahr. With this as a start, to^be modified I 
the reaction of trial calculations, a smooth curve of /£ on ^ has bee 
developed up to 1000 deg. and back to 32 deg. By numerical i: 

tegration of - or ( - ) , the general throttling curve is obtainf 

h \dt/h 

with base t and an arbitrary pressure ordinate p'; that is, the scale < 

this /?', in pounds per square inch, will be used for measuring diffie 

ences of pressure, not absolute values. 

13 Next it is necessary to get the specific heat c at zero pre 

sure and from it the corresponding total heat h^. The E[noblaiK 

experiments are taken as authoritative, especially the later set It 

shown that a vertical A-constant line in a plot like Pig. !^ is cat 

the same angle by all the isothermals crossing it, or that with p ai 

h as coordinates the product c^fjL from equation [11] is constant alw 

a line of uniform heat content. By means of this relation, it is ea 

to reduce the specific heat observations to zero pressure. Over hi^ 

ranges of temperature, say from 500 to 1100 deg. fahr., the curve 

c is thus very definitely determined. Toward the lower limit 

the experiments (at about 300 deg.) there is poorer consistency^ i 

dicating probably that the validity of the method of reduction 

weakened by approach to saturation. But there are other data. 

Fig. 7 and in the close experimental determination of total heat 

saturated steam at low temperatures, which fix very definitely ^ 

mean value of c^ from 212 deg. to 32 deg. fahr. The curve as fin* 

adopted has the equation 

\2 '594 11 

Cpo =0.3020 +^— ^ +0.000144< [: 

t +688 



fcnd with the proper constant of integration this leads to equa- 
tion [7], 

14 The method of determining the ieothermal or heat content on 
presrare by means of the genera! throttling or constant-heat curve 
is illuBtrated in Figs. 8 and 9. Curve HS is a short portion of the 
mutant-heat curve, p' on t. The particular problem taken is that 
of finding dimensions of the h-p isothermal for 500 deg. fahr., up to 
300 lb. absolute pressure. In Fig. 8, this isothermal is the vertical 
line AB. From A measure down to the scale of p', a series of 50 lb. 
intervals, and draw horizontal intercepts like CD. Then CD is the 
temperature gap (after a drop of 200 lb.) between a /-constant line 



» 












/I 


i 


/ 

100 
NO 
SM 

B 






/ 











/ 








" 




/ 














/ 












IM 


/ 




t 












ftfl. 8 Use or thi Throttling 
Cdbvb 



Fig. 9 Dbteemination or h-p 

ISOTHUtUAL 



^0 and ^-constant line AD which have a common point at A. 
'^ow transfer these CD differences to Fig. 9, using the scale of tem- 
perature corresponding to successive values of hg which is laid off 
f^n the base line. The result is a series of points along the iso- 
thermal TT. 

15 This scheme is complete in itself, but the data are by no 
"'wng accurate enough to malce it a complete determinant; nor can 
tlie hypothesis that fi depends upon ( alone be accepted as rigorously 
wrrect. The method followed has been to obtain by this device a set 
<>' iwthermalfl as in Fig. 3, and from them find approximate values 
"' the functions y' and z' and the exponent of p in the last term of 
equation [6]. Then the task has been to cut and try and adjust 
WMtants until equations [5] and [6], tied together by relations [1] 



398 THE PROPRETIES OF STEAM 

and [2], will satisfy, as nearly as possible, Clapeyron^s eqi 
saturation. 

16 One point remains to be considered before disciu 
general equations. It is reasonable to assume that the eh 
apparently making fx almost, if not wholly, a dependent upo: 
will have least modification by secondary influences when the 
is low. From equations [6] and [11] f or p = is obta 
particular relation 

and the curve and tabular column of /£, as given in the 
really this/£o> found after the form of //' had been determin 
by other considerations, through division of y' by c . 

DISCUSSION AM) COMPxVRISONS 

17 Concerning the process of developing equations [6] 
there is nothing to be added to the brief description in Par. 
the data in tlie several departments of physical experiment ^ 
as checks while the adjustments were being made; and i 
formulae were fixed in form and constants, final diagrams ' 
out to show, by graphical comparison, the relation of this for 
to the data and to certain otlier formulations. 

18 The comparisons with throttling and specific-heat 
as follows : 

a The curve // on t, with Davis* curve and points she 
collection of the data into group means, from 1 
on The Law of Corresponding States 

6 The classic throttling experiments made wit 
initially superheated, here given as Fig. 7 

c The experiments of Dodge upon highly superheatc 
This makes for completeness, but serves chiefly 
lack of determinative value, as the experiments 8 
extremely difficult it is or will be to get reliab 
of /i at high temperatures and pressures 

d The Knoblauch-Jacob and Knoblauch-Mollier exj 
on specific heat, and the curve of c 

e The experiments of Thomas, which show large 
tencies 

In every case, only the formulation of the paper enters ii 



R. C. H. HECK 399 

comparisons; except that a few lines (dot-and-dash) in Fig. 7 are 
from Mollier's heat equation. 

19 To illustrate the degree of consistency of results by different 
methods within the investigation, several diagrams are given: 

a Specific heat c at saturation, from equation [9] by 
proper evaluation and also from Planck^s equation 

dhs r . r(dv\ , , 

The agreement is exceedingly close. 

6 Isothermals from equation [6] in comparison with those 
obtained by the method of Figs. 8 and 9. There is enough 
discrepancy to illustrate the fact, as does Fig. 7 also, that 
complete constancy of /* with t is not secured in the final 
formulation. 

20 On the side of volume data, the experiments of Knoblauch, 
I^inde, and Klebe, of Ramsay and Young, and of Battelli are plotted 
on diagrams of the type of Fig. 1, in comparison with isothermals 
from equation [4]. The first set are the only ones now having 
determinative value, but they are of the first importance. 

^1 The real detriment in the close adjustment of equations [5] 
*^'d [6] to each other was the satisfaction of Clapeyron's relation. 
In this connection it was found desirable to make a slight adjustment 
^•1 Marks' equation for the pressure-temperature relation of saturated 
»team. This formula is 

log p-=A-~~-CT+Dr [15] 

8^d the two sets of constants are 

(a) Marks (h) Heck 

A= 10.515345 10.606400 

log B = 3.6S78597 3.6897500 

log C = 7.6075880 — 10 7.6205462 — 10 

logP= 4.1439400—10 4.1601803 — 10 

The absolute temperature is taken as T = f-j- 459.64. 

^2 These equations are compared in Fig. 10, where straight line 
AA represents equation [lob] and the ordinate is fraction of departure 
irom p as given by this formula. Curve MM is the original Marks 
^uation, and the plotted points show the data. A principal reason 
for making the change is that ri5a] makes p = 14.672 lb. at 212 deg. 
instead of the proper value 14.69;. 

23 Various evaluations and tabulations of total heat h . at satu- 



400 



THE PROPERTIES OP STEAM 



ration are compared in Fig. 11. The base lines A A represent equati 
[6] ; but here the ordinate is the actual difference in B.t-u.^ not 1 
relative difference as in Fig. 10. The curves on the upper AA li 
are concerned with the matter of adjusting equations [5] and [I 
Curve 1 shows h as derived from h^ by the method of Figs. 8 and 
Curve 2 is the real criterion of consistency between the prind] 
equations^ for it represents the total heat derived from volume da 
or from equation [5]. Up to 500 deg. or about 600 lb. pressure, 1 
discrepency is everywhere less than 0.5 B.t.u., or barely exceeds 0. 
per cent. Curve 3 shows results of the same calculation, but ma 
with values of p and r/u from the original Marks equation. 

24 The curves referred to the lower AA line in Fig. 11 are 
wider scope. First, curve 4 shows how very nearly fc^ from equati 
[6] is represented by the third-degree equation 

As =1059.75+0.4344 ^+0.0001825 ^«— 0.0000009216 ^....[1 

ao(H 

aooz 

+ 



Q.0OZ 
Q0O4 



•Hotbom- 


1 1 

Hennincj 


• Ho 1 bom- 


baumann 


■^Tabuiafiono 




K*. 


!*i 




M 


^^** 


btd 


Ljr: 




M^^^^ 


* • 

• 


'tx^^ 


< 




*s. 















too 



200 



300 



400 



500 



600 



Fio. 10 Pressure- Temperature Comparisons 



The curves with numbers higher than 4 represent other formulatio 
as follows: 

No. 5 Marks and Davis Steam Tables 
No. 6 The writer^s table in The Steam Engine and TvTb\ 
Nb. 7 Mollier's Neue Tabellen und Diagramme fur Wa» 
dampf, also Smith and Warren*s New Steam Tables 
No. 8 A heat equation from the work of Linde 
No. 9 Goodenough's equation, published in TransactionB 
the Society, Volume 34 
25 With these curves are given the experimental results obtaii 
by various investigators : the initials used are, D for Dieterici, H 
Henning, J for Joly, R for Eegnault, S for Smith. The Begna 
points represent group averages made up by Smith. The poi 
marked Si and 5^2 are of especial interest, as representing A. 
Smith's recent determinations with slow and with rapid vaporizat: 
under atmospheric pressure, reported in Physical Beview, Septeni 
1^11. The determining value of h. at 212 deg. is 1151.2 B.t.u. 



, C. H. HECK 



401 



eqiutioBE [6] and [7] as. against 1150.4 by Marks and Davis and 
1161.4 used b; Mollier. 

26 In Fig. 12 a comparison over the practical range of steam 
preasnre and temperature is made between the heat equations of thia 
piper and those of the other formulation which have been put into 




7ia. 11 CoupABisoNs or Total Esat at Satubation 



"* 'onu of complete steam tables. Full lines 1 represent equation 
I ''Ji dotted lines 2 the Mollier equation; curves 3 are from the writer's 
Wfiier work,' points 4 from the Marks and Davis tables for super- 
''**ted Bteam. Mollier's saturation curve runs high {compare Fig. 
'}> and his isothermals are straight lines instead of curves. The 
*'** and Davis total heats depend upon a wholly empirical and 



n Engine &nd Turbine. 



402 



THE PROPERTIES OF STEAM 



15-^0 




1340 



'■^"-- ^loo** 



1320 




1300 



^--1 



:I280 




I2G0 



U2s 



1240 



1220 



1200 



lloO 




Fig. 12 Total Heat Comparisons 



R. C. H. HECK 403 

graphical extrapolation of c above the comparatively low pressures 
of the Knoblauch experiments; and the reversed curvature of the 
isothermals shows that their c is relatively too great at high pressures 
and near to saturation. In the writer^s earlier work, a graphical 
layout and extrapolation of c was guided by heat isothermals obtained 
through the method of the general throttling curve. Dependence 
upon the Holborn-Henning determination of high range c for 
atmospheric pressure is the reason why isothermals 3 and 4 at 1000 
deg. are about 15 B.t.u. below No. 1. 

27 Fuller discussion and comparison of the different formulations 
are given in the paper. To it are appended tables giving at intervals 
of 10 deg. up to 1000 deg. all the numbers for making calculations 
by equations [5] and [6] and their derivatives, with pressure factors 
up to 1000 lb. ; also a table for saturated steam at similar intervals 
up to 550 deg. or past 1000 lb. 



IS^o. 1403 

REPORT ON HOISTING AND CONVEYING 

A few years ago, the use of hoisting and conveying machinery 
was confined almost exclusively to the handling of ore and coal, 
while today there is hardly an industry that is not interested in 
the rapid and economical handling of material. High cost of labor 
and strong competition have increased the importance of this sub- 
ject and made the material handling engineer an important in- 
dustrial factor. Improvements in hoisting and conveying machinery 
have been most rapid where they could be applied without disturb- 
ing existing methods, but where radical changes were necessary, 
progress has been slower. 

2 There are now before us far more complex problems that will 
require in their solution the cooperation of all interested, and your 
Committee, comprising engineers, manufacturers and users of hoist- 
ing and conveying machinery, desires to make itself of real service 
to the members of the Society as well as to the users of this class 
of labor saving machinery. To obtain the opinions and encourage 
discussions along these lines, it begs to submit the following report: 

^KVIBW OP THE ART OF HOISTING AND CONVEYING AT THE END OP 1912 

3 The hoisting and conveying machine, in which the load after 
hoisting travels in a straight line, became important in this country 
^ the year 1880. The earliest efficient commercial machines pro- 
duced after that date were chiefly the invention of Alexander Brown 
w Cleveland, Ohio. Since that date the improvements have been 
^Pid, particularly in apparatus for handling ore and coal and other 
bulk materials. The early machines employed buckets that were 
filled by hand. These have almost entirely disappeared and auto- 
^tic grab buckets have taken their places. In tihese machines the 
Ending machinery was installed at one end of the structure where 
^t served to operate the hoisting and conveying ropes. 

* The introduction of electricity as a motive power is directly 
'^nsible for the development of the man-trolley machine. In the 
'atter the operator as well as the motors both for hoisting and 
^D^eying are frequently carried entirely in the movable trolley. 

*t«port of Sub-Committee on Hoisting and Conveying. Presented at the 
^ Meeting 1913, of The Amjirican Society op Mechanical Engineers. 

405 



406 REPORT OF SUB-COMMITTEE ON HOISTING AND CONVBTIN( 

5 The capacity of the hoisting and conveying machine has 
greatly increased, for individual loads handled now reach 50 
and over, and conveying speeds for lighter loads have increas 
more than 2000 ft. per min. 

6 The cableway as a hoisting and conveying machine 
as rapid progress in its development as those employing 
tracks supported by bridge structures. The span of cablewaya 
is the distance between two fixed towers, has reached 2400 fi 
veying speeds of 3000 ft. per min. have been attained. The 
filling grab bucket and the self-filling scraper bucket are in coi 
use on cableways today. The duplex cableways on power pro] 
steel towers as used in the construction of the Gatun Locks at Pa 
represent the highest development of the cableway art. The 
way has found a wide field of usefulness of its own, partic 
where portability and semi-portability and long reaches ar 
marine and railway terminal. 

7 Within the past two years the problem of package f: 
handling by mechanical means has received the attention of ra 
and steamship companies, the manufacturers of mechanical hai 
appliances and public boards interested in terminal oonstm 
Development has been principally along two lines, the overhea" 
the surface system, though a third, the conveyer system, hi 
ceived some consideration. The conveyor system, while perhap 
adaptable to certain special conditions, is believed to be insuflSc 
flexible to meet the complex re<iuirements of a typical marin 
railway terminal. 

8 The storage battery truck has been introduced and has 
favor in several terminals. It takes the place of the old 
truck, making it possible for a man to travel faster and with a 
otherwise affecting the problem of hand labor. This truck hi 
advantage of easy introduction into old terminals requiring 
heavier load, hence reducing the cost of transportation bu 
a reasonably smootli floor. Like the hand truck, it can ente 
cars and ships having side hatches. 

9 In this connection may be mentioned the inclined di 
which lias been introduced at a few marine terminals for cai 
loaded trucks up a steep grade. The storage battery truck < 
ing a light crane has also been introduced, but up to the presenl 
has not found a broad field of usefulness. 

10 The overliead monorail system is being pushed by si 
manufacturers and is looked upon favorably by many interest 



REPORT OF SUB-COMMITTEE ON HOISTING AND CONVEYING 407 

tenninal development. It is not a new device but is rather the appli- 
cation of an old device to a new field, for it has long been used to a 
limited extent in industrial plants. Its introduction into the field 
of freight handling has resulted in some interesting improvements, 
especially in track and track switch systems. 

11 Ingenious devices have been worked out for throwing the 
switch to the desired position and automatically placing a stop at the 
open track end by the approaching trolley. One system lately in- 
trodnced avoids the use of any moving part in the switch steering 
mechanism carried by the trolley, enabling the operator to take any 
desired course through the switch without stopping. 

12 An overhead system which has been used to some extent in 
Europe and which has its advocates in this country, employs what 
is tenned the gliding switch. It has a curved switch member which 
slides along the main track. It permits a trolley to pass from the 
the main track to the traveling cross track at any position. This 
switch is, as far as the main track is concerned, a derailing device. 
It is believed by the Committee that no installation of this type has 
been made on this side of the Atlantic. 

13 Several installations of monorail systems for handling pack- 
age freight have been made in this country, one at St. Louis of con- 
siderable size and another at one of the railroad terminals at Balti- 
nwre. These installations were made previous to 1912 and afford 
Ml opportunity to study the problem with a view to determining the 
type of terminal and layout of monorail system best calculated to 
produce the desired results of speed and economy. 

U An overhead monorail installation was made at the Baltic 
terminal, New York, in 1912, which handles freight both ways be- 
tween vessels, warehouse, and a freight shed alongside a railway 
track. The system passes over streets and tracks at a suitable eleva- 
tion 80 as not to hinder in any way the traffic on the ground level. 

15 Another monorail system has been installed in a large whole- 
sale warehouse in Los Angeles, Cal., which combines the handling of 
P&ckage freight from box cars to warehouse and thence for delivering 
by automobile trucks. A system of elevators permits the trolleys to 
^ transferred to any one of five different floors, and extensions of 
the tracks over the street make possible the direct loading of auto- 
^bile delivery trucks. These trucks are designed with removable 
wdies which are loaded in the warehouse and conveyed by the trolleys 
^ the automobile trucks. Thus a shipment may be loaded on the 



408 REPORT OF SUB-COMMITTEE ON HOISTING AND CONVBYINQ 

fifth floor of a building and carried direct to the delivery automobile 
truck wliere it is placed intact without rehandling. 

16 The removable bodies are equipped with small wheels so tlut 
the trucks themselves may be pushed about like ordinary hand tmcki 
A system of this type serves as a good demonstration of the saving 
in freight handling costs that could be made if railroads delivered 
freight to the address of the consignee. 

17 In the present development stage, the storage battery truck 
and the monorail overhead system appear to be competitor? for the 
field. Certain advantages and limitations of each are recognized. 
The battery truck as mentioned above will enter box cars and side 
doors of ships. It will go anywhere a smooth floor is provided, but 
it will only transport and will not hoist. 

18 The overhead system involves greater initial cost. The trolley 
will go only where track is provided and will not enter box can> 
but it will serve flat cars and may reach out over a ship, serving 
any hatch or the dock without regard to level as affected by stage of 
tide. It will hoist as well as transport, thus providing a means of 
transferring freight from one floor to another, and with the traveling 
cross track will serve areas and tier freight. The monotail trolley 
affords higher speed of travel than the battery truck. As it does not 
require clear floor space for a roadway, more floor is available for 
checking, storage, etc., and the capacity of the terminal materially 
increased. This increase in capacity should in a great measure, aw 
perhaps fully, justify the greater outlay. It is probably a safe pw" 
diction that the two systems, the overhead and the surface, will sup- 
plement each other, though different local conditions may sometiintf 
control. 

19 Cooperation between railroads, steamship and dock ooin- 
panies, and machinery manufacturers is absolutely essential to the 
best results in the dovelopnient of devices for the mechaiiicw 
handling of freight. Modifications and improvements in the organu*' 
tioii and nianat{emeiit of terminals must of necessity be made coinci- 
dent with the installation of the hoisting and conveying appliances in 
order that such niaohinery may best serve its purpose. 

20 In the past year the mechanical handling of lumber has te- 
ceivcd considerable attention. This is particularly true on the y*' 
oific Coast, where extensive preparations are being made for handling 
the large increase in business that it is predicted will result froiD tM 
opening of the Panama Canal. 

21 The unit system of handling lumber is becoming more ^ 



IT OF SUB-COMMITTEE ON HOISTING AND CONVEYING 409 

ral. By the unit system is meant the sorting and stacking 

in uniform units which may be separated by skids or 
i one unit or package handled at a time. Modem hoisting 
jring appliances are equipped with automatic grapples so 

units may be picked up or deposited by the operator in 

The imits will range from 3 to 8 tons, 
this work the monorail man trolley has been a recent and 
development. The locomotive crane has also found a field 
nch of industry and in some cases the locomotive crane of 

pier type is needed, so that freight cars may pass be- 
legs of the cranes and be loaded and unloaded by it. This 
ane is designed to travel along the face of the dock for 
amber directly to and from boats, and by means of a trans- 
le crane may be switched to branch tracks for the handling 
to and from storage piles, 
bably the most radical development in the lumber handling 

that which the C. A. Smith Lumber Company of California 
rtaken. The unit system is employed and the lumber is 

various types of cranes. Cantilever cranes are used on the 
or loading specially constructed vessels for the trade, which 

large 8-ton units of lumber to be stowed intact. This 
direct handling of large units, and the development of 
jels to facilitate handling most nearly approach the history 
elopment of the coal and ore handling business on the 
es. 

find also that during the year 1912 portable cableway log 
ave been produtjed and many have recently been installed 
mtain regions of North Carolina and Virginia. The fea- 
is apparatus are: (a) the power plant is entirely mounted 
il railway car equipped to be coupled into a train of cars 
d anywhere on a standard gage railway; (h) the car car- 
38 the operating machinery, boilers, etc., a tower which 
the tunnels of the railroads. A portable tower is added 
aachine arrives on tlie logging railroad and a steel portable 
1 comprises the hoad tower of the cableway, is raised when 

lowered when moving. A tree is used for the tail tower. 
1000 ft. have been successfully employed bringing in logs 
essible places and thereby reducing the cost of logging by 

of railroad building. 

) novel forms of cable ways have reached their perfected 
ig the year 191.'V Both of these are for use on the high 



410 REPORT OF SUB-COMMITTEE ON HOISTING AND CONVEYING 

seas, one for traus-shipping coal, ammunition and supplies to war- 
ships in mid-ocean under headway, and the second for trans-ship- 
ping persons from a wreck to a life-saving ship. 

26 The apparatus for coaling at sea has been under develop- 
ment for over ten years but not until the last year, and since the 
newly developed automatic tension engine has been added, can the 
marine cableway for coaling at sea be regarded as a complete solu- 
tion of the problem. During recent tests at sea' a collier, while roll- 
ing 20 dcg. in a driving storm, trans-shipped 83 tons of coal in an 
hour to a battleship 400 ft. astern of the collier while both were 
proceeding at a speed of about 7 knots. 

27 The life-saving machine comprises the old-fashioned breeches 
buoy apparatus, in common usage along the coast, in connection with 
a small sized automatic tension engine serving to wind in and pay 
out the main supporting cable or hawser serving as a trackway for 
the passage of the breeches buoy from ship to ship. 

28 The year 1912 also marked the completion of an extraoTdinaiJ 
group of four cableways employed for building the TnnkhaTinoA 
bridge on the Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Bailway. The chief 
novelty arises in the employment of a center tower 230 ft. high serv- 
ing as a tail tower for the cableways in line. A further novel feature 
of these four cableways is in the equalizing apparatus to save the 
strains upon the guys of the central tower. The hoisting speed w 
200 ft. per min. and the conveying 1800 ft. per xnin. 

29 During the year there have been installed on the Sag ChanDelf 
a branch of the C-hicago drainage canal, three different types of drag 
line excavators consisting of an elaborate crane with a boom 100 ft 
long, capable of digging, hoisting and swinging, and dumping si a 
point 200 ft. hack from the center of the canal. These long bXB 
oxravators arc roj^orted as showing a capacity of approxim*t®'y 
50,000 cul)ir yards per month, working 24 hours a day. 

30 During 1912, the conveyor field was marked by little change 
except plants with hirgor capacities than in the past both in chain 9m 
belt conveyors. 

31 One development which is of interest was the successful demon- 
stration of the possibility of storing material in open piles on the 
ground and withdrawing same hy tunnel conveyors. The plant in 
question handled 6-in. limestone which was put into storage by a^O-iB* 
belt conveyor equipped with an automatic tripper and carried by a **^ 
structure. The concrete tunnel under the pile housed a 44-in. "^ 
conveyor and duplex gates in the roof of the tunnel allowed the ston 



REPORT OF SUB-COMMITTEE ON HOISTING AND CONVEYING 411 

low to the belt by gravity. There were successfully handled through 
ingle duplex gate 1300 tons of stone per hour. This type of stor- 
! costs about half of the same capacity in bins and in this case re- 
ced bins on the dock, the stone from open storage being carried to 
I vessels by 4:4-in. belt conveyors. Seven thousand tons were loaded 
ihout difficulty in six hours. This scheme of carrying a large stor- 
j on good ground, thus reducing the cost of the dock, is a distinct 
p forward, particularly where rapid loading is required and where 
J supporting of heavy loads involves expensive dock work. 

32 The second important development in this industry is the 
tension of the use of conveyors in preparing copper blast-furnace 
irge. The old methods of spreading the charge on the ground by 
rrows or by cars into bins was inaccurate and expensive, while the 
iveyor method is automatic and a continuous sample being taken, 
3 exact chemical contents of the charge are known. This improve- 
int has reduced the cost of preparing the charge from 10 to 15 cents 
r ton. Two large installations in Arizona during 1912 involving an 
penditure of nearly $400,000 are evidence of the fact that smelter 
gineers are recognizing the importance of using improved auto- 
itic machinery. 

33 Data. As there are few accurate published data concerning 
pacities, weights, power formulae, etc., of conveyors and elevators your 
)minittee would urge the engineers in this field to present such data 
rough the Society. These data would be of inestimable value to the 
igineers designing plants, enabling them to choose the proper type 

conveyor and to pass intelligently upon the designs submitted. 

34 These installations do not by any means cover the field of 
jvelopment, and the Committee invites members to forward brief 
scriptions of other interesting and novel installations in the field 

■ hoisting and conveying. 

RECOMMENDATIONS AND SUGGESTIONS 

35 Botiers. It is not the desire of the Committee to decry the form- 
tion of stringent boiler laws, but it urges that if state and city boiler 
^▼8 were standardized it would reduce the cost and permit the ship- 
ment of a boiler from state to state. It would further make it pos- 
lole to carry boilers in stock ready for quick shipment. This subject 
^W considered by the American Boiler Mannfacturors' Association 
^ its New Orleans meeting, March, 1912. 

^ At present we have a national uniform law pertaining to 



412 REPORT OP SUB-COMMITTEE ON HOISTING AND CONVETING 

marine boilers, their construction, inspection, etc. All boilers naed 
in navigation and on navigable waters of the United States come 
under the Steamboat Inspection Service of the United States Govern- 
ment, with headquarters in Washington. Facts have proved that fliii 
national uniform law has been good, and under it there have been 
few accidents. 

37 Locomotive boilers by force of circumstances come under the 
jurisdiction of the United States Government through the Inte^ 
state Commerce Commission. This commission is divided into dii^ 
tricts, and the inspection is uniform. 

38 The state of Massachusetts has an excellent boiler law, and 
Ohio has just adopted a similar one. Chicago, Philadelphia and 
Detroit each have their own ordinances regulating boiler constiac- 
tion, all with the result that boilers built to the requirements erf 
Chicago might not pass inspection in other cities. 

39 Your Committee offers the suggestion that if the influence d 
The American Society of Mechanical Engineers should -be brought to 
bear upon the proper authorities, improvements in standard boiler 
laws would be obtained. 

40 Electric Equipments. The uniformity of all laws of this duff" 
acter is essential both to the builder and the buyer, and we again 
urge that steps be taken by the Society as a body, to further refonM 
in this direction. 

41 Safety. Your Committee urges that much can be done bj 
providing better protection of human life, and deplores the gr** 
number of accidents that have been caused in connection with the 
operation of hoisting and conveying machinery. The chief reason 
for neglecting this phase of the art is' that purchasers of hoiatinR 
and conveying machinery have not been willing to recognize aoch 
additions and refinements where such have added to the cost of the 
machines. It urges that the question of safety to human life he 
ronsfMontiously considered by mnnfactnrers, engineers and purchasers* 

42 Your Conmiittee recommends that ladders be abandoned, 
where possible, and stairways with hand rails substituted; that *^ 
platforms and walks be provided with double hand rails, toe boal^ 
(»tc. Where ladders are unavoidable thev should be enclosed by lattice 
work or bars to prevent employees from falling in case of losing bB^** 
or foot holds. 

43 Foundatio7is. Much blame has been put upon builders of t**^ 
heavy hoistinor and conveyiii*:: machinery on account of inadeqti*^ 



IT OF SUB-COMMITTEE ON HOISTING AND CONVEYING 413 

8. Builders of hoisting and conveying machinery seldom 
foundations for their machinery. The design of founda- 
ig installations comes within a field of foundation special- 
f employed by purchasers, would obviate many difficulties 
;ht arise. 

ny docks and storage areas bordering on rivers and lakes, 
or carrying large quantities of bulk materials, have not 
le attention in this particular that they should. In many 
nsive concrete dock walls and piling have been pushed 
le rivers by the pressure of the loads carried on the area 
J. This is particularly true in stock yards around the 
es. 

isting and conveying machinery should be designed to take 
'easonable amount of distortion, but it is not reasonable to 
t these massive structures, many of them weighing over a 
lunds, can have an unlimited elasticity as to distance be- 
porting rails. Disregard of suitable foundations results 
wheel Gangers, distorted structures and increased power 
sion. 

yreciation. Your Committee finds that some of the largest 
expensive hoisting and conveying machines installed some 
live years ago, are today showing signs of weakness. This 
that the manufacturers and designers did not anticipate 
and abuse) that this class of machinery was to receive, 
ihines have been designed, sold and guaranteed for a cer- 
jity, which later developed capacities nearly double that 
contemplated, and carried loads far in excess of those 
estimated. Users do not hesitate to increase the weights 
J and loads to such an extent that factors of safety are 
ly reduced. 

3h use helps to depreciate tlie machines and endangers hu- 
Purchasers frequently fail to appreciate the great damage 

res caused by the passage of loads at high speed from rail 

1 end. Well designed and efficient machinery, having due 
human safety and the reduction of costs of upkeep, will 

28 repay the purchaser. 

leek. Your Committee finds that the data concerning 
els for heavy hoistin^^ and conveying machinery are most 
oth for rolled steel or chilled cast iron wheels. The Com- 
ites papers bearing on this important subject. 



414 REPORT OP SUB-COMMITTEE ON HOISTING AND CONVEYING 

49 Brakes, In many hoisting and conveying machines in the 
pasty working to their utmost capacity, the brakes showed Deed for 
improvement. Some showed inadequate provisions for the dissipa- 
tion of the heat developed, others were too short lived. It is no smsD 
undertaking to lower a 20-ton load at the rate of 350 ft. per min. once 
every minute. The dynamic brake has recently taken a prominent 
place in the control of loads. 

i)0 Wire Rope. Your Committee urges the importance of the 
selection of wire ropes and the design of structures to obtain the 
greatest life from ropes in service. The transportation of heaTj 
loads together with the limited space for the installation of the 
operating macliinery produces elements which are most destructive 
to the wire ropes. Bopes become an expensive factor in the opera- 
tion of machinery of this class. A valuable paper on this sabject 
was recently read before the Institution of Mechanical Engineers of 
Great Britain^ and a digest of it should be before designing engineers. 
The durability of wire rope is of great importance to all users of 
hoisting and conveying machinery, and any paper treating exhaust- 
ively of this subject would be welcome. Such a paper should bring 
out the relationships between the diameter of the rope and the sheave 
over which it is to travel, the diameter of the individual wires in the 
rope, as well as the relationship between the diameter of the rope and 
the angularity of the bend when working over a sheave. It would be 
most desirable to obtain proper specifications for wire ropes for use 
in hoisting machinery and suitable tests to establish its values. 

51 Ethics. Your C-onmiitlt»e llrgu^s that the drawing plans and 
specifications prepared by any engineering concern are the property 
of the concern producing them, and holds that buyers should receive 
such in confidence, decline to exhibit them to others, refuse to permit 
them to be copied or used by any (but the owner) for purposes of 
construction. 

T)'i It n?ct)mineinJs anuuig t'ligincers that a uniform clause be ^^' 
l»()<li<Mi ill all proposals rLM|uirin*r the return of blueprints, drawii^P 
and specifications to unsuccessful bidders, and furthermore, that ^ 
information sui)niitted for consideration be regarded as the prop^^ 
of the manufacturers^ and be treated in confidence. 

5;J Piralin*( of ideas is re^i^arded by the Qommittiee as dishol*^ 
and in the end works to the detriment of the buyer as well as to ^ 
engineering firms, for it is clear that the most efficient machineB *' 



REPORT OF SUB-COMMITTEE ON HOISTING AND CONVEYING 415 

likely to be produced by the mind that created them rather than by 
the manufacturer animated purely by the desire of pecuniary profit. 

54 The history of nearly every important improvement in the 
development of the art of hoisting and conveying shows that the 
engineer freely laid his plans and ideas before the prospective user, 
botli being masters in their own particular field. In order to develop 
what is required by the producer, complete cooperation between the 
two is of the utmost importance. 

55 Your Committee recommends to all the departments of the 
United States Government that in asking for proposals, they insert 
in the invitation that the drawings and blue prints, and all data 
of a confidential nature shall be retained in confidence and returned 
to unRuccessf ul bidders. 

Respectfully submitted, 

R. B. Sheridan, Chmn. 
C. K. Baldwin 
Alex. C. Brown 
O. G. Dale 

P. J. FiCKINGER 
F. E. HULETT 

Spencer Miller 
A. L. Roberts 
Harry Sawyer 



Subcommittee on 

Hoisting and 

Conveying 



DISCUSSION 

Spenceb Miller in presenting the report for criticism asked if 
it were too voluminous ; should it be further condensed ? Should it be 
elaborated? Should it be illustrated? He said the Committee desired 
to be of real service. 

William Kent said he desired to see the report extended and 
illustrated, and that the Committee should take one year or two years, 
if necessary, to do it. The monorail conveyor should be considered 
&nd facts regarding it incorporated in the report: what were the 
limitations of the monorail conveyor, where it should be used, and 
^hat were the economical loads. Illustrations showing actual installa- 
tions should be given, with sizes of bearings, troubles from lubrication, 
Wction, etc. Sketches of \hv various kinds of monorail conveyors 
should be shown with tlio dofocts of each. This applied to the belt 
«>nveyor also. 

The Committee should then take up the problems yet to be solved 



416 DISCUSSION 

in conveying, such as getting packages out of the hold of a steamer 
and putting them into a warehouse in West Street, or the Bmh 
Terminal, or some other place. Tliat whole problem was now being 
handled in the most crude manner, and if the Committee would take 
up the matter, it would perform a great service for commerce and 
engineering. 

D. M. Myers was pleased to see the reference in the report to the 
matter of uniform boiler inspection, and hoped that everything 
possible would be done by the Society to forward safety in boiler 
manufacture and inspection. 

Spencer Miller was obliged for Mr. Kent's suggestions as to the 
field in which the Committee could do further work, and said it would 
go as far as it could. 



2^o. 1404 

MIC BRAKING FOR COAL AND ORE 
HANDLING MACHINERY 

By Clark T. Henderson, Milwaukee, Wis. 
Member of the Society 

ay it may seem that dynamic brake control in connection 
and ore handling machinery is so well known and exten- 
loyed as to call for no further comment unless the com- 
in a position to state new facts or introduce new principles. 
' is, however, of the opinion tliat many will be interested 
mon of the advantages and limitations of this method of 
•r in his own experience he has seen several misapplications, 
ither in failure or in disappointment from results obtained. 

! knowledge that a direct-current electric motor can be 
s a generator and may therefore be used as a retarding 
veil as a driving means, is as old as the motor itself, and at 
a it appears strange that dynamic braking has not come 
until recent years. There are, in the writer's opinion, 
• this which become apparent when the history of the art 
ed. The earliest forms of coal and ore handling machines 
I bridges or unloading towers, equipped with small capacity 
atic tubs. In most cases these were lowered, with the 
igines acting as retarding devices. In cases where buckets 
ded in lowering by some sort of friction device no great 
trouble was experienced, because there was not much energy 
pated. With the introduction of the automatic grab bucket 
Ities experienced with mechauical lowering brakes began 
y, for the automatic buckets were naturally much heavier 
ion to the load handled than the small tubs which they 
ind the duty imposed upon tlie lowering brakes was, there- 
ly increased. 

er the adoption of tlie automatic grab bucket the tendency 
ds electrically operated apparatus, on which was used the 

d at the Annual Meeting 1913, of The American Society of Mk- 
noineers. 

417 



418 DYNAMIC BRAKING 

retarding brake, already developed for steam plants. At first th 
sufficed and were considered satisfactory^ but as bucket capacities 
creased from year to year, and the energy to be dissipated by 1 
lowering brakes increased correspondingly, they began to show unn 
takable signs of lack of ability to handle the duty imposed. 

4 In analyzing the conditions above outlined, the underlyi 
reasons are quite apparent: In small capacities the unit pressu 
on friction faces can be low, hence the wear only nominal, and at i 
same time the radiating surface per watt dissipated can be suflScien 
great to insure low temperature rise of parts. In large capaciti 
however, it becomes practically impossible to retain these proportio 
on account of the apparatus becoming imwieldy. As a further c 
advantage, the physical effort required to handle large friction low 
ing brakes is quite considerable, and it is axiomatic among design 
of this class of machinery that prolonged high speed is not possi 
if the operator is called upon to exert any great effort. 

5 Several builders brought out equipments on which brakes w 
controlled by air or hydraulic cylinders, and only pilot valves hand 
by the operator. These arrangements did not overcome heat 
difficulties, and in many cases were found unsatisfactory because 
the lack of sensitiveness of control. When the operator banc 
friction brakes directly, he can, by sense of touch, determine wl 
they are dragging to a proper degree, but when operated througl 
pilot valve, this sense is lost. It was natural, therefore, that the f 
10-ton unloading machines to be electrified should have dynai 
braking employed to retard the descending bucket. Manufactux 
of bridges next adopted this form of control, first for ore handling « 
later for coal. It is now used extensively for ordinary travel 
cranes, and from the present outlook it is quite possible that 
mechanical lowering brake will be entirely obsolete within a i 
years. 

6 Some form of holding brake must be employed in connect 
with (lyiiainic braking, for while the motor acting as a generator ( 
prevent the load from descending faster than a few inches per mint 
it can never entirely stop the load, except through the aid ol 
mechanical holding device, which in some cases is electrically opera' 
and automatic; in others manually controlled and non-automatic. 

7 On the earliest installations compound wound direct-curr 
motors were almost invariably employed, the shunt winding bci 
deemed necessary to insure prompt building up of the fields. La 
developments showed that series motors, the characteristics of wh 



CLARK T. HENDERSON 419 

made them so desirable for hoisting, could be used equally well if 
their fields were temporarily excited just at the moment of releasing 
the holding brake and the excitation current cut off as soon as the 
machine built up as a generator. The cutting off of the excitation 
current is desirable, not only from the standpoint of current economy, 
but also from that of motor heating, for whatever exciting current is 
passed through the motor fields simply adds to the general heating of 
the machine. The use of series motors is also desirable from the 
standpoint of simplicity. Where compound motors are employed it 
is considered the best practice to leave the shunt field continuously 
excited and the heating consequent to the continuous excitation of 
these shunt windings is considerable. 

8 One of the difficulties first encoimtered in connection with 
dynamic brake control systems was that the operator, who must 
ueoessarily be able to reverse his hoist motors in order to open his 
grab quickly and to start down without loss of time, would in many 
cases leave the power on almost all the way down and would in 
consequence race the hoist motor to such an extent as to throw out 
oonunutator bars and tear armature coils from their fastenings. 
Even if these things did not occur, the commutation at these high 
speeds was sure to be very poor, and motors were apt to fiash over 
when the operator threw his controller back from the reverse power 
to the dynamic brake position. It can readily be seen that the 
closure of the dynamic braking circuit at a time when the armature 
sp^ was several times more than normal would cause the flow 
of a braking current of excessive value. 

9 These difficulties led to the adoption of a control scheme which 
Penults the operator to reverse the hoist motors when opening buckets 
Mid when starting to lower, and which causes the machine to operate 
as a motor until a predetermined speed is reached, when it automat- 
ically and without interruption of the circuit becomes a generator. 
^^ system was further perfected by the introduction of current 
^*y8 in the braking circuit, with which the current of retardation can 
be limited to a reasonable value, and a value well within the com- 
Diutation limits of the motor. As a further refinement control 
syrtema have been developed for those installations where the holding 
orwce is automatically operated which insure the maintenance of the 

ofwe in the released position until the load has come substantially to 
Test 

10 Some plants installed during the development stage have 



420 DYNAMIC BRAKING 

not been as satisfactory as the purchasers had hoped. Again 
later and perfected installations only two indictments can pr 
be brought: (a) motors sometimes overheat; (6) machines ha 
sufficient lowering speed. 

11 Assuming the installation of a proper control systeE 
overheating of motors can invariably be traced to improper 8el( 
Hoist motors cannot properly be selected on the basis of horse 
to be developed during the hoisting period. The service for 
they are employed is so intermittent as to necessitate their sel 
by what is known as the root-mean-square method, or its equi^ 
Generally speaking, motors required for a given hoist operati] 
a given cycle must have a thermal capacity which is great 
SSYj per cent if dynamic braking is employed than will be ret 
if the lowering of the bucket is accomplished by mechanical brak 

12 Lowering speeds, possible with standard motors and dy 
brake control, never seem to be criticised except in connection 
high-speed unloading plants. Generally speaking, it is not 
practice to figure on obtaining lowering speeds which are g 
than 200 per cent of the full load hoisting speed, unless s 
motors are employed, and it is a mighty good plan to figu 
holding the lowering speeds down to one and one-half times 
load hoisting speed if possible. The commutation of standard 
wound motors of what is called the mill type (and this is the 
which is generally used on coal or ore handling bridges) is not 
if they are operated above 200 per cent of full load speed; fu: 
more the energy stored in their armatures becomes too great for 
control when they are operated above this limit. If dynamic br 
is to be a complete success on fast plants, it will be necessary f( 
designers of that machinery to select special slow-speed motors < 
interpole type. There is little or no doubt but that with pn 
selected motors lowering speeds can be obtained with dynamic 
control which ari' just as high as those which are possible with me 
ical lowering brakes. T\w apparatus will, however, be somewhat 
expensive, and may be eoniniercially impossible for that reaso 

13 ^ far we have considered dynamic braking only as a] 
to direct-(;iirrent motors used for bridge hoist service. In some 
this form of control has been used in connection with trolley trj 
motors, but for this service it is not nearly so well adapted; i 
writer's estimation ils fitness is «[uestionable. In hoist service 
is always a definite force (that of gravitation acting on the hi 



CLARK T. HENDERSON 421 

tending to run the hoist motor as a generator at all times when 
brakhig is required. On trolley traverse service the force driving the 
motor is exceedingly variable, being that of trolley inertia^ and there- 
fore proportional to the square of the trolley speed. 

14 In hoist service dynamic braking is never required when 
the motor is rotating in the hoisting direction, and the reversal of the 
direction of rotation, before the motor is called upon to act as a 
generator, makes it possible for a series machine to be self-exciting 
without reversing the relation of armature and field, as is necessary 
on a trolley traverse motor when braking is to be accomplished while 
the motor continues to revolve in a given direction. The result is 
that a dynamic brake hoist controller is a much simpler and much 
more reliable piece of apparatus than a corresponding control for 
a trolley traverse motor. 

15 The variable amount of energy to be absorbed on trolley 
control service and the comparatively small number of steps com- 
mercially possible make it impractical to stop by dynamic braking 
without making the bucket swing. Air braking, under the control of 
a standard railway type brake valve, providing, as it does, an infinite 
number of gradations of braking, is, in the writer's opinion, prefer- 
ahle for heavy duty, and the manually applied brake preferable for 
light service. 

16 When a motor runs, say in a clockwise direction, it will be 
found that the best results will be obtained by setting the brushes a 
little ahead of the neutral point and thus giving it what is called the 
"motor lead." What is motor lead for one direction of rotation is 

generator lead" for the opposite direction of rotation. Hoist motors 
can have their brushes given motor lead for hoisting and this will 
8^d them to commutate properly while acting as generators during 
lowering. Any reverse power that they may be called upon to de- 
velop will be so small in comparison with that required in hoisting 
"iat their generator lead for the lowering direction will not be found 
^hjectionable. The trolley traverse motors when used with dynamic 
wake control may be called upon to act either -as generators or motors 
m both directions, and therefore cannot be thus aided. For this 
feason it ig especially desirable to employ interpole motors when 
<iynamic braking is used for trolley traverse control. 

^'^ In connection with car dumping machines there is absolutely 
^0 doubt but that dynamic brake control for the tipple motors is 
"^ghly advisable, and so far the writer lias never heard any valid 



422 DYNAMIC BRAKING 

objections made to its employment for this service. The low 
speeds demanded are never excessively high—one and one-half 
full load hoisting speed invariably seeming to be considered 
satisfactory. 

18 Dynamic brake control systems are sometimes employe 
connection with car haul for pulling cars upon a dumper. In 
cases where it is employed it ha9 proved quite satisfactory. Bn 
is not ordinarily required when moving the mule car up the in> 
and such braking as may be required in lowering is so snu 
comparison with the capacity of the motors necessarily employ 
to make the problem an exceedingly simple one. 

19 Of late years there has been a considerable number of br 
equipped with alternating-current motors and in some insti 
dynamic brake control has been employed in connection with 
motors operating the hoists. The writer has not heard of an; 
stallations where this form of control is utilized in connection 
trolley traverse motors. 

20 A three-phase alternating-current motor of the slip ring 
has to a large extent the characteristics of a direct-current s 
wound machine. Having these characteristics, it resists any 
which tends to make it revolve above synchronous speed. A i 
whose synchronous speed is 750 r.p.m., for example, will opera 
about 750 r.p.m. when exerting full load torque. If a force equ 
full load torque tends to revolve this motor above synchronous 8 
the machine will develop a retarding force equal to the propc 
force at approximately 780 r.p.m. On account of this charactei 
three-phase motors can be connected directly to the line for re 
operation and will prevent the lowering speed from exceeding 
full load hoisting speed more than a few per cent. The m 
cannot, however, be used to slow down the load, for only thii 
braking speed is available. On some installations attempts have 
made to obtain perfect braking control by the excitation of the e 
winding of the hoist motors from a source of direct-current su 
When the stator windings are thus excited the motors act as ge 
tors and the currents set up in the motor windings serve to r 
the descending load. It has been found, however, that to brinj 
descending bucket substantially to rest, a very heavy exciting cu 
is required in the stator winding. In fact, the exciting cu 
required is so high that if prolonged for any considerable peri< 
time, it will cause the winding to overheat. It has been neca 
therefore, to incorporate with these alternating-current dynamic 



CLARK T. HENDERSON 423 

ing control systems adapted to give graduated control, means for 
varying the stator excitation in proportion to the braking effort which 
the motor is expected to exert. There is one successful installation of 
this character with which the writer is familiar, but the maximum 
lowering speed it is possible to obtain is only one and one-half 
times full load hoisting speed. Above this speed the machine de- 
velops a tendency to run away. Then again, the machines are much 
slower in operation because the fly-wheel effect of the rotors in alter- 
nating-current motors is considerably greater than that of armatures 
in direct-current motors of corresponding capacity. 

21 In conclusion, it would seem proper to state that dynamic 
brake control with properly selected motors is desirable on the hoist 
motion of all direct-current coal and ore handling machinery; that 
the use of dynamic brake control in connection with trolley traverse 
motors is undesirable on both direct current and alternating current, 
and that the use of dynamic brake control is desirable in connection 
with alternating-current hoist motors, provided there is a variable 
excitation of the stator windings during the braking period. 



SYMPOSIUM ON STEEL FRAME 

BOX CARS 

No. 1405 a 

STEEL UNDERFRAME BOX CARS 

Br George W. Rixk, Jersey City, N. J. 
Member of the Society 

In approaching a subject of such importance to railroads as steel 
underframe box cars, it is surprising, in view of the interchange of 
such cars among the railroads, that more has not been accomplished 
during the past five years toward standardization in design of the 
various component parts, particularly those which aflfect the cost of 
maintenance and require constant repairs due to wear and unavoid- 
able accidents. 

2 During the year 1912, there were built 107,887 box cars of 
various capacities and dimensions, all varying vastly in detail design 
of important parts which require frequent renewal, thus making it 
necessary for all railway storehouses to carry an unnecessarily large 
stock of repair parts running into very large sums of money. Stand- 
ards have been adopted by the Master Car Builders^ Association which 
nave in a large measure reduced the amount of stock necessary to be 
carried. I believe the time has arrived to introduce additional stand- 
•^rds affecting the maintenance of box cars which can also be applied 
^ all types of freight cars used in interstate business. 

3 It is reasonable to assume that every railroad manager desires 
^0 purchase cars built in a substantial manner. In the absence of 
standard construction and because of competition, the car builders, 
^hen asked to furnish estimates and designs, will sometimes figure 
^n material too light for the service. This, however, is not the fault 
0* the car builder, since, from my own experience, I know that they 
^" gladly add the material wliere needed, provided they are paid a 
Wr price for the car. 

^ From my observation of steel underframe box cars, I must 

l^resented at the Annual Meeting 1913, of The American Society or 
^«chanical Engineers. 

425 



426 STEEL UNDERFRAME BOX CARS 

conclude that engineers did not understand the importance of 
liber stresses in the early designs of steel underframes; sofBcieni 
tention was not given to the tremendous impact blow which 
center sills and car framing found it necessary to resist^ with 
result that large sums of money are now being spent by railroad 
making repairs to these cars by reinforcing broken center and c 
sills^ applying larger capacity draw gears and attachments, 
heavier sills. It is not alone the use of the larger locomo 
today which has called for a more thorough investigation of the 
ject of car design and construction^ but also the severe shocks w 
cars are receiving in classification yards. Also the superstructui 
box cars should receive just as much attention as the underframe, 
how can the roofs be kept in alignment on cars having wood 
posts and braces and loose tie rods. The roof is bound to work k 
resulting in leaks which prevent the use of the car for certain c 
modi ties. 

5 The application of steel underframes to old cars will no di 
prolong their lives. This is now being done by almost every raih 
on cars built just prior to the advent of all-steel underframe 
cars^ but care should be taken, to see that sufficient metal is provi 
to withstand the present service requirements, keeping in vie' 
margin of safety for the future, as no doubt it would be desirabl 
maintain in service for at least ten years cars to which these i 
center sills were applied. The reinforcement of the ends of box 
has received attention by the Car Construction Committee of 
Master Car Builders' Association, and they have presented rec 
inendations in the way of designs for old and new box cars. 
committee likewise made reconmiendations with a view to establial 
minimum area of center sills to resist end strain. 

6 Railway officials in charge of car repairs have seen the rec 
of poor designing and light construction of the earlier steel nn 
frame cars, and during the past three years have materially assi 
in tlie development of the art by insisting upon the productioi 
a stronger car, one that will hold together in all kinds of service ^ 
the minimum cost of repairs. 

7 I have compiled certain relative data from designs of ei 
wooden upper frame cars and one steel frame car, all of which 1 
inside lining and outside sheathing, also six steel upper frame < 
with only inside lining. All of these cars represent the latest desi 
of box cars now being built or recently placed in service by van 
railroads. The data obtained have been divided into the follow 



GEORGE W. RINK 427 

grojxpB, special cars for automobiles and furniture having been dis- 
regarded: 

Table 1 General dimensions of box cars with outside sheathing 

Table 2 Greneral dimensions of box cars with inside sheathing 

Table 3 Dimensions of wood side framing 

Table 4 Dimensions of steel side framing 

Table 5 Dimensions of end framing for cars with wood side frames 

Table 6 Dimensions of end framing for cars with steel side frames 

Table 7 Dimensions of side door openings, size of door and distance from 
rail to top of floor 

Table 8 Dimensions of rimning boards, type of roof and car line, width 
and height at eaves, etc. 

Table 9 Distance between body bolsters, spread of truck wheels, etc. 

Table 10 Dimensions of draft sills, side sills, floor supports, etc. 

Table 11 Area, section moduli, etc., of steel underf rames at center for cars 
with irood side frames 

Table 12 Area, section moduli, etc., of steel underframes near bolster for 
ears with wood side frames 
Table 13 Area, section moduli, etc., of steel underframes at center for cars 

with steel side frames 
Table 14 Area, section moduli, etc., of steel underframes near bolster for 

ears with steel side frames 

8 Table 1. By referring to this table, it will be noted that the 
ix^de dimensions, such as length and width for 36-ft. box cars are 
the same with but one exception — the inside height varies consider- 
ably, due to the type of the carline used. The American Bailway 
^88ociation adopted on October 23, 1901, standard inside dimensions 
for box cars as follows: length, 36 ft. ; width, 8 ft. 6 in. ; height, 8 ft. 
No recommendations were made by the Master Car Builders' Associa- 
tion, as requested by the American Railway Association, to establish 
external dimensions for the 3G-ft. box car. By referring to the table it 
^ be noted that the length over sheathing varies from 36 ft. 10^ in. 
fe 37 ft. 1% in., with length over striking plates varying from 37 ft. 
^% in, to 38 ft. 8% in., the variation being accounted for by the use 
of different types of end construction. No doubt these differences will 
continne on future designs of cars until a standard end frame and end 
wll construction is made compulsory. 

^ Table 2. This shows similar dimensions for types of steel 
side frame cars, and it would appear that the inside dimensions, es- 
P^^y of the long cars, are made to suit the whims of various 
^fifiigners. There is really no excuse for such a condition, as it means 
* farther drifting away from the car of standard dimensions which 
should by reason of duplication in all its parts, facilitate repairs, 
"®^g in mind that it is going to be a more costly proposition for 
'•flioads to repair, and at times replace, parts of damaged super- 
"tnictures of steel frame cars than when made of wood. It appears 



428 



STEEL UNDERFRAME BOX CARS 



z 
s 

a 

o 



o 
o 

CO 

O 

CO 



z 



< 



i. 


aa 






^ L.-5 


O -^ W -H 


ft ft ft 

k ft — ^ — •«. 

M N -H X -H 


00 


V K ^ ^ 

o 9) a o 


V ^ ^ ^ ^ 

o c» o c: 3) 






« « « ft 


ft ft ft ft ft 




G 


•^ «J0 JO V* 


J? «^ :?; ;:^ IS* 




#4 


w "^ C ^^ 


^ o « o « 






vH vH 


*iri ^4 




-W 








c8 


^ ^ ^ K 

-o t^ t» « 


^ ^ ^ K K 

t- 1- b o c 




.a 


70 C9 CO C9 


CO ^^ ^ 'J* CO 


K 


» 












« 




• ft « ft 


ft ft ft ft 


5 


X 


X 52 S C 


ft ■• -'• «j\ - . 

O O C» X C 






•^ ^N 


^^ mm 




1 

^■^ 


V ^ V ^ 
« 1' O t» 


1* « b o r* 


O 


>x^ 


CO 00 ,"<0 CO 


^9 CO "S" -n* CO 


X 




« 


♦ * ♦ 


H 








1 










ft ft ft ft 


ft ft ft ft 


I 


M 


•^fC 'X* '^f* X 


■f* <•:«•» 




d V 


■i»\ -N — r»- 


•«» % i» •«.-*. 






t^ CO C X 


M ri O •-• <0 


1 


00 


^ ^ ^ ^ 
CO CO rt CO 


^ V- ^ ^ ^ 

CO S ? "«»• c? 


"■^" 


■ " 




ft 




JS 


ft 

b b ^ N 


ft •>«« ft 

•*V ft ^H -*•• ft 




•s 

KM 
»*4 


C«l ^ ^ CI c 


X 30 X X 


X X N C) X 


a 








X 








o 








S 








K 


!2 


ft ft ft ft 


ft ft 

ft ft -?T 10. » 


C (9 C « 


!>• ;o kt •-^ o 


^^ 


*-^ 






fi 


1^ 


^ % ^ ^ 

X X X X 


^ ^ % ^ V 

X X X 03 X 


H 








O 








2 
















fci^ 










J3 


bbbb 


M b b b b 


1 


C 


2? '^ n '^ 


;C O O O «C 

CO CO V ^ CO 


J5 at," 


• * * ^^ 


S V 2 X § 
S 2 ?i iC I- 


••5. •« 1 


r* c: 5J o 

w ^^ 5o >* 


X ri »- ?4 Ci 


--:$ = 

i 
1 1 


T X f 'W' ?5 


.t^ 


at 5 5 X 


X X X S X 

2 X X X 5 


>m 


£ 5 5 5 


^^ 


—' ^ ^ — " 


7 7. 2 8 5 


«• 
*• 


:* 2 2 X 


^ 






1 


■ 


■ 


«» 












** 


"^ 




^* 






1 


; >'^ i^ 


>i 


! 




1=^ : 




^ s: J i 




i 


s: < •/: £ C 




■ ■ 






— s: -y »^ 


-Ji -fi -55 "^ -« 




>« s^ _ ^. 


•« " *^ - » 



z 



X 

OS 



Ex! 



X 

Z 



X 

X 

o 



X 

z 

o 

X 

z 



< 
z 






^ 
u 



c 






:2>o 



PS 

H 
> 

c 



M 



z 

o 

H 



H 

a 
hi 
« 
z 



I 



X 

e 



IS 

X 



•i 



5 



JS 



-5 5 



s. 

m 



ft » » ft t 

-K -^^ J« ^ ft «, 

Oft Ot Ot X *o o 

% % % % % * 

X OO X X O 9 



ft ft ft ft ft 

«$s «^ tST « iir -T 

«-• «^ ^ f^ « OD 



* *_ » * fc • 

cs e i» o -« »« 
CO n CO « « « 



ft ft ft 



»5v wS^ r^ ft "K ft 

r^ w^ ^ K4 a o 

ii^ ill; 



• • 



ft ft ft ft ft 

•^ "^ iIk "K "^ ^ 

w^ ^m IQ O ** w 

XXX M C4 M 

CO 00 CO * * * 



ft ft 

o o b b b & 

* * % * * •_ 

XXX X O 00 



ft ft 

(0 (0 ^ 

* * * *_ ^ *— 

XXX X 9 00 



b!iS 









iSS SSS 




i 

a 
a 

1 

e 



GEORGE W. RINK 429 

lat there was a demand for larger cars than those adopted by the 
merican Railway Association. At a meeting of this body held 
ovember 20, 1912, the Committee on Standard Dimensions for Box 
ars, after ascertaining the clearances of various railroads, decided 
lat a box car 40 ft. 6 in. long, 8 ft. 6 in. wide and 9 ft. high was the 
irgest car which could be constructed with due regard for clearances, 
believe it undesirable to increase the inside height of the car to 9 ft. 
Q account of increasing the height of the center of gravity of the car 
rem the top of the rail. The present inside cross dimensions should 
e maintained, and the car should simply be lengthened to 40 ft. in 
rder to obtain increased cubic capacity. Attention is also called to the 
reat variations in weight of cars shown in Tables 1 and 2, which leads 
le to believe that either some of the cars are built too light or others 
re carrying excess weight in the way of material not properly 
istributed. 

10 Table 3. This table is very interesting in pointing out what 
arious designers consider necessary in the way of sizes of material 
or posts and braces which make up the wooden body frame, the 
:eneral arrangement of which is shown in Figs. 1 to 4. In 1904, the 
tyle of framing recommended by the Master Car Builders' Associa- 
ion, and shown in Fig. 2, was adopted for cars of 60,000 lb. 
apacity, and that shown in Fig. 3, for (\irs of 80,000 and 100,000 lb. 
apacity. There is this one exception, however, that the Master Car 
Guilders' design indicates the use of one belt rail, whereas, it is now 
necessary to provide two belt rails in order to secure properly the 
outside sheathing. This extra rail also adds materially to the rigidity 
^» the side frame, assisting it against end strains. 

11 Table 4. In this table is sliown a comparison on -sizeB of 
material used in different members of the steel frame box car. This 
'ypc of framing, as applied to a large number of box cars recently 
"onetructed, lends itself very readily to standard construction; and 
'^ 18 well to note that, with the exception of intermediate posts and 
traces, we are again confronted with a variety of sections and weights 
^f materials comprising the fiu]Q plate, side sill, corner and door posts. 
Iherc is no good reason why this condition should continue; these 
f'Ars will be in service practically all over the country, and barring 
^ecks, the frames will he sul)j(*ct to the same stress due to impact 
olowg, car lading and weight of superstructure. 

12 The general designs of steel side frames are shown in Figs. 5 
^^ 12. It will be noted thai standarfl structural material has been used 
throughout, with the exception of the Pennsylvania Hailroad box 



430 



STEEL UNDERFRAME BOX CARS 



o 

CO 

2 

8 

Q 

O 

o 

I 

< 



Q 



2 



X 

>: 



*? 



< 



u 


« 




1 — ?y 


1 * 

1 CM ^ « « 


1 


c- s 




, 














6 


cs 


i>\ 


M ?J 


CM M -^ w 




» 


x: 












< 














tf 




% 










H 




iK 


ft ft 


* i_ » • 




s 


S 




\fi CO m 

1 -X MM 


«%«:*: II 


n 


n 




ft • eo » w w 

:^:s; ft**:*;****** 








^ 


I «f 


«♦• cc 


«'*'*'* 








ft 


ft 


"-^ ft 


• 


Side 
Door 
Posta 


•«\ M MM 


•Aft -'V ft ft tS \M 

SI '**'*^ "m 




M 


^ KQic cootoibv 


ft 








II. 


ft 




i| 


k 


jc "C ^ji ft « -« 
•r ," t^ J^ ^ M ft 


ft -^ >« 
t* lO -<^ ft 

M M lO C 




CJ'^ 


IC 


^ CO 1 


lO ft * iC 


* • M M 




M 


M 1 

• ft 


ft**;s:Sft»^ 


:s5:*:fe5, 






»C 


CO •* 


^ C*i lO ifi 


t* lO 




« 




ft 


ft ft 




3) V 


cc 


cc 


<»> 


"* ■<• 11 


TJ-S 


M 


M 


ft M 


ft M ft •^ 


^ 


H 








c 


r- 


•J 1^ 


00 <0 <D r« 




^i 


« 


ft 




ft ft « 




•5\ -^ ft ft 


•Cft ;«:« II 


"«= 




M 


CO cc 

M M 


CI CO esi es 

M M M M 




ft 


ft 


ft ft 


ft ft ft ft 






tr. 


> iC 


lo m 


CO lO lO ifl 








£ 




l_l 


• 


:28 


ft ^ Vfft 

«>^ "S M -■' ft ft 


"TcococoM "\! 




M 


ft M 


M M 


1 M M M M 


ft 




ft 


> f^ C 


ft ft 


P5 « »ft lb IC 


a: 


M 


ft 


ft 


ft ft 


ft ft ft ft 




J3 G 


i?; :s! ^u-* 5?;R:«;i? II 


M«^ 


j^ 


^m 


O - 


»-• O 1^ OB 




P JJ « 


— 


1 


•- 


w^ 




S; c 


^ 


r- 




t* t* b b 




7: 


j»; 


> re 


?o « 


CO CO ^ f 




>w 




X 


X X 


88^8 




>* 


X 


i - 


X X 


5 8 5 8 


' 


a. 


i 


5 


^ 2 


i 3 S 8 




•■ \ 








rH 




W 

1 


























« 


•i 




Z 


l-i: 




>t 








•5 


c 


^ -'J 


r 


19=-. 






>% 


1 ^ 




=•5*1 


1 




■ 


•v 


Ji> 










/^ 




- >' 


c 


OB C 


> s 


» 



GEORGE V. RINK 




;d om B. * a Cars i 



432 



STEEL UNDERFRAME BOX CARS 



o 



GO 

o 
o 

Ex] 

T 



^ 



Q 

Q 
O 
CQ 

O 
72 

o 

QQ 

Q 








•0 CO 


to CO « 


1 

1 t* 


» 




• • 


, 


• 


"°l 


5 1 


' S i s s 


i? 


^s 




ft 


03 


10 ¥ 


10 10 eq 

M M H 


) 10 

M 


CO 

M 


M « 


ft ft ft 


ft 


ft 


en 


(M ->\ »5v i^ ^ *K 




.^ 


5 5 


S 1 5 


1 






a 




S 


8 


d§ 


'C 'C 


•c H c 


•c 


t 


^J3 


c 


e 


> 


V 


TJ . 


X X 


s a s 


a 


> 




*^. ^ 


1 vl *J 


vl 


OS 




:St, ^5 "T^"^ - 


<:= 


1 


Side 

Door 

Poets 


• CO ft **^« -" • 

Jit|^ J=Sft ft ft 


ft^-S 






M^^*j 


COft^COCO ■* 


ft Pi4 




^T3 ^ 


1 vl v] V 


1 vj 


vl 


«S 


'4 ^ 


« ft ft ft 

! ;^ :st 3; ;r 


ft 


|S 


.".» .- 


ft^ ft** ft*^ 


M 
ft 


r 


cS'^ 


?0^ "fl 

MM M 


m -^ ^ 

M M M 


•s 


z 




ft ft ft 


ft ft ft 


«_ 


ft 




^10 »fl 


»o •* IC 


10 


-* 




vJ ^ 


a '^ 


M 






ft 

ft^^ft cs 


2 71 •* M 


sJ 

ft 


•S ea 


cc»o 

ft^^ft**-?^ 


-B J ." 


ft 


M 

M 
ft 




eoc^ » ^ 


^ CO ^ 


^ 


■* 






M M 


M . 




Side 
Braces 




D 




ft 'fft't T^ 


30 r* 

< fti 






W coco CO CO CO w 


>C0 CO 






• 


M N N 

• • < 


• 


^ 




£ £ 


£ £ JC 


£ 




Side 
Posts 


1^ t^ 

s 


I'. t* t« 

f 1 1 


CO 






ft ft 


ft ft ft 


ft 






CO CO 


CO CO CC 


CO 




K 


* ft 


ft ft 


ft 


ft 


U3 « 


ar « P« \» 
u*s ^. _.. t-x ^ 


:*! 


:«! 


(«»(!, 


ff) - 


r^ '^ m^ 


f 


00 


C >'^ 


»" 


^" ^" 






mi a 


-r ■= 


•c t>. c 


^ 




^^"1 


•S »5 


CO CO f 


5 


"* 


■^ 












■ ""Ik 


.1 ^ 


L-J 






5o - 


•^ --^ -> 


1 Ji 


vl 

ft 


-2 — 


— ft -" — ■^^ -^■«_ ti^* "^ » 


X 


71 X 


7C i| Tri??lT| 


M 
ft 

M 




X X 


XXX 

XXX 


1 


1 


e: 






* • 


• 


* 


i3 ^ 


00 X 5 


8 


1 


•0 


1 






• 
■ 


eS 




c 




• 





*^ 


£ •€ 


8 


OS 




«* 


-* S 


cu 


• 




^ .= 


= -2 ^ 




oi 






U ^ fr 


d 


• 



GEORGE W. RINK 




STEEL UNDERFRAICB BOX CABS 




OEOROE W. RINK 




STEEL UNDERFRAHE BOX CARS 




GEORGE W. RINK 437 

ars. The design of frame of this railroad, shown in Fig. 8, makes a 
>leiidid appearance, is well arranged and provides for vertical inside 
leathing. Due to the construction of the posts and braces, slight 
>ntact blows from obstructions on neighboring tracks will not aflfect 
le appearance of the brace as tliey will if structural steel is used, 
liich is more liable to distort. However, I am not in favor of 
ressed steel, on account of its higher first cost as compared with 
:ock rolled steel and also of the fact that the ends of the posts and 
races are flattened out where they connect to the side sill and plate, 
liiis weakening them, especially at the bottom, where depth of the 
aember is desirable to resist bending due to shifting of load or side 
inpact blow. 

13 I prefer the frame construction shown in Fig. 7 for cars 

laving an inside length of 40 ft. or over and the same construction 

for cars 36 ft. inside length, omitting one panel from each side. A 

diagonal brace has been introduced in the end panel and is in tension 

due to lading, thus relieving the stress on the side sill near the bolster. 

\i also ties the lower corner of the side frame. If the corner post 

were to receive an end blow directly over the push pole pocket, with 

the assistance of an end diagonal it would keep the panel square. 

Several designs (Figs. 6 and 6a) show omission of this brace, but 

for what reason I do not know, as it could be used to advantage also 

to secure the inside lining in this panel of wide span. 

14 The question of frame design will depend largely on how the 
sheathing is to be extended, i. e., vertically or horizontally. The 
*heathing extends horizontally for all designs of steel frames shown, 
except for the pressed steel frame. I believe vertical sheathing is 
preferable as it protects the lading against water. In the case of 
horizontal sheathing, rain can beat in at the joints and the grooves 
^^ beading form gutters that have a tendency to deposit the water 
'"to the car, both at the door and end posts. This is an important 
<luestion in the case of cars used for transporting grain. Standard 
size sheathing should also be adopted. Referring to the last column 
"i Table 4, the thickness varies from P/i in. to 1% in. and the 
width from 3^4 in. to 514 "i- It is reasonable to assume that if all 
i"oad8 having cars built of this type were to use a uniform size of ma- 
tenal, it would be far easier and cheaper to make repairs. 

15 Table 5. This shows the various sizes of material used in 
60d frame construction for cars witli wood side frames. Various 
resigns have been introduced, wliicli are shown in Figs. 13 to 10. The 
^8e of I-beam posts seems to })redoniinate, using wood fillers on each 



438 



STEEL UNDERFRAME BOX CARS 



s 

Q 

GO 

Q 



X 






Ed 






2i 



c 

E 



SI 

8^ 



5 

I 

a 



00 

ii 

a 



Q 
Z 

Ed 

O 

X 

O _ 



QQ 



a 



eo 



^ t* 



CO 



00 



e 1? 






i? fc E fc E 



■:1i 



"C "C \« % » J*. 

» t !>.•*>. M N 

>0 CO >o * « 

U3 CO ^ ^ M lO 



I 



M 



ft 

:«; 

■s 

ft 






CO 

M 

ft 
iO 



M 

ft 



M 
ft 

to 



ft»* 



s 



% ? 

:» ^ 



I ^ 



ft 

•S? ft ft ft 

•-•-^ kft^ft«N*4 

ft** 2 22**®'''*' 

^•. ftftftft»«K 

co^ ^^^^oon 

- 

i -! ^^ ?l »? 

irol M Mco M ^MnqtMiitia 



Z 



•Si 



Ui 



^ a 



I —■ w 






a 
m 

;2 



:u £ 



■ 

Z 






GEOKtiE W. KINK 




STEEL UNDERFRAUB BOX CASB 




C.R.R.of N.J. 

Fid. 13 End Fkamiho 

•HD B. A A. Caki 



P.*L.E. a&A. 

N P. A L. E. Fio. 16 Ehd Fujuho uud om C. &' ^ 
I-BuK End N. J. Cabi atrma I-Bum Can»^„ 

l»D DiAQOHU. ComUBB PQ»T» HITB WoOO ftt*S 

.-_ Ehd Sill to Di* " " '- " " "" 




GEORGE W. RINK 441 

side for securing the belt rails ; this forms an ideal construction when 
the poets are well secured to malleable iron pockets at top and bottom, 
in coimection with a heavy end plate and with bottom pockets riveted 
to the end sill cover plate. Braces have also been introduced ex- 
tending, as a rule, from the end sill corner to the end plate adjacent 
lo the posts. No doubt this location is preferable on cars with wood 
framing on account of the practice of extending the side brace in end 
panel from the bolster to the top of the corner post. 

16 For securing the end frame against movement at the bottom, 
due to Bhocks occasioned by the shifting of loads, an arrangement of 
angle iroae, located on and extending across the top of the end sill 
snd secured by rivets to the top plate, appears to be excellent. This 




D.L.ft 



*^- IB End Fbauiko used on D. L. & W. Cabs showino Centbr and Cornbb 

Ptww KAUB UP or Angle Ibon and Wood Fillers ; Diaqonal Braces 

■ON Jtasu End Sill at Center Posts to End Plate at 

CoBNEB Posts ^-In, End BEiNroRciNa Plate 

>ngle iron is placed directly against the posts or sheathing. The 
lonner practice is preferable but it is necessary to cut out the sheathing 
" 'fie bottom where it laps over the angle iron. Steel plates are also 
"^i introduced on the inside of box cars as shown in Fig 17, this 
plate extending from the floor line to the top of the upper belt rail 
and well secured to the corner posts by metal bands, which extend back 
to the door posts. It will be noted that in this construction the end 
P"™ sre of wood and braced on the outside of sheathing by two 
preased steel braces extending across the car, secured to the comer 
P"™- This arrangement was recommended by the Master Car 
BuilderB' Committee on Car Construction as a desirable method for 
fs-fmilding the ends of wooden cars with Master Car Builders' lining. 
'' " is a known fact that cars built some ten or fifteen years ago 
*sre fitted up with a type of end framing which wa.'J very light in 



442 



STEEL UNDERFRAME BOX CARS 



CO 


S 


§^ 


09 

Si 


94 


2$ 


■s 


• 


• 
(Z4 


■ 


1? 




n 


91 




S 


s 


(O 


«0 


O 


O 


«0 


'I" 




GEORGE W. RINE 







—t 






T> 






1 










2-.. 
















STEEL UNDERFRAUE BOX CARS 





'—'I 




^^1 


T : r'l'!:! 


1 


iW". 


1 




1 




1 


^H 








J 


1 

1 , f'i^ 


1 



GEORGE W. RINK 445 

construction. No post or brace pockets were used in some cases, and 
in other cases where pockets were used, the metal reinforcement of 
the wood posts, such as channels, etc., did not extend into the pocket. 
When these ends were changed over to that shown in Figs. 14 and 
16, with 1%-in. end lining, no further trouble was experienced. From 
my personal experience, therefore, I do not believe an all-steel end is 
necessary to apply to wood side frame box cars. 

18 Table 6. This shows various sizes of material used in end 
frame construction for cars with steel side frames, and the arrange- 
ments of posts and braces are shown in Figs. 20 to 25. Referring to 
Fig. 23, you will note that the diagonal brace has been omitted from 
the side panels; the brace has also been omitted from the end panel 
on the side frame and due to absence of both braces, especially the 
latter, I am of the opinion that the comers of the car are not suffi- 
ciently supported, and a side blow on the corner post near the eaves 
will result in distortion of the entire end of car. My attention was 
recently called to a car with end posts arranged as shown in Fig. 22 ; 
this car had received a side blow at the point in question and the 
entire end frame at the top took a permanent set of 4 in. from the 
vertical. For this reason, I believe diagonal braces extending from 
the side plate to the end sill near the center of car is a very desirable 
feature. 

19 Z-bars appear to be well adapted for end posts and braces, 
and where set behind the end sill the best results will be obtained 
against strains due to end load shifting, as the entire section of metal 
in the Z-bar is subjected to shear. In this case it would appear de- 
sirable to use channel end sills with steel cover plate. By referring 
^ Table 6, the variety of material used in the making of end sills 
"lay be noted. Here is where a standard construction could be made 
up along with striking plate, push pole pockets, corner post angles, 
^^•» to advantage. Cars with inside sheathing should have end sills 
designed on standard lines, as it is a part of the car constantly re- 
quinng attention, especially in the vicinity of the end sill striking 
plate. 

*^0 Referring to Fig. 25, the end construction for new cars as 
recommended by the Master Car Builders' Car Construction Commit- 
tee may be noted. This design is evidently worked up on lines similar 
^^ those applied to the recent design of Pennsylvania box cars as 
shown in Fig. 24, the difference being in the use of rolled steel 
iiistead of pressed steel. I would hesitate to apply this construction 
^ * new car, as I believe a good connection can not be made to the 



446 



STEEL UNDERFRAME BOX CARS 



O 

o 



8 

H 

GO 



Q 

o 

o 

Q 
O 

OQ 

QQ 

o 

» 
o 

o 
o 

Q 

Q 

QQ 
O 

CO 

2; 

o 



t'- 



X 



2 



01 
S 

H 
Q 

M 

00 






S 

en 



9 
-s 

I 






«•*"« COiO* •*-*N -*NN -*-*« 



n n n 

• • • 



<? 



*3* *3 ••• ^# pM 

nnA Q0Qn pqaa q^^ 
^e^ s'^e odd ^d» 

sss sis ^s I sss «a3; 



S 





94 M 




00 fH ^ 


« « ft 

Ok Ok Ok 




^ 00 00 
«. M M 


^%r 


^%^ 


!>• • • 


00 * ^ 


» « i» 


« <> i« 


ft iT ti 


.»*^;« 


*«:*;« 


CI « o» 


:«xr 


•c^r;^; 


CO lO CO 


•O CD CD 


CO ^ lO 


1^ « eo 


* * V 

O CO o 


O O 03 


* * * 

•O CD lO 


b^« 


b^b 



ft 



»ft» ft ftftftTpftft ft 

:^::s;'« ft «. :«;s5:r r* at «. :r 

COCOO OOCOO lOOOcD r«OOI» t^FvflO 

**» vv* **« M * * * * « 

*Sm^ *m*m'S *m*S^ j»*J;*5 *sfl*s: 

H _M M H W W _W N M ^C M M M N M 



- -- ,,- M,_ ,,, 

00 t^t»aQ i»ooi« *tet^^ i<*qDF> 

mmM mmT? mmm HSmm mnm 

b.bb bbb bb^ ohh hUh 

v^v *vv **v ^i^^.* *_^_>_ 

OCOCO COCDCO lOcOtO CD^CD i>«o 






k K 



» ft ft 



ft ft 



ft ft 



OCOO ^t»0 ^Ofti-i v-iMO v^Okl** 



^co^ ^co^ ^ooco 



^ ^ ^ «0 CQ 



r. 



A 






\A 



« « ^i 
Q O ^ 



^(i;s: d:2d So^ 




GEORGE W. RINK 447 

lop of the end sill of the single post and two braces as shown. Again, 
this framing is not adapted to the application of end doors, which 
a good many roads find it desirable to apply on account of the loading 
of lumber, rails, etc. My preference is for a similar structure, using 
two posts, instead of one, with a diagonal brace each side similar to 
Fig. 20, having all posts and braces pass below the top of the end 
sill, for the reasons already mentioned. The short vertical plate be- 
hind the posts is desirable, and along with the wood lining, should 
make a practical arrangement. 

21 Table 7. This table gives the sizes of door openings and 
sizes of doors used on recently constructed box cars. Of all the 
things which should be made standard, a box car side door is one of 
the most important. The Master Car Builders' Association now has 
a door standard, 6 ft. 5 in. wide and 8 ft. high, and it is endeavoring 
to make this standard for new as well as old equipment. How many 
raiboads are following this practice, which was reconamended by their 
committee in 1910 and adopted as standard in 1912? By consulting 
this table, it will be noted that but one railroad, the New York, On- 
tario k Western has applied doors of this size. 

22 It has been the practice to use door hangers with rollers^ in 
order to permit the door to slide easily. Some cars were recently 
constructed with heavy doors, but rollers were omitted from the 
l^^iigers, and I have learned from good authority that they are not 
satisfactory, as a great deal of exertion is required to operate them. 
My recommendation is to continue the use of hangers with rollers. 
Also sufficient number of door guides, as recommended by the Master 
Car Builders' Association, is not being applied ; they are safeguards 
^jwnst accident if a door hanger should fail, and four guides should 
^ applied as required. 

^ The height from rail to top of floor shown in Table 7 varies 
somewhat from the Master Car Builders* standard of 4 ft. There is 
J^o reason for this oversight on the part of motive power oflScials, and 
^^ is of considerable importance as it permits of standard unloading 
pUtform heights all over the country, making it easier for electric 
fright handling trucks to enter the cars on the same level. 

^^ Table 8. This table gives some idea of the variety of roofs 
•^d roof carlines applied to recent box cars. The number of car- 
^^ required seems to be a disputed matter and evidently has been 
Wt to the manufacturer who supplies the roof. The essential require- 
^ts for a carline are to support the weight of the roof, with a 
s^table allowance for additional loading due to accumulation of snow 



448 



STEEL UNDERFRAME BOX CARS 



O 
H 

> 
< 

H 

-< 

H 
O 

Q 

Q 



a 



o 

Q 

8 



fa 
O 

>^ 

H 

GO 

Q 

-< 

>■* 
\^ 

C 

z 

73 



« 

::^ 

1 



< 



a 

o 

n 

o 

z 

p 
Pi 



t 






M 






•^ ft "^ ft ft ft 

M CO CO oo t^ n 



h U3 



cQ cQ CO CO CO ra 



^ ^ 



ft ft ft « 

"K -K -^ ft ft ft -K 

CO lO lO t* -- lO « 

00 QO 00 op CI ^ ^ 

ro 9) CO w ^ ^ ^ 



ft 

CO 
M ft ft 

« CO CO 

-^ ft ft 



ft 

ft ;s; 

t» ft CO 



ft ft 



ft ft ft « « 

ft ft :5; ««:*!X 

Is,*_ft ftftftft 



aSft»* :3t:s ft**:*^ ^xxa; 



ftft* *^4^ "^* 

<-> ^ Ci Ti ^ fi -^w 



•^ ft ft *^ 

QO 00 V QO 

^ ^ « ^ 



V oa ^ 06 00 V 00 

W ^ N 






ftftft ftftft ftft 

C4C1M MC^M MCO 



ftft ftftft 

ft * "B -f! aK *(! ft 

^ CO t^ O *0 M 00 

N « ^1 C« ^ PO ^ 



Is 

S5 






61: 



s 



O 

c 



-a 
5 



ft ft 

ft (CS —-, % 

t^ CO to ;o 



ftftft 



ft ft 



ft *^ ft w^ "^ "^ "^ ^\ ^^ ft ^P 
OiQ 9 t^C9<*3 Ot«30M 



Oi Oi 9 0)90> 0^1 CiOiOk 0)000 



^ V * * 



OQ 
*0 0) 



•a^ -si 

•O •« w M •« "B •© '8 
I I =3 zs'^t 1 ? 




0^j:i 



?IS2r 



l»t^r-i i-HOOX NO» 



t^ X 00 '^ 00 Ok O 



"3 



-3 ■= 



1^ 






A4 f^ 




Z 



•« « J 
^ aJ ^ 



^ 
« 



a 
> 'H ^ 






O 



S. 



O » O 




GEORGE W. RINK 449 

and ice, and which is of equal importance, to prevent the sides of the 
car near the eaves from spreading due to lading. 

25 As car roofs are now receiving considerable attention by motive 
power oflScials, I will describe the various types in use. They are 
usually divided into three classes, known as inside roofs, outside roofs, 
and all-steel roofs. The classification, inside roof, covers all types of 
car roofs where the metal is inside of the car, and the roof boards 
over this metal are on the outside of the car. The classification, 
outside metal roof, covers car roofs where the steel is on the outside 
of the car, and the roofing boards are underneath. The classification, 
all-steel roof, covers a car roof in which a heavy sheet is used, usually 
about 16 TJ. S. gage material. In this case, no roof boards are used, 
either above or under the roofing sheets. 

'^ The inside metal roof is the oldest type of roof in service. The 
original freight car roof consisted of either single or double sheathing 
of boards on top of the car, but the strain on these roofs was such 
that they could not be kept without continual repairs. The inside 
metal roof was then developed and being made of separate flexible 
luiits, permitted weaving of the car to take place and still have a 
waterproof roof below the roof boards. The outside roof boards are 
simply a protection to keep the trainmen from walking on the roofing 
sheets. The advantages of the inside type are: (a) flexibility, (6) 
protection of the metal from the weather, (c) protection of the metal 
from trainmen's boots, and (d) prevention of the quick corrosion of 
Ihe metal, due to the roof boards preventing a deposit of cinders on 
^he metal, which, when attacked by moisture, quickly eats away the 
galvanizing and also the sheet itself. 

'^^ The objections raised against this type are that the outside 
roofing boards work loose, the torsional. strains of the car causing the 
'^ails to work out and rust off. This condition is usually caused by 
the weaving of the car superstructure and can be eliminated to some 
extent by the use of stronger carlines. An inside roof properly ap- 
pHed as far as the metal is concerned, should last a good many years, 
With the replacement of the roof boards about every four years. These 
roof boards, besides being secured by nails, are now held down at the 
caves by wire staples locking the boards to the facia. 

^ Of the outside metal roofs, there are numerous types on the 
Market, but in a general way they are similar. Their differences 
usually are in the method of fastening the sheets at the eaves. The 
?^e of metal ranges in most cases from 22 to 1^ U. S. The ad- 
vantages claimed for the outside metal roofing are : (a) ease of ap- 



450 



STEEL UNDERFRAME BOX CARS 



Q 
H 

H 

3 

O 

n 

s 

O 

P 
OS 
H 

(s« 

O 

H 



3 

H 
H 

U 

O 

Pi 
H 

O 



04 

H 

3 

o 

Q 
O 
PQ 

2 

U 
U 
It 
H 

A 

8 

< 

H 

CO 



CQ 



M 

p 



oa 
1 



O 



P4 

I 



a 



I 

m 
1 



J 



a (3 a a a 
£8888 



a a a a 
8 8 8 8 



lis 




o. a o. a a 



,,, - = , ,,, &&& ,&, 

II;*: 1^^ ^^i^ ^^^ 5^5 

QOQQ'3 ral'l 1300 '3 3 '3 oolS 

-g-ePQ -eSn PQPQ-g PQPQM '8'^'tt 

ow| "II ||o III oJS 

CO ooaoeooo cbaQOD oo 



S^i |a| ill III III 

n A 00 00 A ffi n QQ n snA qoSA 

111 111 111 III ttt 

<<o cxo <o< 0<'< oo-^ 



^OQ9 ^^«D ^«D^ VVV &&& 

tbtbib ibkbib «bibM» M3M»ib Ib^^ 



bbb ^^b ^Sob bb^ hlah 

^^^ S^S^ SSS mSS« coSm 



■ 



o a « 



» * » 



« * 



k * * * « « 



« » 



^ r^ -K frN »3\ % h\ -R pJv •^ ^ mK X pH II 

t^CQO OOM*^ O'-ifD f-ip4lO O^O 

k'^n n'fifi ^^Is Islgis liiliilii 



o 

-s 

a 



■s 



OMb b'^b bb»o b»ob 

(boo ooo ^oo ^1?1? ^^^ 
eococo cocQco ^raco eococo 999 



bb 




GEORGE W. RINK 451 

cation, (6) ease of repair, (c) somewhat lower first cost, and (d) 
ssible prevention of fires, particularly in the west. 

29 The objections which develop in this type of roof have been: 
) exposure of the metal itself to weather and chafing of the sheets 
ere joined, causing the galvanizing to wear oflE so that the sheet 
ickly rusts. Cinders also collect along the eaves where castings are 
id, and when wet^ sulphuric acid action will set in and eat out the 
let. This is partially overcome by the use of a slip joint along the 
^es as provided for on the later types. 

30 The all-steel type of roof is a development of the last three or 
ir years, and consists of metal plates of about 16 U. S. gage resting 

steel carlines, they being an integral part of the roof. In some 
les the sheets extend from side to side of the car, and in others the 
Jets are divided extending from the eaves to the ridge pole. The 
lount of galvanizing used on these sheets is practically the same as 
it on the outside metal roofs, which is about 1.8 oz. per sq. ft. on 
th sides of the sheet. The claim is made that this type somewhat 
htens the weight of the car, but the same objections have been 
sed regarding the wearing out of the material as well as the tearing 
the metal due to its rigid application. This latter feature is now 
leiving some attention by the manufacturers, and no doubt can be 
BFcome. This style of roof is more expensive than the other types 
eviously mentioned. 

31 Large sums of money are paid out annually by our railroads 
cover damage claims due to wet lading and the roof problem is a 
'ere one with us. The service requirements, due to the use of heavy 
^er and the severe service that cars are receiving in freight classi- 
ation yards, compel us to give this matter our earnest attention and 
sist the manufacturers of car roofs as much as possible in develop- 
g a roof that, with ordinary care, will stay tight and protect the 
ling. Considerable success has been obtained with roofs applied to 
X cars made up of inside and outside roof boards, having a layer of 
iterproof roofing material between the boards, similar to that applied 

refrigerator cars. 

32 In the application of running boards, there seems to be no 
*ndard method followed. TMe 8 shows that the width over all 
iries from 18 in. to 24 in. and size of material from % in. to IV^ in. 
^ck and in widths from 5% in. to 7% in. This does not ap- 
^ on the surface to be a very important matter, but it seems to me 
^t a better understanding should have existed between railroads, at 
*8t to arrive at a standard width of platform for the safety of train- 



452 



STEEL UNDERFRAME BOX CARS 



a 

< 

H 



o 



CO 



CO 



CO 



CO 



^9 



00 



en 



T T r|T 

•« to -^ CO lO 




'SSV 



o 

H 

S 
2 

Oh 
CO 

O 



a 

I-H 

QQ 

Q 

l-H 

QQ 

3 

l-H 

QQ 

Q 

o 

QQ 

o 

l-H 

QQ 

z 



■ 

i 

H 
O 



o 
PQ 

H 

o 
PQ 



95 . 



QQ^ 



! 



a 
s 

PQ 



a 

o 

H 






a 

8 

& 



o. 
o 

H 












w 



Oft 






M 



M 



CD 
M 



CO 
M 



:« :r 



ft 
3? 






M 

ft 



ft»< 



ft 
CD 
M 

ft 



:jf :s! 



ft 



00 

s 









ft 

CO 



M 

ft 

H2 



ft^ 



:i: :« 



ft** 



ft 



ft 



ft 

r>. 

H 

ft 



CI 



ft 



X :f 



00 



ft^ll^lMi 



Oi 'a ^ 




ft 

00 



ft 



ft 
? 




ft»* 



ft 

ft»* 



ra 






C4 



lO 






T T T 



ft 



ft 



J 



ft 

ft»* 

ft 



*•• 



eg si 

ft « 

eo 



PQ 
< 



00 

en 



S 



K3 
N 
















5 



» 

00 



^J1 

-N M 

n • 
CO cc 






ft ft 



^ 1 

m5 ft ^ 

j3 p "C % 



I S .^ - ^ M^ .** 




id 



ft 

CO 



•d 






o 
X 

6 



6 






PQ 






OEORGE W. RINK 



453 



CO 



CO 



CO 



M 



CO 




M 



M 



k 

to 

M 



«0 
M 



:^ :$! ;f 



CO 

M 



CS 



;*! 



CO 

M 

* 



M 



«0 
M 

* 



* 
CO 

M 
k 



::$? :s: ;i! 






M 



i 



I 



&4 >~ 04 -« &< "~ 

k S k S k S 

^ 00 ^ CO Xoo 



to 



k 




•KOQ 



•2 

a 
a 

a 
1 



M 
k 



k 

to 



k 



k 



:^ ::f ;;*; 



k 

QO 



;j! 



M 
k 



M 
k 



k 



k 



k 



::?: ::f: ;s^ 



k 

M 
k 



k»* 






eo 

a 





k s k z k z 

^OQ ^OD ^CQ 



' 1 





o 



k 



J 5 3 w 




T 

k 

M 

k 

CO 
M 

k 

to 



M 

k 

cc 

M 

k 

_3L 



CO 



k 



a 
o 








I I 



tt>4 



k 
»0 



k 



k S ;= 



^k S^k.'^ t^'nO* ^O 




•^ M 

J* 

•o CO 



^'1 

"X CO 

00 to 



^ -9 :s? -9 :3f -5 




^1 

^k 

n ^ 

M M 

k k 
»« CO 



I i 




k 

M 
k 

M 







o 



•S 



i 



OS 



I 



OS 

0:1 
0^ 



454 STEEL UNDERFRAME BOX CARS 

men and standard size of materials. The Interstate Commerce Com- 
mission recommends a standard width of 20 in. and allows a mininmm 
of 18 in. I would suggest^ therefore that all railroads, when applying 
new running boards to old or new equipment, construct the platfonn 
20 in. wide using lYg in. by 6^ in. material. 

33 Table 9. This table shows the spread of body bolsters foT 
box cars of different inside lengths, also distance over striking plateB, 
truck wheel centers, etc. For cars 36 ft. inside length, bolster centers 
vary from 26 ft. 6 in. to 27 ft. 6 in. and for the longer car this varia- 
tion is shown from 30 ft. 6 in. to 3<2 ft. 6 in. The eflEect of a long 
overhang of the car from the center line of the bolster to the pulling 
face of the coupler has a tendency to cause derailment on curves, due 
to the coupler side clearance in tlie striking plate not being sufiBcient 
to permit the coupler to swing over wlien the car is coupled with 
another car that has a short overliang; if derailment does not occur, 
excessive wheel flange wear is produced. For 36-ft. box cars it would 
appear desirable to have the bolster centers made 27 ft. which is now 
standard on a large number of railroads and allows ample space for 
the application of draw gear. 

34 For longer cars the same overhang as obtained under the above 
conditions for 36-ft. cars could be maintained, which would make the 
bolster centers 31 ft. for a car AO ft. long inside. The distance from 
the face of the striking plate to tlie outside face of the body end con- 
struction should be ample to permit of the proper clearances being 
maintained for safety appliances, as required by law. 

35 Truck wheel centers vary somewhat, the majority of the rail- 
roads now using trucks with wheels spaced 5 ft. 6 in. apart. This 1 
consider very good practice, as it allows ample room for inside brake 
rigging. Truck arch bars and cast-steel side frames should be designed 
to interchange witli one another and should conform to the Master 
Car Builders' reciuirenients. The practice of using various designs 
of cast-steel side frames which vary in details should be discouraged, 
as there is no reason why a standard design of truck side frame for 
the different capacity cars should not be obtained and applied by 
every railroad in the country. Tliis certainly would simplify repairs 
and they could then be purchased in the open market subject to 
specifications. 

36 Bolster designs should also be made standard. This is a veij 
important matter as the life of truck bolsters made of cast steel ii 
uncertain, a number being replaced within five to ten years after cars 



QEOBGE W. SINK 



1 


+ 1. 


ill? 


1 


i 




1 


■nj '.11 V 


;|»|!|:|2|!|i| 


■Q[ bfijjd qn 


lilllil 




isiiili 


■<n 'njois P"a "i 


iiiisii 


■ol■beJsd■q^ 


iiiiiiiiiiiii 


P 


•o 


5 S g P S K 2 


^" 


5 S S 1 E Si i 

2 S S S § 3 = 


1' 


^i" 


S 8 3 2 s a s 


^■' 




■hwv'hiH 


s s si s s g a 1 


i 

5 


II 






1 




s 


5 ll^ ^ 1 § s 
J, T?:s! 3t :x X » li 


"(d 


i 


; : 1 X X 


1 


1 


'III 


X 

3 


1* 


: .5 5: X 
: 1 3 9 


< 

i 


■HI '"l"! J lilM 


- i« X ^ 


y. 


■ni '»»««£ 


2 2 3 S U S S 


wMiio(10»a 


-« < O H H M M 


»fl'<X1l!8 


-] -1 (D O O M *. 


1 




« « o . 
Q 6 Z ft 


Bi 




i 





456 



STEEL UNDERFRAME BOX CARS 



are placed in service. It would avoid unnecessary delay in obtaiiuiV 
new bolsters for repairs when replacing a built-up design^ espediUj 
when changing from one manufacturer to another, who not having a 
bolster pattern that will interchange, will try to furnish something ebe 
or make new patterns and in the meanwhile cars are tied up at the 
repair shops. It is manifestly impossible to carry such parts in atod 
for five to ten different designs for the same capacity car, as this can- 
not be done without increasing the amount of stock 25 to 50 per cent 
over the present allowance. 



X 



TYPE A 




TYPE 6 





z 



TYPE H 






TYPE 1 




TYPE D 




TYPB J 



rg-^ T 



TYPE E 





TYPE K 




TYPE F 




TYPE L 



Fio. 27 Fig. 28 

Fig. 27 Types of Center Sills showing the Diversity in Dbsion, Ar- 
rangement OP Cross Bearers, Length op Cover Plates, etc., 
AS applied to Box Cars with Wood Side Fbaicxs 
Fig. 28 Types of Center Sills showing the Diversity in DxsiGNy Ar- 
rangement of Cross Bearers, Length of Cover Plates, xtc., 
as applied to Box Cars with Steel Side Frames 



37 Tables 11 to 14. These tables have been compiled to show 
interesting information on the subject of center sill constructions for 
14 different cars, the types of underframes used in which are shown in 
outline on Figs. 27, 28 and 81. The heavy lines in the drawings indi- 
cate the cover plates used which appear to be a general practice among 



GEORGE W. RINK 



luinajj iiA|Aq 4U 



SSs|g||: 









1 •= -c 



-t1- 



u a C U H d 1 



:iiJl 



458 STEEL UNDERFRAME BOX CiLRS ' 

designers. This is considered by many to be a very desirable feature 
and besides adding to the rigidity of the structure^ increases the net 
area of section and therefore reduces the fiber stress to within rea- 
sonable figures. 

38 The strains whicli an underframe has to withstand vary, and 
depend a great deal on the design and arrangement of body bolsters, 
side sills and body framing. With substantial side sills and body 
bolsters, compressive strains can be transmitted by the latter and thus 
part of the compressive load can be taken care of by the side sills. 
However, there is a limit to the load the side sills can take care of 
which is based on the ratio of length to the least radius of gyration, 
the length being considered as the maximum distance between adja- 
cent fioor beams. Tn the case of cars with wood body side framing it 
wQuld appear desirable to provide suJQBcient area at the smallest section 
of the center sills to take care of end strains, allowing the side sill to 
carry only its proportions of the vertical loads due to lading, weight 
of superstructure and an allowance for oscillation. 

39 In the case of box cars with steel side frames there is no qaes- 
tion about the ability of the frame structure to carry considerably 
greater loads, both vertically and due to end shock, on account of the 
diagonal braces assisting in transmitting the strain throughout the 
side. For this reason some designers do not consider it necessary to 
use continuous cover plates on the center sills, but use rolled stcd 
sections for these sills, having a much smaller net area than what ib 
considered good practice by others. 

40 In order to analyze properly the stresses in imderframes * 
standard method of comparison should be made. Cars do not fail sB 
a rule because of the weight of lading, but principally because of 
strains transmitted through the coupler. The magnitude of the end 
shocks that underframes have to witlistand were investigated in tefltfi 
conducted prior to 1902, on the Lake Shore & Michigan SoutherD 
Railway with a dynamometer car having nominal capacity in apparatus 
of 300,000 lb. It was found that the tensile and buflBng strain^i 
with an engine having a tractive power of 36,000 lb., were from 60,000 
to 70,000 lb. and 80,000 to 150,000 lb. respectively, depending upo^ 
the skill of tlie engineer in manipulating the engine, the train rem**^* 
ing intact. In coupling an engine to its train, buffing strains fro^ 
65,000 to 142,000 lb. were obtained. Thirty cars moving at about 
6^^ miles per hour, and coupling on to ten loaded cars with hrsJ^^ 
set, gave a shock of 376,492 lb. It would therefore appear from ^ 
above results, that provisions should be made in designing a 8*^ 



GEORGE W. RINK 



s 


+^ 


£ i g i i i s 


any 

JO OUl-l JUIUJJ 


y:l^l9:|S|!| 


don«3iduio3 iKiaiq 


liiiiii 


■.(11SUJI1JJ03 lij 


i i i i i 1 1 


^^01 'bg lad 
41 ip noiBaajduiDQ 


i i 1 i i 1 1 


P 


-r 


= s s 8 2 » a 

3 S ^ S S £ 3 


»• 


s s 2 a 2 s £ 


55 


"- 


a g 3 s s s b 


' 


S S 5! 3 S S = 


«i 


B S 8 = S S S 

s s a g s a 2 




II 


a • 


1 


:c » X a 3: 

5 ? 5 a 1 1 § 

a » sr s it X St 




1 


. . •« T * ■ 

^ ill 


1 


■ ■ ■? X S X 

ill :« 


1 


Ih 


5ll t 

ill « 


HI ■"li'lJ '1 i.W 


-• .■! a: a 






«j^j. ufrisas 1 t! tl fc. 


an-U nia 1 < -1 (S tj Q M fc 




1 

5 


* « 0: < z 1 

^ ' ^ ; ^ ' i 



460 STEEL UNDERFRAME BOX CARS 

underframe box car to take care of an impact blow of 350,000 lb. 
transmitted throughout all sills. 

41 It would therefore seem advisable to assume an end strain of 
200^000 lb. on the center sills of box cars with steel side frames and 
300,000 lb. for box cars with wood side frames for the reasons previ- 
ously mentioned. If the center line of coupler was directly on line 
with the neutral axis of the section to be analyzed, the stress per 
square inch on the center sills due to end shocks would be equal to 
the buffing force B divided by the area A of section. Referring to the 
data compiled in Tables 11 to 14 on center sills, the area of the sills 
are given both at the center line of the car and near the bolster. The 
eccentricity e or the distance from the center line of the draw gear to 
the neutral axis is also given for these sections. Stress at the bolster 

due to eccentricity equals — ? when the center line of the draw gear 

^S't B^ 
is below the neutral axis, and — when the center line is above the 

® B S 

neutral axis. The combined stress at the bolster equals \ ^ or 

B B A S^ 

•J + -^, depending upon the location of the center line of the 

draw ^ear. At the center line of the car, compression stress due to 

the lading equals — . Stress due to eccentricity equals ~ . Stress due 

B 

to end shock equals -j . When the center line of the draw gear at the 

center of the car is below the neutral axis, the combined stress equals 
- + - — -TT , and if the center line is above, the combined stress 

•3 A ^L On 



equals 1 1 — ? . The ratio of stress to end strain is ob- 

1 6 

tained by the formula - + , in which S represents the section 

modulus, S^ to be used if the center line of the draw gear is below, 
and S if above, tlie neutral axis. The Car Construction Committee 

C ' 

of the Master Car Builders' Association reconmiend that the above 
ratio on new cars should not exceed 0.06. They also recommend a 
minimum area of 24 sq. in. of center sills. 

42 Tables 11 and 12 give the maximum stress on center sills due 
to vertical loading which was obtained by assuming a uniform load 
distributed throughout the sill. Calculations are based on the weight 
of car body, -4, the lading, B, and the oscillation, C, The car body. 



OEOBGE W. SINK 



i 


+T 


1 


1 


2 


MM 


ISJinofJ *oiaq JO 


a5l5|:«J-|5| 


■Qlt)Sl»tf qT 


iilii|£ 




liiiisl 


-01 bg J«l 


iilliil 


II 


t^" 




, , . - = s 1 


s s s ! = a 


■J" 


S . , 3 3 3 3 
S S K « S 3 § 


z 


H 


^ " I! ^ 2 S S 


H 


S « „ S S S S 


III 


S « . S 3 3 S 
S 2 2 S S 3 S 


r 


U 










1 


< 




§ 9 3 5 

■C » * T 


3 

1 


1 








: « ^ 5 


■3 

1 










n^ 








: 1 S^ 


"1 '•»"« q»j<i 








: » X X 


■01 ■bBb.ij 


S 2 2 S 2 2 = 


«Ux «o,,«s 


u Q o « d B 


••Millie 


a ta - ^ M d 


1 


L 




;::::] 






. 


1 


lif = 



462 



STEEL UNDERFRAME BOX CARS 



weight A, carried on center sills was taken at 20,000 lb. except for 
Philadelphia & Reading box car, in which the weight used was 24,000 
lb. (assumed as two-thirds total weight of car body and underframe). 
The lading B for 60^000 lb. capacity cars was assumed as 66,000 lb., 
for 80,000 lb. capacity cars was assumed as 88,000 lb. and for 100,000 
lb. capacity cars was assumed as 110,000 lb. The oscillation C waB 
taken at 20 per cent, of the total sum of lading and weight of car body 
carried. 



-Bo/ster Centers 




<--- -x------>| 

< - 1 - >| 

Fig. 29 Diagram for Determining Bending Momemtb 





..^ .^ 

Fig. 30 Diagram for Load Distribution 



43 The calculations for center sill load for box cars with wocx 
side frames were made as follows : load per square inch of floor 8pac< 

A+B + C 



w = 



Im 



Total uniform load on center sills 



where 



44 



/ = length over centers of end posts, in inchea 
m = distance over centers of side posts, in inches 
X = spacing of center sills 

y = distance from back of center sill to center of aide post, is 
inches (see Figs. 29 and 30) 

The calculations for center sill loarl for box cars with ated 



side frames were made as follows : load per square inch of floor apace 



OEOBGE W. RINK 



463 



w, 



j+B+C 



» Im 

Total uniform load on center sills 

W = wj (x + y) 
Bending moment of center sills 

where 



M =s: maximum bending moment at center of car 
c = distance from center line of bolster to center of end post, 
in inches 

M 

— = compression per square inch 

So 

M 

— = tension per square inch 

Bending moment at any point* 



where 






X = distance in inches from center of end post to any section 
between bolster and center of car 



TABLE 15 DATA COMPILED ON AREAS AND STRESSES IN CENTER SILLS 



Abba or Cbntbr Sills 



^'t. caw, wood frame 
^^' can. BtMl frame, 
^ft. cars, wood frame 
^^- CW8. Bteel frame. . 



At Center 



Min. 



26.84 
18.73 
32.00 
26.80 



Max. 



45.01 
26.05 
33 . 126 
35.01 



Aver. 



33.57 
22.37 
32.60 
30.52 



At BolBter 



Min. 



23.00 
10.80 
10.08 
22.34 



Max. 



36.18 
26.05 
27.80 
30.68 



Aver. 



26.64 
22.00 
23.10 
25.35 



Maximum Combinbo Strbbb 



M-ft. 
36.ft. 
40.ft. 
40.ft. 



^^ wood frame 
c*rB, steel frame. , 
c*r», wood frame 
cara, steel frame. 



At Center 



At Bolster 



Min. 



12787 
11331 
13772 
16909 



Max. 



23510 
20714 
23583 
198.31 



Aver. 



18321 
15380 
18677 
18.391 



Min. 



10220 
18207 
20975 

8715 



Max. 



21124 
22001 
35620 
17713 



Aver. 



15800 
10671 
32708 
13005 



464 



STEEL UNDERFRAME BOX CARS 



P = load per lineal inch of sill 
In calculating the Pennsylvania Eailroad box car^ it was assume 
the cross bearers transmitted to the center sills a certain prof 
of weight of the car body, thus producing an additional b< 
moment in the center sills. 

45 From Tables 11 to 14 are obtained the data presented in 
15. For the 36-ft. cars with wood body framing, it would 
that the averages shown for the area and stress both at the bolst 
the center of the car approach figures which are safe for { 
practice. For the 36-ft. cars with steel body framing, the f 
stress per square inch behind bolster is too high for safe practi 
should be reduced by increasing the area. The low combined 
at center of car is due to the center line of coupler being locatec 
5 inches below neutral axis, which reduces the compression 



TYPE A 







TYPES 



TYPEC 



TYPED 



L JIL 

TYPEE 



] [ iin 



TYPE F 



TYPEft 



TYPEH 

Fig. 31 Typical Sections op Center Sills showing IjAck o 

Standardization 



direct end shock. At the center of car the stress due to lading 
is also too high for safe operation. For the 40-ft. cars witl 
body framing, the average stress per square inch is entirely to 
and should be reduced by increasing the area of the section ai 
ting down the eccentric load due to end shock ; this also applies 
section at the center of the car. In the 40 ft. cars with stee 
framing, the maximum combined stress at the center of the c 
trifle high. 

46 In all of these cases it is well to note that the relation 
center line of the coupler to the neutral axis has an important 1: 
on the strength of the sills. At the center of a car with fish-bel 
sills the center line of the coupler is usually above the neutn 
which adds to the total combined compression; whereas. 
steel sills, the coupler center line being below the neutra 
will counteract somewhat the compression due to impact blow. 



GEORGE W. BINK 



465 



leads me to believe that nothing is gained by making the depth of 
M-belly sillB at the center any greater than la required to take care 
of the vertical loads. It will also appew that a fish-belly type sill is 
neisflssry for all types of cars mentioned of 80,000 and 100,000 lb. 
(tpacity, except 36 ft. steel aide frame cars, vhich will render good 
wrlce when tieing a center sill construction of plates and channela. 
i1 Table 10. This table shows the general practice in design- 
ing body bolsters, crossbearers, side sills, and draft sills. For body 



r""" 


fij'x £i't^ JS'-^ «' 


, 








, , 




, 


\ 




J 

//-..o 


/^i?i fiaio 




\ 


\ 


% 




■Kl 4410 47 










■3S 



\ 




% 


/ 


/ 


X 









Ite. 32 Gbaphicai. Metiioj) or determinino 

Meubers of Stebl Side Fkaues 

"listers, it is general practice to \isc two pressed steel channels spaced 
*t vsrioHB distances apart with cover plates top and bottom. The 
"^'t degigns have a spacing 6 in. to 8 in. between webs. For cross- 
"^uen, a variety of designs exist, the later types consisting of heavy 
'-tieaiiia passing directly through the center sill web plate and ex- 
"QOiog the width of the car between side aills. This plan is also 
Allowed out on the intermediate floor beaniB and makes a neat and 
'"Wantial arrangement. The general practice is to use a pressed 
'wel channel with top and bottom cover plate. 



466 STEEL UNDERFRAME BOX CARS 

48 For draft sills^ the practice is, where structural steel channdB 
are used for center sills, to extend the same channel to the end ifll 
to serve as draft sills. It has been customary when fiah-belly tjpe 
center sills are used, to provide a pressed steel Z-shape draft sill and 
splice to center sill web plate projecting through the bolster. Then 
is a tendency on the part of designers today to do away with the splio 
by extending the web plates of center sills and providing outsid 
angles to form the draft sill, using a continuous cover plate. Wher 
pressed steel center sills and cover plates are used, the practice he 
been followed of extending this construction to the end sill, extendin 
the cover plate too near the end of the sill. This construction n 
quires the use of web plates about 5/16 in. thick, so as to prorid 
sufficient bearing area for draft lug rivets. I believe when draft sil 
have sufficient net area behind the bolster stop, that considerations < 
economical construction would warrant dispensing with the splic 
as in view of the additional cost of a splice on 1000 cars, the expeni 
of its application is not warranted when considering the number < 
sill failures likely to occur due to its omission. 

49 As to draft gears, data regarding the type used have not be< 
tabulated. It is sufficient to say that of the cars enumerated, six we 
equipped with spring draft gears and nine with friction gears. Tl 
impact blow resulting from cars coming together is practically a 
sorbed by the draft gear. Friction gears are more efficient in th 
respect, absorbing a much greater percentage of total energy as coi 
pared with spring gears. This subject has been thoroughly di6Ciu8< 
by the members of the Master Car Builders' Association some yea 
ago, a full account of which appears in their proceedings. Owing 
the large variety of gears in service, necessitating numerous desig* 
of draft lugs, key attachments, etc., it would appear that, if a stan 
ard arrangement of draft gear and all appliances connected therewi 
were adopted by all railroads, it would result in great economy 
maintenance. This should include striking plates and carry iroi 
which on a large number of cars are not of sufficient strength 3. 
to arrangement of end sills. 

50 The stresses in steel body framing can be obtained by graphic 
as well as analytical methods. Fig. 32 indicates the manner in whi 
the stress diagram for vertical loads is obtained, a uniform load 
70 lb. to the lineal inch having been considered, corresponding to 
uniform load of approximately 30,000 lb. for a 36-ft. car. The lifi 
lines indicate tension and the heavy lines, compression. The si 



GEORGE W. RINK 467 

sill and top plate at the door opening are subjected to the same stress, 
but it is the usual practice to provide more area in the side sill to 
take care of unsymmetrical loading. The posts and braces must also 
resist crossbending stresses due to pressure of lading. The bending 
moment due to this cause is 

^ IPtB.n^eDW 
^ " 18X1728 

in which 

H = height of load in inches 

D = one-half distance between posts in inches 

W = weight of lading in pounds per cubic foot 

B == % (90 deg. — angle of repose) 

51 By examining the tables shown giving the comparative data of 
various items which enter into the construction of a box car, it is 
surprising that more has not been done in the way of standard con- 
struction. The large expenses which railroads are now compelled to 
face due to repairs of freight cars could be partially reduced if stand- 
ard designs were in use throughout the country. Repairs would be 
facilitated due to the use of standard materials throughout for vari- 
ous types of cars, fewer cars would be held up at car repair shops 
awaiting material from foreign roads, and interchange of cars would 
Dot be a hardship to any railroad, as all cars would be of equal 
•trength. Also drawing room expenses would be reduced both for 
tbe railroad and car builder, and repair parts could be produced by 
cheaper methods than as followed out at present, due to elimination of 
a variety of designs and shapes, principally castings and pressed steel 
parts. 



No. 1405 6 

STEEL UPPER FRAME BOX CARS 

By B. W. BrmNETT,^ Montreal, Canada 

Non-Member 

While this paper is confined solely to superstructure details of 
the steel frame box car, it is intended to apply in general to steel frame 
practice as developed in connection therewith. While the early de- 
velopment of steel upper framing is passed over rather briefly, many 
of the important considerations that have influenced its adoption are 
discussed in detail, particularly as viewed by the Canadian Pacific 
Railway. Tlie information and data presented are based on the 
writer's experience in this railway system in connection with the 
design, construction and maintenance of 30,000 cars of this type, 
which represent an investment of e$30,000,000. 

2 Credit is due to Mr. C. A. Seley, mechanical engineer of the 
Rock Island Lines, for designing the first outside sheathed steel 
superstructure box cars that were constructed in large numbers. The 
introduction of steel into the superstructure of tlie box car, and the 
development of the outside sheathed steel superstructure in par- 
ticular, were discussed so thoroughly by Mr. Seley in his comprehensive 
paper 2 before the Franklin Institute in January 1910, that I have 
thought it unnecessary to go over this same ground, but will review 
^nly briefly the development of the box car from the all-wood car 
through the intermediate stages of steel underframe cars. 

3 The original wooden car, with the single spring draft rigging 
saving the check castings bolted to the sills, gave little if any more 
trouble than modern equipment, due principally to the shorter trains, 
'^^r density of traflSc and to the use of link and pin couplers which 
^Dapelled gentler handling of trains than is prevalent today. The 
steel underframe car was built mainly to secure a stronger center 
construction for the attachment of draft rigging and to get away 

^eral Master Car Builder, Canadian Pacific Railway Company. 
*VoL 169, No. 4, April, 1910, p. 278. 

Presented at the Annual Meeting 1913, of The American Soctett of 
^schanical Engineers. 

469 



470 STEEL UPPER FRAME BOX CARB 




R. W. BURNETT 471 

from the trouble caused by wooden sills breaking and splitting, broken 
draft boltSy etc. 

4 While having many advantages over the old wooden car, the 
steel nnderframe car developed some troubles peculiar to itself, the 
mofit important being due to the fact that the body being carried 
on a rigid frame and not held together by the strains resulting from 
its weighty as in the old trussed cars^ has a tendency to develop slack 
in the saperstmcture. This in turn affects the roof and sheathing. 
One principal trouble with outside sheathed cars is that, after 
they have been in service a comparatively short time, the sheathing 
frequently loosens at the end sill and at the side sills near the 
bolsters with resultant leakage of grain. 

5 There were some steel frame box cars built previous to 1909, 
but the writer has been able to secure data only on the outside 
sheathed types. Of these 2700 were in service on the Norfolk & 
Weatem, of which the first 100 were built in 1902 ; the owners ad- 
rise they were satisfactory and the same type has been purchased on 
subsequent orders. The Bock Island and Frisco lines had in service 
at that date approximately 5000 cars similar to the Norfolk & 
Western^ and these also appear to have given satisfaction as the 
owners have re-ordered the same type several times. All of these, 
bowever, were outside sheathed and as regards leakage at the sills, 
bad comparatively little advantage over the wooden cars. Eecently 
both o! these lines have purchased some inside sheathed cars. The 
Frisco car of this type is fully described in The Railway Age Gazette, 
October 3, 1913. 

6 In 1908 the Canadian Pacific Railway designed the steel frame 
inside sheathed box car as shown in Fig. 1. This car avoided the 
disadvantage of the outside sheathed car which had not been ac- 
complished by the steel frame cars constructed up to that time, and 
st once obtained a further reduction in weight and provided for 
cheapness of maintenance by the use of steel superstructure, with- 
out the additional lumber required by the outside sheathed ear. With 
practically no preliminary experimenting 500 of these cars were built. 
Wid aince then over 30,000 have been built similar to the first cars, 
^th the exception of several refinements of details, such as corner 
*^d door posts, end doors and side plates, and joining of flooring 
Mid lining. These changes have not affected the general design of 
'he car, but are improvements that have been introduced from 
"Die to time to reduce weight and simplify the construction. The 
latest type of car is shown in Figs. 3 to 5. 



STEEL UPPER FRAME BOX CARS 





1* M TTT^ M 


1 -i^'^ S**^! 






11 




^^^w^l/ ^1 


1 \\ n ^Jl^^i^n 




"^K" "**ll 



R. W. BURNETT 473 

7 The steel frame outside sheathed car has several advantages 
over the types previously used, notably in that the tare ton weight 
is low in proportion to the capacity. There is such a variation in 
the figures used for the cost of hauling per ton-mile, that no attempt 
is made to say vrhat the saving vrould amount to, but certainly 
the advantage of having a car equal, if not superior to other cars in 
all respects, weighing from 1000 to 5000 lb. less, will appeal to all 
trafSc and operating men. Not only is there that much less dead 
weight to haul when the car is empty or partly loaded but additional 
lading can frequently be carried. The actual limit on the paying 
load that can be carried in a properly designed car is the total weight 
on the axles. Thus, a car having 5 in. by 9 in. axles with such a 
tare weight that, when deducted from the capacity of the axles, it al- 
lows the car to be safely loaded to 8S,000 lb., could, if dead weight be 
reduced by 3000 lb., safely carry a paying load of 91,000 lb. and re- 
tain the same strength. Thus the actual capacity of the car is in- 
creased almost 4 per cent with a better ratio of paying to dead load. 

8 With the wooden superstructure, it had been thought neces- 
sary to assist the superstructure by heavy roof construction, some 
going 80 far as to use different methods of diagonal bracing, but 
with the steel car it has been found that there is no appreciable local 
movement of the framing in the heaviest service which makes a simple 
proposition of the roof as it has only to take care of itself. This 
presents a simpler problem to roof designers, making it possible to 
design a roof much lighter, without necessity for use of purlins or 
ridge poles to strengthen the car. It is obvious that unnecessary 
weight in the roof raises the center of gravity, and increases the tare 
'''eight and cost and has other disadvantages. 

9 In explanation of the local movement of this style of framing, 
it 18 well to mention tests we have made in jacking up this car, which 
demonstrated that the car would take a gentle twist from end to 
end, allowing the bolsters to be slightly out of the same plane horizon- 
^J^J' This twisting was accomplished without any perceptible local 
distortion of the sides or ends. The capacity for twisting is a con- 
dition to be desired as it allows a car to adjust itself to uneven track 
conditions. 

10 In addition to being 5^2 in. narrower than the outside of the 
sneathingof a wooden car, the superstructure of the Canadian Pacific 
™iway car is protected by the framing, so that a side swipe that 
^ould do serious damage to an outside sheathed car frequently does 
^ot touch the lining and is resisted by the framing without damage 



474 STEEL UPPER FRAME BOX CARS 




B. W. BUBNETT 475 

la the posts or braces. Frequently it is found that a side swipe that 
would almoet demolish the sides of a wooden car only bends the 
steel fruning, and in making repairs, the lining is merely removed, 
p(Ul« and braces straightened and the original lining replaced, the 
vhola coat being the comparatively small labor charge. Jacking 
bimei ue being installed at all of our principal repair points for 
lU eluMt of steel cars, and while not original with the Canadian Pa- 



1 


f^'n^^dfH^^^ — • 




i 

1 


tt 1 


1 J 

1 ' ^^^^^H 



^c Bailway, have been amplified better to take care of steel frame 
™ vm. With these frames, many jobs that would require the car 
to be cut apart, taking several days, can be done in a few hours with- 
wit cutting rivets. With modern steel frame cars, these jacking 
frames are as much a necessity as the blacksmith shop or any other 
P»rt of the shop. 



476 STEEL UPPER FRAME BOX CABB 




H. W. BUHNETT 



477 



11 With the outside sheathed car, it is difficult to clean a car 
properly when it is unloaded, on account of grain lodging between 
the framework and also on account of the opening where the posts 
snd braces meet at the bottom becoming obstructed, resiillmg in 
grain being retained between the sheathing and lining with consequent 
complaints from shippers. All of this is overcome by the clean join- 




n*. 8 Drr*n. OF Booy Ci.kak-vnces on Steel Frame and Wooosn Box Cars 



iag of the lining and the floor in the st^el frame cars, and it is be- 
lievL>d a change of this kind would have come years sooner if de- 
^;nen had kept in close touch with service conditions. One ad- 
vantage of the steel frame car is that outside of possible repairs due 
to wreck damage and to wear and tear of couplers, wheels, brake shoes 
and journal bearings, the car does not deteriorate more rapidly in 
service than when stored. 

12 The grading of lumber for use in these cars is an item that 
has received much consideration. Yellow pine or fir has so far been 



478 



STEEL UPPER FRAME BOX CARS 



3 

X 

o 
n 

o 

2 



Pi 
o 

Pi 

H 

n 

D 
1^ 



Pi 

o 

H 

K 

o 
o 

g 

o 

H 

Pi 



£ 



o 

o 

d 

or 

W o 



.a 



9 



Pi 
Pi' 



« 

Pi 



I' 






a 

s 

a 

o 



o 

■ ■•* 
wo J 

1 1" 

QQ « ® 

Piti - 

•c2 . 
gSpj 
« S"S 

U 3 M 

>>'0 § 

III 

■♦* tr n 
■ 0*2 

ca >>aa 

•n-O O 



J3 



GO 













•S 



Si 5 

> o 
< H 



■is 



^^1 
^ « p. 



4) 

G J2 

08 a 

O 6 

o 

O 



« ir 

OS gg 



•2 o 



i 






R. W. BURNETT 479 

the principal lumber used, although we have experimented to some 
extent with spruce. Spruce has the advantage of being lighter, but 
it seems to be more difficult to dry it sufficiently for this purpose. 
Great pains have been taken to avoid knots that are too large or 
numerous and while it is generally desirable to have lumber as free 
from knots as possible, I have never in the inspection of many 
hundreds of cars, seen where a knot had fallen out. It is, however, 
desirable to have lumber as free from sap and shakes as possible 
and thoroughly dry. 

13 When the first of these cars was built outside of the Canadian 
Pacific Railway shops we had considerable difficulty in getting the 
lumber properly dried due to lack both of experience and facilities on 
the part of the car companies. We have about 3000 cars on which 
the lumber has shrunk, giving them a bad appearance, but this re- 
sult was expected, as when the cars were built the lumber was quite 
green. The sheathing on these cars could be tightened for less than $4 
per car, but very few have been tightened owing ta receipt of practi- 
cally no reports of loss or damage to lading due to the shrinkage; also 
as they do not frequently reach our main repair tracks, being shopped 
only for such repairs as wheels, or wreck damage, we have not con- 
sidered it advisable to shop the cars for a defect which is almost en- 
tifely a matter of appearance. The lining shrinks as much in two 
months of summer weather, as it ever will. 

14 The lining should not be matched before drying, as it warps 
^i curls, rendering it difficult to make a tight joint. The rough 
size of lumber should be at least ^ in. greater than finished dimen- 
sions. In establishing limits for drying lumber no information or 
data could be secured whatever, and after experimenting we came 
^ the conclusion that a piece of this lining of full cross-section sub- 
jected to a temperature averaging 170 deg. fahr. for 96 hours should 
Qot lose more than 6 per cent in weight and that lumber represented 
^y samples losing more than 10 per cent must not be used until 
Mher dried. 

15 The variable condition of the lumber when taken from the 
y^d makes it necessary to use careful judgment as to the length of 
"^e it should be kept in the kiln. At the Angus shops of the 
^^dian Pacific Eailway this responsibility falls on the wood-mill 
foreman whose constant attention to this feature makes him the 

fitted for the purpose. The average moisture loss reported by 



STEEL UPPER KHAME BOX CARS 




, BUKNETT 



481 



le t«8t department for lumber used on cars now building at the 
ogoa shops is 5.25 per tent which shows that we are getting very 
tirfactory results from the kilns. A number of tests were made 
it year on lumber taken from the yard. These teste showed a 
liature loss of between 35 and 30 per cent which Bhows the im- 
rtaoce of drying lumber properly. The form shown in Fig. 7 is 
id for reporting results of tests both at Angus and outside shops. 
16 Due iargely to our insistence, nearly all the oar plants 
the country are now equipped with dry kilos, and any possibls 



^^^^^^^^^-^^^-^ If 





^ditiontl cost of drying lumber, in excess of what has been con- 
itsni good practice iu the past, would bo less than $1 per car. 
adi drying would make the car side practically the same as one 
5«d BO that it is absurd that the possible shrinkage of lumber 
lonlj be considered as any reason for this type of car not being 
iiilt. It has been claimed tiiat lumber can be so dried that it will 
*ell Slid bulge, but we have never found this to occur. We have 
lad cases where lumber slightly moist has dried more rapidly on 
^ inside, due to that side not being painted, and made the outside 
M the boards slightly convex, with tight joints that could be easily 
"^i'tiken for swelling, whereas the opposite is the case. We have 



482 



STEEL UPPER FRA.HB BOX CABS 



kept a car with very green lumber in the passenger shop with a h 
temperature for over a month until the lumber was absolutelj k 
dry, and then put it outside with doors open through four weda 
coDstaut raining spring weather, with the result that there ' 
no closing of the cracks that could be detected, which further pn 
that there is nothing to be feared from lumber being too dry. 

17 The defects in the sheathiDg that must be moat cla 
watched are shakes or splits that extend obliquely downward into 




Pig. 10 Detail View 



Floob or CaBsuoATXD B 



car which must be knifed in with paste before the car ia paio 
The edges of the lining should be painted, and we have found ' 
can be done more easily and thoroughly by dipping the boards -. 
putting them through between two rubber scrapa« which remt 
the surplus paint leaving the edge thoroughly coated. This pn 
thin coat of paint on the inside of the car which is an advaati 
causing the lumber to dry more uniformly and dimimi^hing 
tendency to warp, \arrow boards have the advantage of luv 



R. W. BURNETT 483 

tendency to warp, and also if the lumber should not be thor- 
oughly dry, there is less total shrinkage for each board making the 
space between the edges narrower. The steel work and roofing are 
painted the same as other cars. This considerable space has been 
given to the grading and drying, and painting of lumber, as we 
have found that these factors have required much more attention than 
everything else combined in connection with the car. 

18 The development of the inside sheathed car has been so rapid 
and the experience with it so imif ormly satisfactory, that I feel safe 
in saying that its introduction in such large numbers on so many 
roads in so short a time indicates more nearly a tendency toward 
the adoption of a standard car than has any distinct type of car 
outside of patented cars for special service. It is certain that there 
will be no backward movement to a wooden superstructure, and 
that this car with possible modifications will remain a standard car 
unless some superior type of car is developed. It may be stated as 
ilie writer^s opinion that no conmiittee will ever develop a car that 
will be adopted as standard but that the nearest we will ever get 
to a standard, is what may be developed by one or two persons 
given a free hand> the merit of which is so pronounced that it forces 
itself upon the country. 

19 With the use of structural steel there is less necessity of 
t'arrying special parts in stock on accoimt of repairs being largely 
ii question of labor, and it seems that with this type of car the neces- 
sity from a repair standpoint for a standard car is decreasing. 
This is further borne out by the fact that for the 30,000 cars 
0^ this type we have ordered no material for repairs and carry none 
'11 stock outside of material common to all cars, except lining; of 
tile lining, our stock amounts to practically nothing. We save out 
sufficient of the parts from cars destroyed to make up our stock of 
repair parts, but have found it necessary to use very little of this, 
^here are, of course, many valid reasons why cars should be made 
^^ standard inside dimensions and outside clearances. 

20 To look at the matter in another way, the wheels, axles, 
journal bearings, journal boxes, couplers, brakes, safety appliances, 
^^^'i which constitute the removable and perishable parts, are all 
standard and when it is remembered that nearly all of the remain- 
'^'g parts of the cars are standard rolled shapes which are easily ob- 
^ined either from the mill or from stock in all principal cities, it is 
apparent that we now have, in effect, a standard car, or at least a car 
®^ standard parts. A car of different dimensions would not increase 



STEEL UPPER FRAUE BOX CARS 




R. W. BURNETT 485 

the cost of maintenance as long as standard shapes are used; nor 
would it if every lot of cars is designed differently, as long as proper 
strength is maintained, and any change in design would usually be to 
increase the strength. In other words, to keep a car as close as 
possible to standard and reduce cost of maintenance, rolled shapes 
should be used in preference to pressed shapes where possible. 

21 It is my belief that the people who are urging the adoption 
of a standard car for maintenance reasons have in mind the remain- 
ing wooden cars for the maintenance of which large quantities of 
timbers and castings have to be kept in stock. It is of vital im- 
portance that the parts be standardized if that style of construction 
were to be continued. It should not be overlooked that in a car con- 
structed with rolled shapes, these parts seldom need renewal even 
when the car is wrecked, as they can easily be straightened or formed 
to the original shape at any car repair point, while wood would 
have to be replaced and pressed shapes would call for special dies to 
reform them. With a wooden box car the amount of material neces- 
i^ary to carry in stock and use for repairs increases rapidly with the 
age of the car. With a steel frame box car the amount of material 
necessary to carry in stock and use for repairs outside of parts com- 
mon to all cars does not increase with the life of the car. 

W The wind resistance on the steel frame box cars with inside 
sheathing is slightly greater than on a smooth outside sheathed 
^w, but on the other liand, it is less than on any ordinary type 
of stock car. The effect of wind resistance between box and stock 
cars, has never been great enough to require any distinction be- 
tween them as to the number of cars that could be hauled in a 
train of either and is really a refinement that not even a dyna- 
mometer car can detect. A small change in the angle or velocity 
of the wind^ or difference of tho number of wheels running to one 
flange, or trucks somewhat out of square, affects the haulage of the 
t^ain too much to enable any satisfactory figure for the difference in 
*be wind resistance of the various types of car to be obtained. There 
''' a certain stretch of track on the western plains of about 40 miles 
Without a curve and practically level where high winds are fre- 
quent, on which the haulage capacity of locomotives is dependent 
Principally upon the wind, and yet even there it was found prac- 
i^ically impossible to distinguish between the wind resistance of stock 
^^i box cars. From this, it is evident that the wind resistance of 
"teel frame inside sheathed box cars as compared with outside 
'''^^athed cars may properly be ignored. 



9TB&L DPPKR FRAHB BOX CARB 





Mm. 




r ^ — \ 




ts ---A, 



R. W, BDHNBTT 




STEEL UPPER FRAUB BOX CABB 




R. W. BURNETT 489 

23 In the summer of 1911, we lined one of these steel frame 
cars with corrugated steel and foimd it to be as simple a matter as 
lining with wood, Figs. 8 and 9. We lapped and rivetted the sheets, 
which were No. 13 gage, between the door and end, and had the 
oomgations on the side and end coincide, pressing into special cor- 
rogated angles in the corners to break the joints. At the floor, we 
stni^iteiied out about 4 in. of the corrugation and formed of it an 
iai|^ Hmt rests on the side sill, and on this the ends of the floor 
boiidB were superimposed, easily making as tight a joint as I have 
eftf MQ on any car. After 18 months of general service this car 
fVliQflil^t in and on examination, found to be in as good shape as 
fili& eomstmcted. It was interesting to note that, when inspected, 
Un pimt sealing the joints, where the side sheets lapped, was in 
no jhee seal broken, indicating that there is no material weaving 
or Meciion of the sides. The paint was in perfect condition, there 
itill Mug some gloss, indicating that in the use of steel there is no 
dindfintage as far as the painting is concerned. Different methods 
of lining with steel could be followed, and I am convinced that if 
apvieBce proves that there is no damage to be feared from heat, 
floU or sweating, that steel lining will be largely used. But, I am 
ika continced that the use of steel lining with any insulation will 
mm be extensively used as it adds to the cost and weight without 
dbriBng any protection to the lading, which is not secured by the 
voqii Hjliiig. An advantage of this construction is shown in Fig. 10, 
in fti application of hoppers under the door openings, which were 
mil without alterations to sills or cross bearers. 

m As regards the end of the car. Fig. 4, we use two 4-in. Z-bar 
oni posts of 8.2 lb. per ft., with 1%-in. lining which gives good ser- 
vio^lmt we intend to use on future cars two 5-in. end posts of 11.6 
hpttiL with 2%-in. lining for a height of 4 ft. and 1%-in. lining 
dme ibai height. This, we feel, will protect any lading that needs 
piotwtion. If a car gets such rough handling that wheels or rails, 
or similar lading would break through, it is better to have the boards 
hxtkm than to distort the posts, as the lining can be replaced at any 
Impair track with a minimum expense, while distorted posts would 
require sending the car to a steel car repair point. The single thick- 
ness end lining makes convenient the application of single thickness, 
grain-tight end doors. 

25 Out of 30,000 of these cars, 29 have been destroyed. Based 
on the length of time in service, this would average a loss of ap- 
proximately one car per 1000 per year. Of the cars destroyed, 15 



490 STEEL UPPER FRAME BOX CARS 

were burned, 14 were destroyed in wreck, 10 cars being destroyed 
on foreign lines. As the loss of cars by fire is in no way affected 
by the details of construction^ I will eliminate them from the cal- 
culations. This then, based on the length of time in service would 
give about one-half car per 1000 per year destroyed in wrect As 
there is no appreciable deterioration of these cars in service, it is 
safe to assume that in the same service substantially the same rate 
of loss would continue, while with wooden cars the rate of loss wonld 
increase each year. 

26 A conservative estimate shows that there are today approxi- 
mately 65,000 steel superstructure cars, including outside sheathed, 
in service. Of this number 30,000 are Canadian Pacific Railway 
and nearly all the remainder belong to the roads whose names appear 
on the cars illustrated herewith. These I am able to show through 
the courtesy of the officers in charge of the mechanical depart- 
ments of the several lines, whom I wish to thank for their willing as- 
sistance. 



No. 1405 c 

SCUSSION ON STEEL FRAME BOX CARS 

I. H. Vaughan thought that Mr. Bumetfs position was sound, 
;he structural steel car was to all intents and purposes a standard, 
r as any car could be standard. He believed that one standard 
or design of car would never be adopted. There were sure to be 
Dvements and alterations that the different roads might think 
ible; if standard material, easily obtainable, were used, and if 
in parts, mentioned by both Mr. Bink and Mr. Burnett, were 
standard, that would be as close to the standard car as would 
be approached. 

he draft castings, arch bars, bolsters and some of the other parts 
d be standardized to a greater extent than at present. It was 
d that the slight variations in these parts necessitated their 
; obtained from the car owners when repairs were made on foreign 

etween the bolsters and the sills, the cars were practically un- 
jrted except for side bracing. Mr. Vaughan stated he would 
advocate this construction if the Canadian Pacific cars were 
ing in heavy coal trains or under such conditions as the Norfolk 
estem have in their coal service. In designing a car it was 
isary to figure on the service the car was generally going to run 
ot the service it might run in. It was felt that 60 per cent to 75 
ent of the service to which the box cars were put, both in Canada 
the United States, was service in which the old type of under- 
e would stand up satisfactorily. These figures were justified by 
esult obtained with this type of car, in a period of five years, as 
I in Mr. Burnett's figures. 

^ far as was known, not a single car had shown vertical weakness 
e center sills. The omission of that cover plate had introduced 
tain amount of longitudinal weakness through the center, as well 
uekling sidewise, but in no case buckling vertically. It was 
?ht that the floor would be sufficiently stiff to prevent any lateral 
ling of the center sill, and some floors were so loose that they 
I not have acted that way if the car had been permitted to buckle. 

esented at the Annual Meeting 1913, of The American Society op Me- 
OAL Engineers. 

491 



492 DISCUSSION ON STEEL FRAME BOX CARS 

The center sills and the side sills had ample strength to hold up the 
comers of the cars under general conditions^ and the saving of 500 
lb. of weight there^ 500 lb. in the cover plate^ and a few bundled 
pounds here and there^ was what had made so light a car. The 
company had "a car weighing 36,600 lb., carrying 40 tons, which 
could be loaded to 93,000 lb., permissible loading. 

Mr. Yaughan called attention to the advantage of reduced weight 
on net earnings, and not on the cost per ton-mile; the compan/ft 
figures for 1913 showed that 22.34 tons per loaded car-mile were 
carried, and that the percentage of light car mileage was 28.5 per cent 
of the loaded car mileage, which gave an average load of 16.8 tonB 
per car-mile total. The weight of the average car unloaded was 18 
tons, so that the average weight of car loaded was 34.8 tons. That 
was not a bad figure for a large number of roads in this country 
handling general traffic. The Canadian Pacific handled a large 
amount of grain, and while it did not have much coal, the average 
load was fairly good. 

Assuming this average car weighed 1 ton more, to begin with, 
without any question as to whether the train rating would always be 
changed or not, the weight of the car loaded would go up to 36.8 
instead of 34.8 ; in other words there would be an increase of the ton 
mileage of 2.85 per cent; or if operating on a ratio of 70 per cent, 
imder this changed condition of weight, the operating ratio would b^ 
72 per cent instead of 70 per cent. The net earnings would drop 
from 30 per cent to 28 per cent, which was a difference of 6 per cent 
in net earnings. 

The question of weight was an important one in car design. A 
lighter car might cost $5 or $10 more a year to keep up than a 
heavier one, but it would save two or three times that in the weight 
to be hauled uselessly about. 

Mr. Vaughan agreed witli Mr. Kink in the question of sheathix^S- 
The Canadian Pacific owned a number of cars which had shruBk 
considerably, but there had been few cases of damage cases due ^ 
them. It was not a difficult matter to tighten them, as Mr. Burnett 
said, and the only reason why this had not been done was becB^^ 
the company had not received a sufficient number of complaints ^ 
justify taking the cars out of service and doing the work. The v^' 
tical sheathing would be, possibly, a preferable arrangement if ** 
could be accompanied with an economical and convenient design ^^ 
side framing. But this would be difficult to accomplish for the tn^ 



DISCUSSION 493 

form of side framing naturally lent itself to horizontal sheathing. 
In vertical sheathing it would have been necessary to introduce hori- 
zontal members to take care of the fastenings, as in the Pennsylvania 
Railroad cars. The distance from the top plate to the sill was too 
great to permit the side sheathing to be placed vertically without any 
support. 

Mr. Rink referred to end reinforcement repairs. The Canadian 
Pacific Railway were using very extensively the same style end as was 
used on the steel frame car for repairs of all wooden box cars: it 
simply put in two Z-bars and reinforced the ordinary end post, and 
put the 1%-in. lining inside. 

He thought the roof question was the next to come up for dis- 
cussion: the three types described were at present the most widely 
used. The Canadian Pacific had been an advocate of the inside metal 
roof for a long time, though they had experimented with the all 
metal roof, and would be interested to know what results were being 
obtained. 

Mr. Vaughan in discussing the history and the development of 
this type of car, said he felt that he was correct in saying that this 
type had been originated on the Canadian Pacific Railway when W. E. 
Fowler was General Master Car Builder. The car was the result of a 
conversation between Mr. Fowler and Mr. Vaughan relative to policy 
in turning toward steel underframes. 

B. D. LocKWOoD^ stated that if Mr. Rink^s recommendations ad- 
vocating standardization of cars were to be followed a committee 
should be appointed by the Society to design such standards, indicat- 
ing in their work the minimum of strength and empty weight and the 
reasons therefor that should be acceptable from a railroad standpoint, 
^ that car builders could govern their action properly in competition. 
The joint efforts of the railroad committee of the Master Car Builders' 
Association and the United States Railway Mail Service in connection 
^»th the standardization of postal cars resulted in a series of recom- 
'n^ndations, and the adoption afterward, of standard specifications, 
'" which the minimum acceptable section modulus was given as the 
P^verning factor for all principal members and there was no reason 
^hy this could not be done in the case of recommended standards for 
freight cars. 

Mr. Rink had outlined a system of calculations, but whether his 
^Nuctions were to be considered as c^oncrally expressing the ideas of 

'Ch. Engr., Pressed Steel Car Co., Farmers Bank Bldg., Pittsburgh, Pa. 



494 DISCUSSION ON STEEL FRAME BOX CABS 

railroad mechanical engineers throughout the country was a question, 
and the whole matter should properly be referred to a committee. 

H. Wade Hibbard called particular attention to the necessitj of 
designers keeping in close touch with service conditions. A number 
of years ago he was connected with a large trunk line, where it wm 
the declared policy in the mechanical department that the designen 
should go frequently into the shops and into the repair yards and into 
the scrap yards for the purpose of studying how the equipment had 
failed in service. Later the policy was changed and the men weie 
not expected to carry on that sort of close contact with the service 
conditions, with the result that locomotives that were found at the 
main shops to be bad in design for upkeep were re-ordered from the 
locomotive builders with the same old mistaken design. The poliGJ 
of one of the large steel car manufacturers of the country was a good 
one: they had a college educated man go into the shops and learn 
the business completely; he was afterwards kept traveKng among the 
railroads that purchased steel cars from his company for the sole 
purpose of learning the good and bad things about these cars in actual 
service, reporting the result of his efforts to his company. 

W. F. B[iE8EL^ Jr. (written). There is one feature in the calcu- 
lations for end strength to which Mr. Bink has not especially called 
attention, and that is the ratio of stress to strain under end shock. 
The important point to consider is that at the bolster. This ratio in 
the 14 cars enumerated varies between 0.033 and 0.118. The big^ 
figures are due to the great distance between the center line of the 
drawbar and the neutral axis of the sills. The area of the center fliU* 
at the bolster varied from 19.8 to 36.18, and the average is 24. "3^5. 
Without using any additional metal in the center sills the ratio of 
stress to strain can readily be reduced in many of these cars to ^ 
advantage of the strength of the car. 

Both Messrs. Burnett and Bink seem to favor the Z-bar posts aD^ 
braces because they are made of rolled material, and, as stated bJ 
them, can be readily obtaincfl. This docs not seem to be a good arg**" 
ment, as it is well known that standard sections of rolled materia* 
cannot always be obtained on short notice; in fact, within the pa^ 
year, the steel mills have quite frequently reported that certain angles^ 
I-beams, etc., could not be furnished in less than three or six months- 

The four following questions seem important : First, is the bo^ 
car with steel siHe frames all that it should be? It has been argued 



DISCUSSION BY W. P. KIESBL, JR. 495 

that shrinkage of lining, driving of nails in lining to secure blockings 
breakage of tongues and grooves, etc., will cause leakage, necessitating 
constant repairs, and that the car with steel sheathing and wood lining 
is closer to the ideal in box car construction. 

Second, in box cars without sheathing, shall all posts and braces 
be made of rolled steel, or all pressed steel ? Advocates of pressed 
steel assert that pressed posts and braces are lighter per unit of 
strength, because they can be formed to the required shape ; that they 
can be formed with suflScient surface at the ends for the number of 
rivets required to develop their full strength, while Z-bars and other 
rolled forms require gusset plates for this purpose ; that they are not 
likely to be damaged by push-poles, and, if damaged in wrecks, can 
be readily straightened and restored to approximate shape ; that when 
absolutely necessary to replace them they can readily be obtained from 
car owner or builder, and that it will not be necessary to wait for any 
special rolling of material. 

Third, should not the posts and braces be considered strictly as 
beams supported at top and bottom, in combination with straight 
tension and compression, as members of the side truss? Mr. Bink 
indicated that flattening of pressed posts and braces, where they con- 
nect with side sills, has a weakening effect, which further indicates 
that he considers them as cantilevers held in vertical position by the 
side sills and frame braces connected thereto. In wooden cars the 
posts and braces were strictly beams, and not cantilevers, as they 
rested on top of the side sills, either directly or on castings with 
shallow pockets. Side sills of box cars have too little resistance against 
torsion to hold the posts and braces vertical; they, therefore, must 
depend on the strength of the side plate and the tying effect of the 
cwline. If, in addition to this, a solidly riveted roof is used, the tops 
of the posts and braces are securely held in proper alignment and the 
stability of the side truss is assured. 

Fourth, is it not imperative to use diagonal braces in the end 
framing? No argument need be presented here for this, as Mr. Rink 
"*s already furnished sufficient argument, and we know of nothing 
to show the contrary. 

It should be noted that all of the 14 cars enumerated by Mr. 
Bink have so-called box-girder center sills, and that the majority of 
them have a minimum section of about 24 sq. in. With this section 
area a ratio of stress to strain of 0.06 can be obtained, provided proper 
wjnstment is made for relative location of neutral axis of center 



496 DISCUSSION ON STEEL FRAME BOX CARS 

sills and center line of draft gear. It would, therefore, seem that the 
present designs of box cars corroborate the recommendations of the 
Committee on Car Construction of the Master Car Builders' Assodt- 
tion, and that those recommendations are reasonable and conserratiTe. 
A thorough knowledge of cars by the motive power officials of railroad 
companies will, we hope, lead them ultimately to endorse the M. C. R 
recommendations referred to. 

E. G. Cheng WITH* (written). Before a standard for the boxcar 
is reached, it appears to me that three very important items entering 
into the problem must be decided upon in common by all railroads, 
viz: (a) capacity, (b) dimensions and (c) design. The railroad 
companies are far from agreeing on either one of these items, as can 
be seen from Messrs. Kink's and Burnett's papers. One need only 
stop to consifler what an enormous saving there would be in main* 
tenance if there was only one design of car to repair, and what a 
decrease would result in the enormous quantity of material whidi w 
now carried if our stores need carry repairs only, say of a 40-f t, 
40-ton steel frame single-sheathed box car. Under this ideal con- 
dition our bad-order cars would be on the repair tracks 50 per cent 
less time. 

The design of a car is influenced by many local conditions, and 
often by a great many local instructions. It is regretted that the 
merit of a design of a car is too often inversely proportioned to the 
final weight of the car. I believe that we are now about at tlie miiu- 
mum limit relative to weight of box cars, and the tendency is to 
increase, and not to worry so much about the extra dead weight hauled 
but to give more consideration to keeping the car in revenue service 
more days of its life. 

Steel underframes are now being applied to thousands of cars i^ 
this country and perhaps in as many designs. Whether they should 
carry a vertical load, or only withstand the buffing, seems to be * 
prevailing question. Many underframes are being applied to car« 
retaining the original truss rods, while in many other cases the deptl* 
of the steel underframe is made to carry the vertical load, thus elii^^' 
nating the truss rods, it being claimed that the cost of •maintena^^ 
of rods Avill offset the cost of deeper center sills. It must be conceded 
that in a great majority of cases whore any design of underframe '^^ 
applied, the wooden underframe is not disturbed, so that, therefor^ 

^Mechnnical Engineer, Hock Island Lines, Chicago, HI. 



DISCUSSION BY E. G. CHENOWITH 497 

the weight of the car is increased to an amount equal to the added 
steel underframe. 

The main object in view in applying' steel underframes is, I think, 
to obtain a greater resistance capacity for buflSng. The car perhaps 
has with the aid of truss rods properly carried the vertical load, there- 
fore, why not add to the underframe only that which will take care of 
the bufling strains. To my knowledge, underframes are being applied 
which consist of 8 in. by 8 in. H-girder beams. These girder beams 
set up between the wooden center sills, supporting them by means of 
angle brackets riveted to the flanges. To these girders the %-in. 
draft plates are riveted extending from end sill to bolster. As this 
design was not intended to carry a vertical load, the bolster and cross 
ties were not connected to the girder in a manner to carry the load 
imposed on the side sills. Another cheap design of an underframe of 
this class lies in the use of two 9-in. channels with cover plate ; this 
design sets below the wood sills, however, and therefore requires a 
bolster and cross tie in order properly to apply truss rods. 

In the design of steel underframe consisting of two center mem- 
bers, it seems to be the general tendency to apply top cover plates 
instead of relying on the diagonal bracing to side sill to keep the 
center sill from distorting in very severe service. 

Beferring to Table 2, Mr. Rink states that it is the whim of the 
designer that occasions so many different lengths of box cars. In 
roy experience in designing equipment for several different railway 
companies, the consideration of a proper length car was held as a 
serious question and good reasons were developed in the freight traflBc 
department before the designer received instructions as to the princi- 
pal dimensions around which to design a car. The popular dimension, 
it seems to me, for inside length of box car is 40 ft. I know of a 
railroad operating over 12,000 cars of this length and they seem to 
^^t the requirements very well. 

The standardization of design of box cars will have a tendency to 

decrease the great variation of weights. I saw two designs of cars 

^^ilt within a year of each other by two railway companies, one a 

fiO,000 lb. capacity car having a light weight of 48,000 lb., while the 

^ther, an 80,000 lb. capacity car, had a light weight of 36,000 lb., and 

'woreover, both railway companies were perfectly satisfied with their 
designs. 

In the design of steel superstructure cars, I am of the opinion 
*"at the side sills should be only of a proper section to complete the 



498 DISCUSSION ON STEEL FRAME BOX CARS 

trussed panels of superstructure, and should not be designed as a load 
carrying member. This will allow the superstructure more flexibilitj 
to adjust itself to irregularities of track and eliminate the tendency 
to derail. A car held rigid so that the planes of the sides are alwiji 
parallel will not properly take a curve. 

The trouble experienced from water following beading or grooves 
in horizontal sheathing and then passing into the car, could, I think, 
readily be overcome by bevelling off the top comer of each board out- 
side of the tongue, which would eliminate the gutter effect at points 
of matching where the sheathing is not entirely tight. Where single 
sheathing is used the IV^ in. thickness seems to meet the requirenients, 
and it should be tongued and grooved instead of shiplapped. Sona 
designers are using 1% in. or even thicker for end sheathing, but 
the IV^ in. thickness on both sides and ends with extra reinforcement 
on ends furnished by proper design and location of end posts seems 
preferable. 

The proper method of designing the end of a box car or rein- 
forcing it for shifting loads is a question all designers have given 
extra time and thouglit. The end posts of a car are of no consequence 
except in so far as the end plates, of whatever construction, csn 
properly support the upper end of the posts. This evidently has been 
overlooked in some cases, as cars will be found having heavy steel end 
posts attached at top to a light wooden end plate. The end of the car 
should be so constructed as to resist going in as well as bulging out. 

As the author stated, of all the things which should be made stand- 
ard, a box car side door is one of the most important, and should be 
the easiest standard to obtain and maintain. Yet, few railroads have 
cars of different series which have doors interchangeable. I belief 
in the use of a roller at the top of the door and 1 am now experiment- 
ing with rollers at the top, and with one of the door guides at the 
bottom equipped with a roller, This will assist in holding the door 
in place, and I believe will make the door operate much more easily » 
it will also stop the use of a steel bar for prying the door open ot 
closed. No mention is made in the papers of either a flush or ^ 
inside door; both types are being advocated. 

There are many designs of steel car lines, and while some answd 
the purpose for which they were designed, others are unsatiafactoiy' 
The tendency is to figure a car line for strength at the center, fo^' 
getting the section near the side plate. One function of the. car lix*^ 
is to keep the side plate from spreading out as well as coming in, an^ 



DISCUSSION 499 

lerefore, should not be designed to support the roof alone. I had 
xasion not long ago to inspect a steel ear line which had ample 
epth at the center, but at the ends a part of it was bent at right 
Qgles and riveted to the inside of the side plate angle, so as not to 
imish any resistance to the side plate going out. I am of the 
pinion, that if need be, we should sacrifice head room to get car 
lies nearly straight on the bottom edge, which will act as a tie rod 
1 tension and be in best of shape to withstand compression. 

The draft gear and its application to the car are the most im- 
•ortant details of any car; yet while this fact is appreciated by all 
ailroad men, a great diversity of opinion exists among them as to 
rhat is best. Many are holding to a spring gear, while others claim 
hat the friction gear is a "life saver." Does the good obtained from 
he use of friction gear warrant the extra expense ? There should be 
I minimum allowable area for draft sills, which should be effective 
nd well balanced about the center line of draft. I have often wished 
hat the standard drawbar height was increased at least 1 in., which 
i^ould allow a better application of the high capacity draft gears. 

The steel frame box car with single sheathing has, I believe, come 
stay, with some modification, perhaps, in the general design, to 
vercome weaknesses which may develop in years of severe service. 

C. A. Seley* (written). I acknowledge with many thanks the 
ompliment paid me in the Par. 2 of Mr. Bumett^s paper; 
oy connection with the development of composite freight car con- 
tniction was very interesting and a deeply appreciated opportimity 
n working out that step in the evolution of car construction. About 
5 years ago three factors influenced some progressive railroads to 
he larger introduction of steel in framework of freight cars: in- 
Teased capacities, greater structural strength to withstand operating 
'Presses, and the approaching equalization of costs of steel and car 
umber, particularly for framing. 

For new cars, I believe there is now no good argument against 
'^1 for the complete framing, so combined that the sides will assist 
'^ carrying the load. The question then arises as to how far to go 
^th the use of steel for such parts of the car as merely contain or 
shelter the load. Manifestly, floors must continue to be made of 
"^ood to enable blocking of the lading. Aside from this there are 
'"^^y predictions of all-steel box cars. In my opinion this will be 

'President, American Flexible Bolt Co., Chicago, HI. 



500 DISCUSSION ON STEEL FRAME BOX CARS 

the ultimate construction, but general adoption will doubtless be alow 
on account of the still favorable balance in favor of the cost of vood 
for lining and sheathing^ and in combination with steel plate for 
roofing, whether of the so-called outside or inside type. When the 
all-steel box car does come, it will have to be arranged with ventilaiioii 
features to prevent damage to lading from sweating and from aocmn- 
lation of excessive heat which may unfavorably affect many high- 
grade commodities if shut up in a steel box without such ventilatioD. 

The Canadian Pacific Eailway is to be congratulated as being the 
pioneer in developing the inside sheathed box car and, judging from 
the record as stated by Mr. Burnett, and giving due weight to the 
statement that ^^practically no reports of loss or damage to kding 
due to shrinking" are received, that construction would seem to be ' 
fully justified when proper lumber and care in building are used. 

Both authors have discussed the advisability of the standard cir. 
I doubt very much if this idea will ever be consununated, even to the 
extent of the standard material idea advanced by Mr. Burnett Ih* 
difficulty in the way is the human element; if we all thought ilib 
it would be possible. The Master Gar Builders' Association his 
standardized the parts essential to interchange, and under this head 
may be listed couplers, air hose, wheels, axles, journal boxes and con- 
tained parts, brake shoes and brake gear parts. The Gtovemment 
has standardized safety appliances. This to the uninitiated wonW 
seem to settle most of the difficulties in car rd^airs, but we all kno'^ 
that very few of the Master Car Builders' standards are really stand- 
ards in exact detail, and the Interstate Commerce Commission BifrfJ 
appliances necessarily give considerable range of dimensions and ap" 
plication within which their requirements may be fulfilled. 

It is difficult for one not in railroad service to appreciate the vhol« 
problem, and particularly the influence of interchange requirement^ 
A railroad may be of low gradient, equipped with light power, lO^ 
liave a class of traffic that would ordinarily keep their cars on thei* 
own line, and the cars which would most economically fulfill all r^' 
quirements for such a line and service can be readily imagined. I^ 
interchanpce, however, these cars might be required to go anywher^ 
from coast to coast, in all kinds of tonnage trains, through hump yar^ 
trials and other tribulations never experienced on the parent road. 

Furthermore, a railroad car designer can never afford to worahij^ 
standards in viow of tho rapid evolution in transportation. This may 
be illustrated l)v tlio progress of tlic Master Car Builders' Assodatioti 



DISCUSSION 501 

ig standards for car axles. The 3% in. by 7 in. axle for 
capacity car was standardized in 1873 ; the 4^ in. by 8 in. 
3,000 lb. capacity car followed in 1889, a lapse of 16 years; 
ly seven years, the 5 in. by 9 in. axle for 80,000 lb. capacity 
andardized in 1896; and that was followed in 1899 by the 
10 in. axle for 100,000 lb. capacity cars, and the end is not 
only limit is the gage and endurance of rails for wheel loads, 
ove the rail must be proportioned to the stresses. 

Cromwell^ (written). Referring to Mr. Burnett's design 
pper frame box car I observe that no diagonal braces are 
e end framing of the car, such as are generally used in the 
wooden frame car. These braces tend to keep the end 
f the car square, and while their omission would probably 
arent for the early life of the car, would it not be expected, as 
es, to find a loosening up of the riveted joints uniting the 
the plates and underf rame ? While the car is new, the end 
will serve to keep the framing straight, but will not these 
8 loosen up in time through shrinkage? 
iper states (Par. 12) that the lumber in these cars is very 
jelected, only specially dried lumber being used. When the 
, this, of course, tends to keep the framing square, but as this 
r becomes more numerous, there will be a letting up in this 
obtaining specially dried lumber, and the shrinkage of the 
J be more pronounced, and their effect as a brace will be- 
eflBcient. Also we know that on gondola cars the side 
cay under the side stakes and under the corner bands. 
; a similar action of the lumber be expected in this character 
time went on? Would not this, in turn, lead up to the 
of the framing? Also will there not be a tendency for 
;et into the planks through the bolt holes and start decay? 
regular distribution of the loading in cars throws twists 
luperstructure, and this has a tendency to rack loose the 
ints. Also, the jacking up of cars to remove the wheels 
trucks throws simihar strains into the framing, 
ion has been made in this car for taking up the shrinkage 
iathing by providing slotted bolt holes in the framing for 
he bolts holding the sheathing in place. By slacking up 
8 and straining down the tie rods, the boards are to be 

ical Engineer, Baltimore & Ohio R. R. Co., Baltimore, Md. 



DIBCDSSION ON 8TEBL FRAME BOX CABS 




DISCUSSION BY O. C. CROMWELL 503 

m to tight joints. Recently I had an opportunity to look over the 
ide frame box cars of another line, and found that they were not 
g the slotted bolt holes above referred to, and upon inquiry, was 
rmed that these boards could not always be drawn tight by the 
of tie rods, and that since they would not shift into place by the 
of the tie rods, their use could well be dispensed with. 

[ would like to inquire if there is any provision made to forestall 
tendency of sheathing to decay back of the posts and braces. At 
time, the Baltimore and Ohio operated some outside wooden frame 
lars with inside sheathing running longitudinally, and considerable 
ble was experienced with the sheathing deteriorating or rotting 
: of the posts and braces. There was also considerable trouble in 
itaining the superstructure of these cars in a square condition, 
a different form of roof bracing construction had to be resorted 
I would be interested to learn if the outside frame cars are 
g to develop a little later on the same peculiarity as to rotting 
le sheathing that developed in the old wooden cars. 

^ imderstand that the joints in the boards are tongued and grooved, 
I have been informed that on some of them the tongues and 
ves are made a little deeper than is usual in order to insure 
nst opening to the weather in the event of the boards shrinking, 
ase the boards shrink, being in a horizontal direction, has there 
any trouble, during driving rains, with the water being driven 
nd the ends of the boards and working into the inside of the car ? 
>uld like to inquire if anyone has had any experience with other 
18 of board joiuts than the tongue and groove, 
lecently we have seen the introduction of steel ends to wooden 
le box cars, and it occurred to me in connection with the end 
ling for steel outside frame box cars, that notwithstanding the 
that the 1% in. thick boards were used in the ends, these boards 
be broken out by the shifting of the loads, and the application of 
iteel plates to the ends of the cars would protect the boards, and act 
stiffener to the end of the car. Possibly this phase of the ques- 
may have been given some consideration and it is mentioned at 
time in order to bring out this feature. 

las there been observed any tendency for the sheathing boards to 
I, due to the changes in weather conditions ? I believe that it has 
the general experience that when kiln-dried sheathing is applied 
ox cars, and driven up too tightly, trouble will result in damp 
lier with the boards swelling, and the sides of the car buckling. 



504 DISCUSSION ON STEEL FRAME BOX CARS 

This is experienced with narrow widths of sheathing applied vertically. 
With sheathing of wider widths of boards laid horizontally, in whidi 
the moisture is retained longer, would it not be expected that then be 
more swelling of the lumber, and for this reason, it may be that the 
slotted holes in the posts for securing the sheathing are usefnl more 
for the purpose of taking care of the swelling and shrinking of the 
lumber than for taking up any wear. 

I believe that there are some outside frame cars in which the sid- 
ing is applied vertically; I trust that there will be some points brought 
out in regard to this paper that will give some light on the advantages 
and disadvantages of the two methods of applying the sheathing. 

Referring to the corrugated steel lining used instead of lumber for 
sheathing, the Baltimore and Ohio Eailroad in 1862 built some iron 
box cars, which had wooden underframes, but the body and roof of 
iron plates. Fig. 15 shows one of these cars that had a body 
2i ft. y^ in. long, 8 ft. 2 in. wide, and about 6 ft. 6 in. hi^ 
The side and end plates were ^/le-in. sheets, applied vertically, the 
sheets being about 37 in. wide, and the roof sheets about 32 in. wide^ 
all sheets being riveted together at the joints. The sides were dightly 
con vexed to give them stiffness, as was also the roof, but the end plit^ 
were applied perfectly straight. The sides, ends and roof were f^' 
fened with 2-in. by 2-in. ribs of ash. These cars proved unsatisfactory, 
because in summer they became so excessively heated that they epoikd 
the merchandise, and in sudden changes of weather, produced Bwettr 
ing, with damage to lading, and the cars had to be finally withdrawn 
from service and used for special trade, and were ultimately cOB' 
verted into workmen^s storage sheds, tool houses, etc. I would be 
interested to know if any of the corrugated iron cars have shown np 
any of these defects. 

Referring to Mr. Eink's paper, the several tables bring out th* 
principal dimensions in comparison very clearly, and in looking the** 
over, one is impressed that in the main, the dimensions are very 
close, and that it would need only the guiding influence of 9ff^ 
association to eliminate these variations to bring them within vety 
much narrower limits. The metal parts, rolled shapes, eta, n«cd 
in the construction of these cars, could be found in the stock of »^J 
railroad, in ('asc tlie cars were damaged or needed repairs. 

The side posts and end posts, side braces and end braces, cort»^ 
posts and door posts, should be brought down to a standard; they ft** 
now very nearly this, as shown in the tables. The side posts, Tib** 



DISCUSSION 506 

re of the same dimensions for all the cars, except in the case of 
4-m. pressed steel shape, while there is only a slight variation in 
ride braces, and they should be easily reconciled. Several differ- 
cars have the same comer posts, and as they are very much 
^d members, it is important that they be alike on all cars. Table 
ows that the end posts are very close, and have very little varia- 

The point brought out in Mr. Rink's paper, with reference to the 
ht of the floor above the rail is certainly an important one, and 
)pears to me that there is no good reason why we should have a 
ation of 6% in. in this height, as brought out in Table 7; this, 
affects largely the height of the truck. As it is desired to work 
irds standard and interchangeable truck parts, the height of the 
k is an important one to bear in mind. 

»V. S. Atwood (written). The first steel frame box cars built 
he Canadian Car & Foundry Company were considerably heavier 

those now being built. The car referred to in Fig. 1 of Mr 
Qett's paper weighed 41,200 lb.; this, of course, was partly due 
he fact that the car was constructed from stock material, no 
ial material having been ordered. In fact, the side braces and 
3 were made of heavy angles in place of the light Z-bars, as at 
ent in use and as originally intended. There are several details 
!h have been changed from time to time in order further to 
^ase the efficiency of the car. These details have also had a 
ency to lighten the weight, so that now a car weighs less than 
00 1b. 

leferring to the grading of the lumber, with the first cars of this 
, there was some difficulty experienced in securing the proper grade 
imber and also in drying!: it properly for application to this type 
ir, as owing to the thickness, the lumber had to remain in the dry 
J longer than was necessary in the case of the thinner sheathing 

on the outside sheathed car, and on this account the car com- 
es were not, in all cases, equipped with sufficient dry . kiln 
city. The lumber dealers, however, have met the car builders in 
npting to prepare a satisfactory grade of lumber for these cars 
no difficulty whatever is encountered at the present time in get- 

an adequate supply of a satisfactory grade. 
U to the allowance for finishing, in the first lot of cars built by 
Canadian Car & Foundry Company, owing to the condition of 



506 DISCUSSION ON STEEL FRAME BOX CARS 

the lumber it was necessary to use, it was thought adyisable to par- 
chase 6-iii. stuff to finish 6-in. face, but owing to the amoimt of 
this grade of lumber which has been used in the last two or fhne 
years, it is now possible to get a satisfactory grade, purchasing 6- 
in. stuff to finish 514-1^- face, which makes possible quite a sanng 
on a large order of cars. 

Judging from the service which this type of car has given to 
date, and also from the favorable criticism it has received from piM- 
tical railway men, it would seem that it would eventually replace 
the outside sheathed car, and owing to the simplicity of the design it 
would seem possible for the railways to adopt a standard car of this 
type in so far as the general dimensions and sections are concerned. 
The adoption of a car with standard inside dimensions and outside 
clearances would be a matter of considerable importance to the cir 
builders, as material could be stocked and available for building can 
required for quick delivery for any of the railways which had adopted 
this type of car. It would also allow them to place large orders for 
the inside sheathing which could be prepared and stored a saffidtiit 
length of time to make it entirely suitable for this type of car and 
eliminate any possibility of trouble from shrinkage. 

From Mr. Burnett's experience with one of these cars lined with 
corrugated steel, and also from the experience which others have had 
with steel lined box cars, it would seem only a question of time nntil 
the wood inside sheathing would be replaced with steel. I also belief 
tliat, in addition to the lining eventually being made of steel on these 
cars, some type of all steel roof will also be adopted, thus eliminating 
wood entirely, with the possi])le exception of the flooring. 

I do not agree entirely with Mr. Rink in his statement that engi- 
neers did not understand the importance of low fiber stresses in the 
early designs of steel underframes. There is no question about this 

• 

not receiving the same attention in tlie early designs as it is recd^" 
ing at the present time, but I think that the desirability of showing 
as favorable a fost and weight of the all-steel and steel underfraniP 
cars as against the all wood cars had a great deal of influence on the 
early designers. Since these early designs have gone into service a 
great deal of information has been accumulated in regard to the* 
stresses and the importance of strong construction is now recdTW 
more consideration, so that there is not the same compariBon ma* 
between the steel car and the wooden car as was made by the ^1 
advocates of steel car construction. 



DISCUSSION BY W. S. ATWOOD 507 

The statement of Mr. Rink, that vertical sheathing is preferable 
horizontal on account of its protecting the lading against water^ is 
rdly borne out by the results which have been obtained with cars 
th the horizontal sheathing. With cars constructed with a suitable 
ide of lumber and with reasonable care at the joints, there should 
no possibility of the lading becoming damaged with water. In 
!t, upon inquiry from officials who have several thousand of these 
•8 in service not one complaint was known to have been received 
ere the water had damaged the lading. I think the horizontal 
»thing has many advantages over the vertical. 
The advantages that Mr. Rink shows would result from all the 
ds having cars built of this type using uniform sizes of material 
mot be emphasized too much. Tf any large number of railways 
ng this type of car could agree on a uniform inside dimension and 
iniform size of sheathing, it would certainly facilitate the procur- 
of material and would result in eventual benefit to the railways. 
would enable the car builders to arrange with the lumber manu- 
turers for large supplies of this particular lumber, which could 
thoroughly dried and satisfactory for use, thus eliminating any 
d of rushing the material through the kilns, in cases of short 
ivery. 

On the first cars of this type, the diagonal braces in the end panels, 
ich Mr. Rink refers to, were applied, but owing to the stiffness 
en to the frame from the heavy inside sheathing used, both the 
5 brace and the end braces were omitted after the first few cars were 
It. There has been no trouble experienced from insufficient sup- 
t for the corners of the car and by using the end braces as ver- 
ils the advantages against protection from shifting loads would 
Tant, I think, their being used in this way instead of as braces. 
J corner of this type of car at the eaves gets a great deal of sup- 
t from both the side and ond lining and judging from the service 
ch cars have given under my observation, it would seem that this 
port was ample. 

I would heartily favor Mr. Rink's recommendation as to the use 
loor hangers with rollors and to convince one of the desirability of 
'feature one would only have to put in a little time at the freight 
Ifi to see the difficulty which is experienced in opening a large 
fiber of side doors. 

As regards the standard height from the rail to the top of the 
r, I think there 'is no dimension in the construction of the car 
ch it is more important to have uniform than this, in order to 



508 DISCUSSION ON STEEL FRAME BOX CARS 

facilitate as much as possible the unloading of box cars at platfomu 
and also to facilitate their being used as runways when placed 
between tracks from which freight is to be transferred. 

F. M. Whytk (written). Roth papers touch upon the subject 
of car roofs directly and, in addition, refer incidentally to conditionf 
which affect roof design and maintenance. The steel underframe i? 
getting to- be pretty well understood and is quite universally used, 
and information about the steel upper frame is accumulating rapidly, 
so that it is fair to presume tliat the remaining part of the box car, 
the roof, will be given more careful consideration in the near future. 

In Mr. Rink's paper, mention is made of possible loose rods, poets 
and braces, having a serious effect upon the roofs by permitting too 
much weaving of the upper structure, wliile in Mr. Burnett's paper 
it is explained that some twisting of the car body is desirable to per- 
mit the car to adjust itself to uneven track; apparently some weaving 
of the body is desirable and yet it is possible to have too much, which 
is believed to be the general opinion of those who have given 
consideration to the subject. However, independent of this con- 
cededly necessary .weaving of the body of the car as a whole, the 
end framing needs, from the standpoint of the general framing and 
from that of the roof, more consideration than has been given to it 
The end plate is a very important member of the body framing; it 
ties together the ends of the side plates; it receives a large proportion 
of the shocks given to the end posts by the shifting of the loading; 
and it receives the momentum of running boards, brackets and ridge 
pole when the car is suddenly started or stopped. Further than thia» 
in many of the designs of end framing shown in Mr. Rink's papcft 
the outer ends of the end phite act as cantilevers in assisting to trans- 
fer the load on the ends of the side sills to the center sills through 
the end posts. 

The end plate is also an important part of the roof proper because 
in all types of root's some nieniher of Ihe roof is attached to the end 
plates. As more attention is gi^eJl to the roofs in the future it u 
probable that sometliing will be done to the side and end-framii^ 
whicli will assist the roof. There are a few railroad men who thii» 
that the roof, meaning that part which sheds water and carries the 
roof loads, can be safely used to assist in keeping the rectang'J*' 
box of the car body in proper shape, but the great majority think in** 
this is quite impossible, at least within reasonable weights for tW 
roof. It seems much better, from an operating standpoint and f^^ 



DISCUSSION BY P. M. WHYTE 509 

standpoint of weights, to permit the body to weave more or 
md to provide a flexible roof to cover it. 

?here is no very good reason for the confusion which appears to 
concerning what constitutes the roof; aside from the car lines, 
oof proper is the material used to support the roof loads and to 
water. With the inside roof, the outside roof, and the roof with 
courses of boards and a course of felt between them, the roof 
is are quite as essential as are the steel plates in the- first two, 
the felt in the last one, and wlien the roof boards are damaged 
wf is damaged. Mr. Rink says that the inside roofing sheets 
Id last for a good many years if the roof boards are replaced every 
years; this means that the life of the roof as a whole is four years, 
roof boards cost about as much as the roofing sheets and too f re- 
tly this fact is overlooked. 

'oncerning the weights of roofs, the double board roof with felt 
^en weighs the most ; as between the inside and outside roofs with 
ame thickness of steel, the inside will generally weigh somewhat 
than the outside roof on account of the additional framing 
isary to support the roof boards above the metal sheets of the 
e roof. However, the weight per square foot throughout the car, 
actically the same for both; the all steel made of No. 16, U. S. 
will weigh least. An all steel roof of plates % in. thick, refer- 
by Mr. Rink, would weigh more than either the inside or out- 
roofs with No. 22 U. S. gage steel roofing sheets, but the thickest 
8 of which the writer knows is V32 i^-? which would weigh 
what less per sq. ft. than the inside or outside roofs even though 
atter have roofing sheets of No. 26 U. S. gage. The No. 24 TJ. S. 
sheets are generally used for either the inside or the outside roof 
as it is the mean of the two extremes of No. 2^2 and No. 26, 
red to by Mr. Rink, it will be used in the following comparative 
lits. 

Considering roughly that the area of the roof is 400 sq. ft. and 
Jcting additional thicknesses in joints, covering strips, etc., the 
bts per roof would be about as follows: double board roof, 

lb.; inside or outside roof No. 21, U. S. gage sheet, 1728 
all steel No. 16 U. S. gage, 1020 lb.; all steel Vsa-in- thick, 

lb.; and all steel i/s-iii thick 2010 lb. Thus the all-steel roof 
0. 16 U. S. gage steel will weigh about 700 lb. less than the inside 
Jtside roofs with No. 2 1 U. S. gage roofing sheets. 

'here is also considerable misunderstanding about the first cost 



510 DISCUSSION ON STEEL FRAME BOX CABS 

of various types of roofs, whereas under present conditions there is 
not much difference in the costs of the various types. With the 
double board roof the extra course of boards and the felt will oort 
about tlie same as the metal sheets of the inside and outside types. 
The all steel types with No. 16 TJ. S. gage galvanized steel or Va- 
in, black steel will cost little if any, more than the other tjpes. 
However, considering the ultimate cost to the railroad company, it 
is necessary to go somewhat deeper than the first cost of the roof; 
for instance, Mr. Vaughan has said in the discussion of these papen^ 
that it costs $12 per ton per year for hauling, but some prominent 
railroads put this cost as high as $22 per ton per year ; however, if 
the mean of these, namely $1 7, is accepted it will be understood how 
important it is to reduce to a minimum, the material used to torn 
water and to carry the weight of a man or two. The cost per yeir 
for hauling 1000 lb., whether the rate per ton per year be $12 or 
$17, will more than pay the interest on the total cost of any of the 
present types of roofs including the car lines; this fact ought to 
impress those who are interested in ultimate costs. 

Another item in connection with the roof which affects to i 
considerable extent the total cost of the car is the total thidmett 
of the roof including the roofing material and the car lines and the 
manner in wiiich the car lines are attached to the side plates. There 
is no good reason wliy the distance from the top of the floor to the 
top of the side plates should not be the inside clearance height of 
the car ; nevertheless, in many instances the under face of the ctf 
lines is placed 3 in. to -1 in. below the top of the side plates and io 
such designs, the side and end framing and sheathing are the bbjs^ 
3 in. to 4 in. longer than necessary and entirely needless weight i« 
added thereby, frequently to the amount of 300 lb. to 400 lb. 

Geokgp: VV. Rink. The discussion has brought out some inter- 
esting facts, and in sonic oases a difference of opinion still exi*^ 
as to the advisability of a standard box car. While it is true, tf 
mentioned by Mr. Seley, that the capacity of freight cars had mater 
ially changed since 187)3, we have reached a stage of developnifint 
wherein it would be of immense benefit to all concerned if o^ 
standard type of car wore to be purchased by all railroads, thiB 
design to remain standard until changes are required to permit 
the reinforcement of some detail which experience has shown murt he 
modified. A number of railroads are now having cars built from 
designs practioally the same as those developed by them as far back •* 



DISCUSSION 511 

ur or five years ago, which give excellent results in service. It is 
ae that changes must be made from time to time, but they can be 
ade along standard lines by a representative committee of railroad 
3n assigned for this purpose. Suppose it was decided, after building 
standard car for several years, that a radical change in design was 
cessary, some benefit would certainly be derived in having all cars 
ichased in that period built along the same standard lines. 

My object in tabulating the sizes of various members of the box 
r, particularly the steel upper frame car, was to call attention to the 
lall variations in weight and size of material which exist at the 
esent day; and as mentioned by Mr. Kiesel, this material is diffi- 
It to obtain on short notice, and more attention should be given 
ch details, with a view of using only standard materials which it will 
y the manufacturers to keep on hand. 

H. H. Vaughan, in closing the discussion for Mr. Burnett, 
d that he felt the author was correct in that it was not a question 

how long it took to get structural material, but that it was a 
estion of not having to get material at all. It was very rare that 
uctural material was required for repairs on the steel superstructure 
r. If the car was side swiped, which was one of the worst forms 

damage, it was only a question of cutting the members apart, 
aightening them out and riveting them together again.. The 
lount of material required in repairs of steel cars of any type was 
leedingly small compared with the material required for repairing 
oden cars, whether hoppers, box cars, or any other type. The 
ly parts taken out were those that had been crowded together, 
torn apart, and it was rare to find pieces torn apart imder wrecks. 

a rule they were in such shape that they could be cut apart and 
)laced. 

As to the introduction of a standard car, Mr. Chenowith advocated 
standard car, and then proceeded to describe a new type of car 
ich he thought was an improvement over those in use. In the cars 
ich Mr. Burnett called standard there was one change after another ; 
tie improvements were suggested as each lot of cars was built. 
e Canadian Pacific began building cars a couple of months ago, 
1 improved them in the making by changing all the rivet spacings. 
was found that the rivet spaces were inconvenient in many cases 
1 they could be built much more easily by changing the rivet spaces, 
a standard car were decided on tomorrow, the next order for cars 



512 DISCUSSION ON STEEL FRAME BOX CARS 

would contain some improvements and changes. It seemed to Mr. 
Vaughau that the best plan was to follow standard parts and to use 
material easily obtainable. With steel construction, that questioii 
would largely take care of itself. 

In answer to Mr. Cromwell, Mr. Vaughan said that a number of 
different joints were tested before the tongued and grooved joint was 
decided upon. This style of joint, also a joint with a steel piece 
inserted between the rabbet and lining running into a steel strip 
were experimented with. The tongued and grooved joint was found 
to be the best, however, in the experience of the Canadian Pacific 
Railway. 

In reply to an inciuiry as to whether or not the features of cir 
were patented, Mr. Vaughan said that that was rather a difficult 
question : there were some patents on this type of car, but so fir 
as he knew no one had ever paid any royalty on them, and he did not 
know of any important patents that covered the construction of thii 
type of car. 

R. W. Burnett. I will make only a few remarks on some items 
not replied to by Mr. Vaughan or not fully covered in the paper. 

Mr. Kiesel questions the advisability of using single sheathing 
on account of damage due to driving nails for securing blocking, etc 
It is my observation that there is nothing to fear from this souroe, tf 
even our oldest cars of this type show no signs of causing trouble. 
This is also true concerning the absence of diagonal braces in end 
framing. These cars even when severely stressed, in accident^ retain 
their squareness in end frame to a surprising degree. 

If I understand Mr. Chenowith correctly, he considers that re- 
lieving the side frame of load stresses will render the car more flexible. 
I do not believe this would make any appreciable difference in tbe 
flexibility of the car. In his remarks concerning strength of &ii 
plates, I presume he has reference to that type of car using vertical 
sheathing, as horizontal sheathing assists the end plate very consideia- 
bly in resisting the reaction of the end posts. 

Mr. (!?romwell's remarks on braces and end framing are answered 
in my reply to Mr. Chenowith, except that I may say it is needless 
to worr}' about twisting strains due to jacking car, as the twisting 
stresses received in a few miles' journey over track that has heavei 
produce more raokin^r than all the jacking the car would receive in 
a lifetime. 



No. 1406 

;0TTON CONVEYING SYSTEMS: THEIR 
SAFEGUARDS AGAINST FIRE 

Bt H. a. Bubnham, Waltham, Mass. 
Member of the Society 

he purpose of this paper is to describe briefly methods of limiting 
number and extent of fires such as occur from known causes in 
m mills in connection with the preparing processes of opening 
picking. Such fires form from 50 to 75 per cent of all the cotton 
fires reported. The particular point in these processes to which 
Dtion is directed is the mechanical arrangement of the conveying 
iratus used for transferring the cotton from the bale opening room 
he picker room. 

The methods described are the results of the experience of many 
he best known cotton mills in the northern and southern states^ 
8e cooperation with the Associated Factory Mutual Fire Insurance 
ipanies has been instrumental in developing this class of apparatus 
ig the present lines of greatest safety and efficiency. There are 
ffds of many instances in wliich, by the observance of the simple 
»utions described, troubles from fire formerly occurring with 
it frequency and regularity have almost entirely disappeared. 

MACHINERY 

3 The usual machinery for the above work consists of: 

a A bale breaker or opening machine having a spiked apron 
moving at moderate speed at the rear of a square iron 
hopper, which is fed by hand or by a mixing apron with 
lumps of cotton from the bale. This machine loosens up 
the matted cotton, allowing any heavy foreign substance 
to drop out, and delivers the loose cotton uniformly to 
the conveyor. The general appearance of this machine 
is shown in Figs. 1, 2 and 3. 

h The conveyor, eitlier pneumatic or mechanical, or both, 
carrying the loosened cotton to the picker room. Fig. 2 

Presented at the Annual Meotin^ 1913, of The American Society of Me- 
scal Enoinxers. 

513 




IIltA\-^- Hatbuai. 



n. A. BURNHAM 





-^ISM 


--:i f oSu. 


■ ■ ■'-,. ji^ M- 1 ' 


LiBS 


ii^£!ii 


*rl 


mc^ li 


^^^EPW-'^^ 


■it^ ■ I ■ 



:; Pkebers Filled by Hand 




516 COTTON CONVEYING SYSTEMS 

shows the feeding-in end of a pneumatic conveyor, and 
Fig. 4 shows a mechanical conveyor. 

c The pickers which liave hoppers and feeding rolls to de- 
liver the fiber to iron casings containing rapidly revdTing 
metal beaters. The latter, with the assistance of air cur- 
rents, separate the fiber from the dust. A line of Aen 
hoppers being fed by a mechanical conveyor, is shown in 
Fig. 1, and another line in Fig. •}, without any feeding 
mecrhanihim. 

4 As fires are almost sure to occur if heavy foreign material or 
matches enter the pickers or the fan of a pneumatic conveyor, it is 
important that all such material be removed at the bale breaker or 
before it is reached and that the various parts of the conveyor be 
properly arranged. 

5 None of tliis foreign material is more difficult to remove than 
matches, as they weigh too little to separate readily from the cotton 
by ordinary means. In this matter more than in any other, prevent- 
ing the matches from entering the stock is the only true solution of 
the problem. This has been actually accomplished in some mill 
properties by providing the help with safety matches to the exclusion 
of all other kinds. 

PNEUMATIC CONVEYORS 

The pneumatic cotton conveyor as it exists today is the outconM 
of attempts made in earlier days to save the labor of trucking baled 
(rotton from the storehouse to the picker room. Mills having store- 
houses separate from their manufacturing rooms, and especially ti« 
larger mills, found this labor a considerable item. 

7 At that time it had been common practice to convey damp cot- 
ton from dye house to drier by blowing it through a long sheet metal 
pipe attached to the dis(^liarge outlet of a pressure blower, the stod 
heinir fed in thmu^^h the siictiun inlet of the blower (see a, Fig. 5) 
In a))])lvinir this niotluMl tn drv cotton fed hv hand, however, fires ii 
the blow ]>ipe wen* conininn, an<l the air blast made them so intens 
that the arranironicnt in this midc form was considered far too riat 
for general use. 

■ 

8 In many kinds of work the action of the air on the cotton u 
transit was found lo l»o hmcficial to suhse<juent working of the cotton 
so much so, indeed, that manufacturers who had not at first. though 
it worth while, wished to use the blowing system. 



H. A. BURNHAM 



517 



9 The causes of these fires were found to be foreign substances in 
the stock, such as bits of iron, stones, or matches which had been 
cardessly dropped, or the wedging of the cotton in the fan casing 
due to the feeding in of masses which were too large to pass through. 
In some cases this fault was aggravated by the too small clearance in 
the fan between the blades and casing. 

10 The number of fires with this arrangement was considerably 
reduoed in some cases by using blowers having bronze blades. The 
introduction of the bale breaker or opening machine above mentioned 



.A. r 



Pip€ 



Cotton lnltt\ 




Vent in Room 



Bait Brtaktr. 
7F7. 



Up ^eeef-^ ^ 

immrrrmrTTTT 



Pipe 



Blower ^ 

jmrrrrrTTrrrTnTTTTTrrrrrrrrrFrfTrnTmrrm 




Vent in Room 



Pii 



Bale Breaker 



Up Feed ^^ r 
ker^^J^ ^-^Blower 

TTrnffTrrrmTrrrTTrrm 



'El. 



Condenser ■•- 




Vent to Dust 
Room 



ttrtfrnFrr/nnrfff/n/Ffnnm/rrrfrr? 



Up 
Bale Breaker 



ker^ ^Slowe. 



Pipe 



Condenser-- 




'///////////////////////////'//////////////////// 



To Dust 
Room 



Up feed- 



pipe 



Condenser- 



Bale Breaker^^^ e 

TTTimnmTTTrrTTrnTTrTTTTTTTrTrrmmTTTnTTrrrrrrPTrm 



Cotton 
Bin 



Suction^ 
fan 



To Duit 
Room 



^. 5 Diagram showing Development of Suction System or Pnsumatio 

Cotton CJonvbyoe 



^ place of the irregular hand feed also contributed materially toward 
the elimination of fires from these causes (see b, Fig. 5). 

11 The general introduction of the cotton condenser in its im- 
proved form, however, furnished means for avoiding the objectionable 
blast of air and cotton in the bin or room, and of operating the entire 
system under suction instead of under pressure. This advantage of 
operating under suction entirely, however, was not at once recognized, 
and many systems were installed with the stock blowing through the 
^an discharging to the condenser (see c, Fig. 5), or with an auxiliary 



fil8 COTTON CONVEYING SYSTEMS 

fan beyond the condenser smaller in size, and known as a dust i 
d. Fig. 5). 

18 The condenser consists of a slowly revolving cylindricd 
in a casing, with air pipe connections so arranged that the ait 
in passing through it, deposits cotton on the outer surface 
screen from which it is removed bj a small roU, the cotton di 
lightly from this roll. 

13 The final step to the present practice was to eliminate t 




fan, and to make the dust fim ]nTge enough to produce 
air current, thus making tlic cottoii-L-nrrying part of the w 
under sui-tion (spc c. Fru. .1), 

li By placing the condenser and the cotton inle' 
suction side of Ihp fan, us In Fiy. -tr, nr lioth on the di 
the fan, as in Fig. 10, no stock passos flimngh the 
systems so installnil fires arc a rarp (M'currence, For 



H. A. BURNHAM 



519 



reference, the former is termed "Suction System" and the latter 
"Pressure System." 

SUCTION SYSTEMS 

15 Under the most favorable conditions, pneumatic systems ar- 
ranged under suction have been successfully handled through pipes 
up to 900 or 1000 ft. in length, quantities up to 4000 lb. of 
cotton per hour. The limiting distances and weights of cotton are 
determined by local conditions such as size and tightness of pipes, 
number of bends, uniformity of feed, and adjustment of air passages 
through the condenser. 

ESSENTIAL FEATURES OF A MODEKN CONVEYING SYSTEM 

16 The sketch, Fig. 6, shows a modern safe cotton-conveying 
system taking cotton from an opening room through a suction 
pneumatic conveyor and delivering through a condenser upon a 




^>*'**s:U^:2r£. 










AuhmerHc 
Feeders " 




f'w. 7 Arrangement in Open- 
ing Room with Bale Break- 
er Omitted 



•Heavy Subsfances 
drop out here 

Fig. 8 Arrangement in Open- 
ing Boom with Mechanical 
Conveyor Omitted 



mechanical conveyor by which the cotton is carried to various points. 
This combination represents tlie best modern practice in the larger 
^lls. In mills handling various staples, the discharge is often into 
f^ina instead of into machines. 

17 In planning a new system for cotton conveying and distribut- 
^Hy or in remodelling an old system, the following conditions in the 
relative arrangement of parts should be approached as closely as 
possible in order to eliminate unneceasarv fire hazards : 

1^ Removal of Foreign Substances. Provision should be made 
for heavy substances to drop out of the stock before entering the con- 
^^yor pipe. This can be done by having the cotton pass vertically 
^P^ard into the conveyor pipe, shaping the inlet like an inverted 
^^nnel or box over the feed table or apron, and making the vertical 



520 



COTTON CONVEYING SYSTEMS 



part of tlie pipe about 12 ft. high (see Fig. 6). To obtain the< 
sired vertical height it is sometimes necessary to use a long ndi 
inverted U. 

19 Location of Fan. The fan should be so located that no ooti 
will pass through it. In cases of extreme length this condition c 
be met by installing two separate systems in series with a relay stati 
at which the condenser of the first system discharges to the inlet 
the second. 

20 Disposal of Air Vents. Air currents from the system ahoi 
not discharge into the main rooms. This condition is usually met 
discharging the air direct to the dust room. 

21 Location of Pipes. Long pipes should be generally loca 
outside of main rooms and should not pass through important ; 
walls or floors. Trouble from condensation inside the conveyor p 
in cold weather, which sometimes arises, may be avoided by provid 
an auxiliary cold air inlet (see E, Fig. 6), and in difficult cases 



T^DP 



Sucfi'on 
Fan 






%- Switch 



C' Cortdertier 



I I Room 

B'Bfn 



Fio. 9 Plan Showing Arrangement in Picker Room with Mxghan 

Conveyor Omitted 

covering the conveyor pipe, where out of doors, with non-condue 
covering. 

22 Pipes should have joints riveted in addition to being sold 
and have suitable handholes for cleaning. This is to guard aga 
breakage of the pipe in case of fire from inside or outside the pipe 



VARIATTOXS IN AKRANGEMENT 

23 Variations from the arrangement shown in Fig. 6 are 
quently necessary, depending on the number of varieties of stock, 
quantity, quality, and distance to be carried, as follows: 

24 Omission of Bah Brenler. In the opening room of the smi 
mills, the bale breaker or automatic feeder is often omitted and 
cotton fed from a pile previously shaken out by hand from the 1 
In this case the stock should be fed across a slatted movable table u 



H. A. BURNHAM 



521 



the inverted cone of the inlet pipe (see Fig. 7). Uniform hand 
feed, however, is difficult and without the automatic feeder, frequent 
clogging of the condenser may result. 

25 Omission of Mechanical Conveyor in Opening Room, In some 
of the older systems or where more tlian one pneumatic conveyor is 
to be fed, the mechanical conveyor in the opening room is sometimes 
omitted by forming a pipe connection between the automatic feeders 
and the branches to the conveyor pipe. In such cases this connection 
may be in the form of a flattened conical pipe sloping downward and 
having an opening at the lowest point opposite the upward turn where 
heavy material may drop out (see Fig. 8). 

26 Omission of Mechanical Conveyor in Picler Room. At the 




Fio. 10 Arrangement of Injector Inlet for Pressure System 



>\\\ \V\V _i>v 







Fio. 11 Arrangement of Feed Box Inlet for Pressure System 

picker room end, in case several staples are used, the mechanical con- 
veyor is often omitted and the cotton delivered direct to bins through 
^ndensers. Under these conditions the condensers may be piped in 
parallel with proper switciies and the same fan used for all (see Fig. 9). 

PRESSURE SYSTEMS 

27 In handling cotton mixed with some wool, as in knitting mills, 
'elt mills, or colored cotton mills using a large variety of colored stock, 
pneuniatia systems are usually operated under pressure instead of 
suction. The reasons for this are, that (a) stock containing above a 
*^11 percentage of wool cannot be successfully handled with con- 
densers, the greasy nature of the wool causing it to stick and clog the 



522 



COTTON CONVEYING SYSTEMS 



mechanism; and (b) Id handling colored cotton the b 
small and numerous that the use of a condeiiBer t 
practicable. Mechanical conveyorB are also objectei 
facturers for handling colors on account of the liab 
tufts of stock caught in the mechanism will afterwarc 
into lots of another color. 

38 The pressure system improperly installed is d 
and property, as the strong blast of air intensifies 
pipe or near its outlet. The safest arrangement of 8' 
obtained by observing the conditions already stated re; 
and construction of pipes for suction systems, and ah 
conditions : 




B-HoTTZonlal cenvayirM 

D ppmrnglVwjgfiwI 

E- Shutter in bin opening. 
r- Swrichoi on txmffor. 
C-Unk eonriBclins Siuth 



?9 Location of Fan. With a pressure system, boi 
outlet for the stock should be placed on the discharge 
The stock may be introduced into the pipe by mew 
having at its bottom a vane or nozzle projecting inl 
pipe at su(.'h an angle as to cause an injector-like actioE 
ijilet (see Fij:. 101. This device is practicable, he 
distances up to about 75 ft. Another method adapted 
tances is to use a pair of flexible surfaced rolls fon 
part of an air-tight feed box (see Pig. 11). 

;50 Vents. At the delivery end, with either of th( 
ments, the pipe should terminate in a bin, with tight 1 
through a screen piped to such a point that no blast 
enter any important room. 



H. A. BURNHAM 523 

MECHANICAL CONVEYORS 

31 As with the best of machinery aud with all the safeguards thus 
far described^ all fires cannot be eliminated from the picker room, 
it is important that the extent of such fires as may still occur be made 
as small as possible. This is especially desirable in mills which store 
temporarily in bins in the room considerable quantities of opened 
/otton of various long staples. 

32 Mechanical conveyors are often used between the opening room 
and picker room bins. In such cases these rooms are usually near 
each other. The older method of passing these conveyors through 
openings in partitions between adjoining bins has proved objection- 
able, as fire may enter several bins at the same time. To avoid this 
objection the conveyor can be placed over the tops of the bins, dis- 
charging through protected traps in the top. This arrangement re- 
quires considerable head room. 

33 Another arrangement is to place the conveyor high up at the 
front or rear wall of the bin and discharge it through small protected 
openings in the wall. This can best be done where the bins are not 
deep from front to back and where the conveyor has discharge from 
it^ side (see Fig. 12). In either case the openings for feeding bins 
from mechanical conveyors should be protected by tin covered shutters 
interlocking with the switch of the conveyor so each shutter will be 
open only when its bin is being filled. 

SPRINKLERS 

34 Having limited the number and extent of fires, the matter of 
^•ontrolling promptly those which do occur, should be cared for. In 
fiadition to the automatic sprinkler equipment always needed at the 
♦veiling of the cotton working rooms, sprinklers should be placed in the 
^ins, in the condensers, under traveling aprons, inside and under 
picker trunks and close over the cotton in the hoppers of the auto- 
"«^tic feeders. 

DISCUSSION 

Albert W. Thompson. Referring to the objection of Mr. Bum- 

^ to the using of relay fans, through which the cotton can pass 

*^tly, in cases of extreme length, in place of making substantially 

^ systems, that the cotton in passing through the fan is likely to 

^"^G a fire due to the clogging, possibly from a poorly installed fan, 



524 COTTON CONVEYING SYSTEMS 

from hot-bearings at the fan, or foreign substance passing thxo 
if they get by the first point where they are supposed to drop oul 
I understand this statement is based on actual experience? I 
seen one or two systems of considerable length arranged in that 
and I do not recall now ever having seen a fire traceable direct! 
the fan. Most fires Imvc originated in some other place, eithe 
the opening room, wliere a device something like a picker is somet 
used for tearing bleached or dyed cotton, and where matches 8i 
times start fires ; or at the finisher picker room at the other en 
the system ; but I do not recall having seen a fire directly traceab 
the use of a relay fan. 

C. J. 11. Woodbury. I believe this paper is the first of its 
which has been presented before any of the technical societies. ' 
these occurrences in and of themselves are not preventable in 
given instance appears to be conceded by Mr. Bumham, who corr 
represents the practical experience in the matter. Many years 
phosphor-bronze picker blades were introduced because they iv 
not strike fire, or so it was stated; but whether that all^tion 
proved in practical experience beyond a diminution of such fin 
extremely doubtful. There is one class of distribution of such 
where it has been prevented, and that is the fires caused by stri 
in the picker and spreading down into the dust-room below, and 
backing up through the dust flue into another picker which wai 
then in use. That has been prevented by unbalanced dampers a 
end of tlie dust flues, so that when a picker was not in use, ' 
dampers would naturally close and prevent that. I would like ti 
the speaker if tlie principle of the automatic link, which has beei 
plied so successfully to fire doors has not also been applied to dan 
in these flues, so that whenever a fire occurs a flue would be closi 
a very early stage in the story? 

The illustrations represent the method of feeling the open* 
bale breaker directly over open bains of cotton; whereas in many 
they put an ageing pile for the purpose of letting the cotton w 
the air, and also get the effect of time in resuming its spirility, 
its contact with other fibers, which it has lost by the compressi 
has undor^^one in the bale. Then? are various types of these a{ 
stacks in the English mills. They use them for the purpose of b 
ing the various grades of cotton, or of mixing with the oottoi 
card waste, to the extent of making a new art almost in the blei 
of cotton for specific purposes, of which the American cotton n 



DISCUSSION 525 

facturers, I regret to say, know practically nothing. The cotton is 
put in strata in the pile from the various types of cotton, the Egyptian 
cotton, the American upland, and not forgetting as large a portion 
of card waste as the fabric will stand. Then they rake down the 
cotton along the end of the pile after it has remained there a week 
or 80, with a large wooden garden rake, and a blending is effected in 
that manner. Another question is : Whether the exhaust blower is as 
efficient in moving cotton through rarefication of the air as a pressure 
blower would be? 

John A. Stevens asked what data the author had on fires caused 
by matches, referring to the paper in which fires started by matches 
are mentioned ; also where the large number of matches came from. 

E. V. French. Mr. Woodbury has touched upon the matter of 
ageing cotton. Where ageing is done large mills may open 50 or 100 
bales of cotton at a time. If a fire occurs under such conditions it is 
almost sure to run over the whole pile in spite of any extinguishing 
apparatus and cause a good deal of loss. Many mills on coarse work 
have found where the cotton is handled by blowing, that the passage 
through the pipes in loose form, and with an ample air supply, ac- 
^'omplishes about the same result as the ordinary ageing. Only 10 or 
12 bales therefore need be opened at once and the cotton from these 
is carried directly to the automatic feeder at the inlet of the blowing 
system. This gets rid of large amounts of loose open cotton, and 
"lakes a distinct gain in the reduction of the fire hazard. Picker 
rooms are causing a large number of our cotton mill losses and im- 
provement at this point is the next thing to take up. If we can 
eliminate a good many of these fires the cotton mill will become about 
*8 safe as the average risk. In the question of matches which Mr. 
Stevens mentions, I remember one case where arrangements were made 
through a public officer to search the men in a cotton mill ; the result 
vas two handfuls of matches found in their pockets. As they work a 
^atch will now and then drop from their clothes to the floor, to be 
stepped upon or run over by a truck, and strike fire which will surely 
'^ite anything combustible nearby. This is undoubtedly one of the 
'^oet serious causes of fires in such mills today. 

Charles H. Bigelow, in answer to Mr. Stevens, said that in the 
^^th he had seen the negro workmen handling matches and a num- 



526 COTTON CONVKYlNCi SYSTEMS 

ber of fires caused by droppiiiji: matehes, \vlii('li were (tracked by tfo 
trucks passing over them and set fire to tlie cotton, sometimes catch- 
ing in the cotton on the truck. 

The Authok. In reply to the questions of Mr. Thompson, I 
know of one system where two fires occurred. It was a particularly 
long system, the fires blowing through the outlet side of the system, 
but no trace of fire had been found on the suction side of the fan. 

Replying to Mr. Woodbury, in regard to stopping fires passing 
through the dust flues from the pickers by means of the fusible link, 
I do not think that method is extensively applied. I have heard of 
places where they tried to apply that method to cotton passing through 
pipes but I think the fire usually gets by the fusible link, as it takes 
a considerable length of time to melt the solder on the link. As to 
the unbalanced dampers, they are very efficient and I have no objection 
to urge against them. They are a great protection against fire backing 
up in the pipes. 

The reference to the ageing (jualities and the blower system, his 
suggested to my mind the fact that the quality of the cotton is im- 
proved by being blown through the pipes. I know of a number of 
cases where ageing bins have been put into mills for trial and then 
discarded as the passing of the cotton through the pipes was found 
to answer almost the same purpose. That may not be true of >U 
cases, but it is in many. As regards the relative eflSciencies of suc- 
tion and blower fans, I have no data on that point; I think very fe^ 
accurate measurements have been made to determine this. 

Referring to the question of Mr. Stevens, the data are not exact, 
for as a rule in such cases the matches are destroyed. Sometixn^ 
we find the remains of the match, and often we find hard substances 
that have passed through. But many fires ascribed to matches are ^^ 
doubt caused by matches, ami wo roach that conclusion from the f*^ 
that every other cause of fire wo know anything of has been eliminat«<^- 
That, perhaps, is not absolutely conclusive. The match fires, however 
still remain the hardest ones to contend with or to trace to a ca^^' 

In the South T think the lalK)r(?rs are largely responsible for m^- 
of the fires clue to matches. 'J'lio matches may be dropped by wotK" 
men around the gins, or oven at earlier stages, before they get to ^ 
gins. It is a (*ommon practice among the negroes of the South ^ 
stick matches in button-holes, in pockets, back of their ears, and * 
their hat-bands. 



No. 1407 

SPECIFICATIONS FOR FACTORY TIMBERS 

By F. J. HoxiE, Phbnix, R. I. 
Member of the Society 

This paper is given in the hope that a discussion may be opened 
which will bring together scattered experiences relative to the proper- 
ties underlying the qualities required in mill timber. Within three 
years more than $100,000 has been required to repair damage due to 
dry rot in mills insured by the Associated Factory Mutual Fire In- 
surance Companies, and nearly all of the lumber affected was hard pine 
in comparatively new buildings. This rapidly increasing destruction 
of lumber is unquestionably due to the use of poorer material than was 
employed in former years. In a lot of large timber for the frame of 
a new mill will be found nowadays scarcely anything but North Caro- 
lina, Cuban, or Shortleaf pine. The best qualities of these varieties 
are probably as resistant to decay as is the Longleaf pine, but they are 
less uniform; the poor qualities are much more difficult to detect 
because of the necessarily superficial acceptance inspection of the 
purchaser or his representative. 

2 In textile mills the high artificial atmospheric humidity un- 
doubtedly increases the tendency to rot in pine of low natural resist- 
ance to fungus. The weaving rooms of cotton mills are frequently 
maintained at a saturation of moisture of 70 to 80 per cent. With 70 
per cent saturation and a temperature of 80 deg. fahr. a decrease in 
temperature of 12 deg. or more would cause precipitation. This con- 
dition can be found in winter on the under side of roofs or at beam 
^all bearings or windows if the heat insulation is not very complete. 

3 Dry rot fungus will grow on the surface of wood at atmospheric 
saturation from 96 to 100 per cent^; it will grow inside of large 
beams of susceptible material at a much lowiir atmospheric saturation. 
In one case investigated, the room was maintained at 60 per cent 
*nd the beams of the second floor which were not exposed to outside 
temperatures were attacked. Experiments tending to show that the 
dry rot fungus is able to form sufficient water for its requirements in 

^^iMchwammforechungen, vol. 6, p. 308; MoeUer, Jena, 1912. 

J^resented at the Annual Mooting \9\:\, of Tiik Amefucan Socfety of Me- 
"'ANicAL Engineers. 



527 



jincA™"" ™" 



„CTO»^ """'' 



F. J. HOXIE 529 

of large size by decomposition of the wood are given by Mez^ 
K)ts frequently remain several days on the freshly sawed surfaces 
01 sections containing living fungus (giee Pig. 3). There is no 
m whatever about its growing inside of factory beams of non- 
nt material for two or three years at least after the factory is 
with less than 70 per cent of atmospheric moisture and in 
where water is not used in manufacturing processes. This con- 
has been found in several of the worst cases investigated. 

Only hard pine timber will be considered here as this is 
ost generally used material for heavy mill frames. Spruce 
etimes used for floor plank, but this is probably more susceptible 
than the better qualities of hard pine. In the only case investi- 
where spruce was concerned the disease evidently spread from 
•earns to the spruce floor planking. In a few cases hemlock 
it antiseptic treatment used under floors in basements has 
in a few years. Hemlock, oak and white pine have failed after 

or shorter service, but the use of thesis materials for mill con- 
on is not sufficiently frequent to require more than passing 
m. 

Twenty-six varieties of hard pine, growing in North America, 
scribed by Penhallow;^ of these only four are much used for 
• in the eastern states: the Longleaf {Pinus Palustris), Short- 
Pinus Echinata), Cuban {Finns Ileterophyila), and North 
na {Finiis Taeda), Tliey are very fully described in Timber 
of the Southern States, by Charles Mohr." The Longleaf pine 
most valuable for lumber from its greater strength and dura- 
The latter quality is probably due chiefly to the high per- 
e and uniform distribution of the resin and to the small 
tage of sap wood, wliich averages not over 2 in. in radius of 
e trees, while that of tlie other three varieties varies from 4 in. 
n. of the radius. 

Many of the specifications for liard pine are vague or meaning- 
ing to the fact that tlio tcTnis used are not clearly defined or are 
^terminable. For exam pi o "])est quality" could honestly be 
to mean the best in \]w local market or the best in the world, 
leaf pine" is practically impossible to identify beyond a doubt 
form of lumber, and in fact it is now rather the exception than 

' Haus8chwamm, Carl 'S\ca\ Dio^don, 1908, p. 192. 

^^anual of the North Aiiicri.Mii rjyinnosporms, D. P. PenhaHow, 1907. 

letin No. 13, U. S. D('])nrtiii('iit of Agriculture, Division of Forestry, 



8PECIF1CAT10NB YOR FACTORY TIMBERS 




F. J. HOXIE 531 

rule to find this variety of pine in the large sizes required for mill 
118. Other varieties are regularly accepted as Longleaf. "Georgia" 
^metimes added to a specification but lumber grown in that state 
eldom insisted upon, nor is its place of growth important. 

The Interstate rules for Yellow pine lumber for 1905 define 

ue quality, dimension sizes, as follows: 

11 square lumber shall show two-thirds heart on two sides, and not less than 
half heart on two other sides. Other sizes shaU show two-thirds heart on 
and show heart two-thirds of length on edges, excepting when the widtli 
»ed8 the thickness by 3 in. or over, then it shaU show heart on the edge for 
half the length. 

? rules define merchantable inspection as follows : 

11 sizes under 9 in. shall show some heart the entire length on one side. 
(8 9 in. and over shall show some heart the entire length on two opposite 
s, etc. 

is specification for prime quality loses most of its force when 
>lied to pine of the type shown in Pig. 4. The young heart wood 
rotted nearly, or quite as rapidly, as the sapwood. Most of the 
ms shown in Fig. 6 are of this variety. Timber of merchantable 
pection in addition to the uncertainty of the heart wood mentioned 
>ve has the practical certainty of rot in the sapwood if conditions 
t not most favorable. This grading is particularly treacherous with 
t deep, narrow sections frequently used for double beams. 

S The average number of annual growth rings per inch has been 
^gested as a criterion for selecting good hard pine lumber, as fol- 
vs:^ first quality should have 15 or more rings per inch, as an 
?rage of 5 in. across the grain ; second quality should have an average 
from 8 to 15 growth rings, and material having less than 8 should 
considered unfit for structural use. This would admit such material 
that shown in Fig. 4 and exclude such as that shown in Fig. 5. 
le dense coarse grained resinous Cuban heart wood is as strong and 
rable as the Longleaf pine, its bad quality being that it has a large 
rcentagc of not very clearly marked sapwood which is rapidly de- 
oyed by fungus (see Fig. 2). 

3 A later suggestion whicli has been adopted by the American 
ciety for Testing Materials^ calls all good material Longleaf pine 
d poor material Sliortloaf pino. This is unfortunate in that an 
3itrary meaning is given to tlio names Longleaf and Shortleaf, which 
eady have a generally aeeoptod botanical meaning; such a discrimi- 

American Society for Testing Materials, Proceeiliiifrs 1909, p. 291. 
Ainoriean Society for Testing Materials, I'roceedings 1912, p. 34.'). 



F. J. HOXIB 533 

is also incomplete in not defining the qualities of the two 



The positive identification of Longleaf pine lumber is difOcnlt 
)ssible. There are slight microscopic difterences in the form 




BiAHs; Pbobably 



nedulUty rays of the North Carolina pine, as given by Poii- 
and Koth,' but to usu thum for identification would require 
"able experience in tin' microscopic study of the pines. The 
«pic differences iin: more striking with characteristic speci- 
The Ixingleaf pine is iieuvy, resinous and fine grained, avorag- 
the dry heart wood from the Initt of the tree, according to 
h American Ojimioaportiis, I). ['. IVTiJialloiv, 1907. 
No. 13, U, S. Division of h'orestry, 1897, p. 143. 



534 SPE(}IFlCATIONH FOR FACTORY TIMBEBB 

Sargent,' 4>S.? lb. per on. ft. (sec Fig. 1). The Cuban pine is sligbtl; 
heavier, averaging ■!? II). jwr eii. [I., resinous and coarse grained ^ith 
a large proportiun of <Ieuse suninicr wood and a much larger propor- 
tion of sapwood (see Figs. 2 and 6). The North Carolina pixie is 
tighter, averaging 34 lb. per cu. ft., somewhat less resinooa, eoUK 
grained with a small percentage oE summer wood (see Fig. 3). Hk 
Shortleaf pine is moderately light, averaging 38 lb, per co. ft.^ tbt 
least resinous of tlie four and of medium coarse grain. The follo'wilig 
are the weights per cubic foot given by Mohr for kils dried nut^i]; 
Longleaf 36 lb., Cuban 37 lb., Shortleaf 30 lb., and North Cirolini 
31 lb. The reason for Molir's weights being less than those of 9iTgcot 




Fio, 5 Beau 8 is, by 12 jv., Weiohhjo 72 lb. f^ Oo. Ft. 

is that he takes the average of the tree, the top of which ia mndi 
lighter, while Sargent considers only the denser heart Tood at the 
butt. There is considerable confusion in local names: Mohr giw 
six Tiatin and 29 common names as having been used at diflevt 
linu'sor dillerent places for the Longleaf pine; the other varietiei liaf* 
nearly as many. The Cuban and Longleaf pines are sometiinfli ooa- 
fused since both have long leaves, while the Shortleaf and the Nnrb 
Carolina have short leaves. 

1 1 A treacherous type of bard pine is shown in Fig. 4, which ii 
probably Shortleaf pine, although it may be Longleaf grown under 
imfavorablc c!oiirlilion.=. The porcpntape of resin and the grari^ ii 



p. J. HOXIE 




53(1 SPECIFICATIONS FOB FACTORY TIMBERS 




F. J. HOXIE 



537 



eomevhat higher than that gives by Mohr' for Shortle&f, but the 
UTongement of growth rings corresponds with his description. 
Hardly a lot of liimber is to be found of which this does not form a 
considerable proportion. Most of the rotted beams shown in Fig. T 
are of this type. It is characterized by a coarse grain at the center, 
generally consisting of four to six growth rings per inch, becoming 
regularly finer with increased diameter until at 6 in. or 8 in. from the 
center there are 80 to 30 growth rings per inch. The resin and re- 
sistance to rot decrease with the rings. At the center there is gen- 
erally in the neighborhood of 10 per cent of resin; at 4 or 6 in. 



^s. 8 Vnw sHowiNo 




P&BSAOIWAT 1 



Irom the center there is frequently less than 3 per cent. The line 
betw«i the heart and sapwood is well marked, the heart being much 
dukerthan the sap, as with the Longleaf. This material is regularly 
■old u Longleaf. 

12 Tannin in the lignifio<l hciirt wood is said to retard fungus 
growth* in oak,' but resin is the important factor in the hard pinos. 
The following experiment was made to show the effect of resin : A 
'''wk of Longleaf pine 2 ir. on a side, containing 18 per cent of 
^n, »a8 sawed in two ncmss tlie -rrain. Half of it was boiled in 
Iwaole and after the removal of the resin Hie benzole was driven off. 

'BBUetin No. 13, U. 3. Divi«iun of Forestry, y. i:i. 
"Btricht* (ier ileutschon lK>t:iiiisi'h<'n ripwUsi'h 
"JwlogiwhBs Centralblatt, vul- 1. 1912, pp. Uf 



ift, vol. 29, 1912, p. 704; 



538 



SPECIFICATIONS FOR FACTORY TIMBERS 



Both pieces were cultivated in contact with wood coDtaiuiug 
dry rot funguB. At the end of a year the specimena were dri 
weighed. That from which the resin had been removed bad 
per cent in weight, the other only 3 per cent. 

13 Cuban pine is the heaviest and frequently the most reeii 
the timber varieties. Fig. 5 shows a section of a beam wei^ 
lb. per cu. ft. It can be seen that besides being saturated wit 
this is nearly all summer wood. 

14 The ideal specification consists undoubtedly of a clear 6 
tion of the qualities required. In structural timber these are si 
and durability. With these qualities defined, attributes 8 




Fra. 9 Vixw or Colouns shown in Fro. 8 spur to show Ftm 



botanical variety, location of growth or grading, lose their impc 
The limits of strength can be easily given, but leas easily detei 
without destroying the material. The density is probably a suff 
close index of strength for commercial purposes and the percen 
reein of durability. 

15 Both the resin and tho density can be conveniently fo 
boring half-inch holes into the end of the beam, collecting thi 
drying and weighing them, extracting the resin with heozi 
weighing it. ('nban or Korth f'arolina pine with 10 per ■ 
resin is apparently as resistant to fungus as Longleof pine w 
same percentage of resin. Heart without resin is not a saving ( 

16 The pcrcentrtge uf resin in Ihe pound centers of rotted 
taken from a mill was dcierniined in onliT to get an idea of the i 



F. J. HOXIE 



539 



required to atop fimgue growth under ordinary mill conditions (see 
Fig. T). In rotted beams of the poorest of hard pine there is generally 
a eonnd center which contains more resin than the remainder of the 
sectiott. Sometimes it is not bounded by the growth rings but is very 
inegolar, the cause being that resin has been irregularly deposited 
in the section owing to knots or injuries to the tree. The limits of 
the sound centers are frequently not the same as those of the heart 
irood. 

IT It is apparent that the limiting amount of resin which ia just 
anfficient to stop the fungus is in the neighborhood of 3 per cent. The 



^«- W Example 




linuting power of resin is undoubtedly not absolute but varies with the 
■noigture, variety of fungus ard time of exposure. Therefore, it is 
Sile to assume that a mill beam should have not less than 6 per cent 
of resin throughout successfully to withstand fungus under ordinary 
TOnditions of dampness and allowing a reasonable factor of safety. 
"7^ hoiiBes and paper mills would probably require more. 

18 In order to determine the distribution of resin in timber of 
average good quality several sertions from beams now being supplied 
'Or factory construction were analyzed. Part of these are shown in 
"?■ '■ The large holes were for samples for resin analysis, and the 
"nal! ones for density determinations. TJie material was mostly heart 
*ood and the price paid for it was $.'i9 per 1000 ft. board measure. 



540 



SPECIFICATIONS FOR FACTORY TIMBERS 



None of the eectioua have 5 per cent of resin throughout. Thnt 
would come within this limit by cutting oft about 10 per cent and the 
remaining five would require a reduction of about ?5 per cm^ a 
shown by the dotted lines. 

19 If it could he logically assumed that better material could be 
bought by increasing the price in proportion to the reduction of tht 
croes-eection necessary to obtain the required 3 per cent of rtnn, 
$115 per 1000 ft. would be indicated. From such figures as I hare been 
able to obtain this price is not far out of the way for such selected 
material in large sizes, and even at that price it is doubtful if t sniBd' 
ent amount for a factory could be had in the required sizes. Thit 
indicates that hard pine with sufficient natural resistance to withatand 



■^ 




■""'"■ 


'm 


^F* 


IR. 


'^^- 



Pro. II View 



FUNOUB BETWEEN DoUBLE BEAMB, FEONT BEUI BAT- 



fungus unassisted is out of the quostiori at prices that compare fsvoi^ 
ably with other forms of construction. 

20 Jjow power of resistance to fungus in the timber is freqooiuT 
the last cause to which a strious dry rot outbreak is charged. Ventil»* 
tion is generally the first preventative measure BUggested. Dry 900° 
which is kept dry is undoubtedly incapable of fungus infection bo* 
ventilation does not necessarily cause drying. Wood will heconw dry*' 
or wetter in proportion to the relative humidity of the air; thewfo'*' 
timber ventilated with moist air will have its rate of rotting acceleisted 
if it is of a susceptible variety. Moreover the susceptible varietisB 
absorb moisture more rapidly than those which are more resistant ^ 
fungus. 

21 A heavy coat of paint may accelerate or retard the rate <» 
rotting, depending upon Hheiher it prevents wood from absorbing *' 



F. J. HOXIE 541 

giving up moisture. The question of primary importance is whether 
the wood is resistant or susceptible to fungus. 

22 Holes through columns and narrow openings between beams 
encourage fungus more frequently than they prevent it. One of the 
reasons given for bored columns and double beams has been that they 
prevent dry rot, and considerable importance has sometimes been 
given to this feature.^ Undoubtedly columns vrith holes through them 
and thinner beams would dry out more quickly, if given a chance to 
season, but the common custom of boring green or wet columns just 
before they are put in place in the building and using moist lumber 
for double beams leave ideal places for the growth of fungus, since 
the air in the openings is saturated with moisture. Holes in the 
columns are also objectionable since they form a convenient passageway 
for the fungus to pass rapidly from floor to floor before the building 
has dried out. Fig. 9 shows a section of a bored pine column split 
in two with fungus growing through the hole; the colunm was not 
deeply attacked as can be seen from the photograph of the cross- 
section, Fig. 8. The hole is inefficient in preventing rot if the ma- 
terial of the column is susceptible, as can be seen from Pig. 10, 
which shows a section of a bored column badly rotted. Fig. 11 shows 
fungus growing in the opening between double beams, the front half 
of the beam having been removed. 

^ In many old mills hard pine timbers are found to be sound 
after years of service in moist air. A careful examination vrill gen- 
erally reveal the fact tliat these timbers are resinous Longleaf pine, 
practically no longer obtainable. There is no more reason for sup- 
posing that the non-resinous hard pines now in common use would 
prove as resistant, than there is for expecting moist hemlock or birch to 
resist fungus. There is still available for present requirements in mill 
construction sufficient hard pine of suitable size and strength. It 
remains to supplement its lower natural resistance with proper anti- 
^Ptic treatment. 

DISCUSSION 

E. M. Bates. I would like to ask Mr.Hoxie how far the action 
^* preservatives prevents this fungus growth inside of the beams? 
^es the treating of the pine timber witli one of these preservatives 
^W it i8 thoroughly saturated on tlie outside lead to conditions 
^here dry rot can start on the inside? In other words, is the life 

^Engineering News, Vol. 62, 1909, p. 620. 



542 SPECIFICATrONS FOR FACTORY TIMBERS 

of that Umber flopoiulciit upon tlio weariii*; out of this waterproof 
surface on the outside? Also has ho reached auv conelusion as to the 
most effective mctliod for treatim^iit ? 

A. W. Thompson. I would like to ask what would be the probable 
effect of carboliiieum on material in an average mill, with the ordinarj 
humidity, where artificial heat is used? Also what is the best practice 
as to painting timber? It has been the general impression that it is 
best to let them remain unpainted for a year or two after they are put 
into the mill. 

A. F. Ernst. Must these preservatives be applied under a 
vacuum in order to secure their efficiency? Should timber put into 
the ground, such as fence posts, be coated wet, or is it absolutely 
necessary to have it dry before putting on the preservatives? 

CiiARLKs H. l^iGKLOw. The author speaks of a number of millB 
having to be reconstructed. How extensive is this danger? I did 
not realize that the danger was so serious, especially in new work. It 
is certainly surprising to have timbers rot away in a couple of yeaw 
and is something that must be looked out for. 

Another thing to be considered is the large number of knots in 
some of the timber. In looking at a building recently where Longle*^ 
piiH^ had been specified and the i;ontra(;tor had furnished something, 
which he said was just as good, but which most certainly was imt. " 
noticed sev(»ral joists that had two and three knots one above theothet 
near the center on the bottom half. A timber of that sort can support 
onlv a verv small load, for tlutre arc no continuous fibers on the out- 
si<le to be stressed and give a good modulus of rupture and unless 
th(!re an^ good joists on ea(rh side a bad failure might easily occur- 
In Salem, Mass., wlien^ T used to live, is an old house that is over 
100 years old where I have noted a case of apparent dry rot, and ^ 
would like to know if this is similar to what Mr. Hoxie has be^^ 
describing. In this cast? the outside surface of the timbers, which * 
think are oak, i^ furrowed with longitudinal tunnels filled with a ^'O 
dust. These may have been made by some insoi^t, but I imagine^l ** 
was dry rot. It has destroyed perhajis a third of the timber but tn*-' 
balanre of tlie wood appeared to be sound and all right and as tn^ 
timbers were much iarg<M' than are used now there appeared to ^ 
j)lenty of strength for years to eonie. The rot did not appear to *^ 
getting much w(»rsr the last lime I saw it and I have known of '^ 
for (jver 20 vears. 



DISCUSSION 543 

E. V. French. I want to emphasize what is really the revolu- 
lary character of the information which Mr. Hoxie has brought 
us. He shows that practically all of the old requirements as to 
bers cannot be used safely today so that new specifications must 
made in keeping with the new facts. Most of the old slow growth 
ber with its large percentage of resin is exliausted. It will be 
eral generations before timber of this kind will grow again, so that 
many years inferior timber which is susceptible to dry rot will have 
be used. To make such timber safe Mr. Hoxie's data show that it 
st he treated with some preservative to avoid rapid decay. It is, 
c'ourse, feasible in new work to use timber which has been treated, 
; this is only a part of the problem, for with the increase of humid- 
in old mills, due to the modern manufacturing requirements, tim- 
8 which have remained sound for years have decayed rapidly. 
[?ently in a mill 75 years old, white pine beams, which must have 
ed out thoroughly years ago, were found to be seriously impaired 
dry rot. The cause was evidently the material increase in the 
tnidity maintained in these rooms in recent years. This condition 
y be very serious from the fire standpoint. We have laid great 
phasis on the slow burning character of plank and timber con- 
uction, but a beam with its center decayed may have but a thin 
11 of sound wood which will be weakened after a short fire and allow 
!?o sections of floor to fall. We do not wish to raise fears, but we 
st recognize that in these directions there are new conditions of 
*1 importance affecting all such construction. 

The Author. In reply to Mr. Bates, sound wood thoroughly 
ated with a suitable antiseptic material will probably be found 
tnuno from fungus with ordinary mill conditions. Dry rot un- 
ibtedly enters the tinii)ers from the outside, but a very common 
dition is that in which the ti